The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 17, Issue 2 (2010) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Reassessment of the Preliminary Report on Prehistory of Southwestern Iran (Hole & Flannery 1967)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۶
There has been more than four decades since Frank Hole and Kent Flannery conducted a field expedition in central Zagros Mountains located in western Iran, in 1963. From then onward, numerous discoveries and field projects have been done in this region. Some of these findings may contradict the report of the original survey. Although the goal of this article by no means, is to criticize the 1967 report, it sounds unavoidable to incorporate the new discoveries in it. For instance, the author of this article believes that the twelve missing sites in the 1963 survey were found later, hence; new discoveries in case of the presence of Levallois technique in the Zagros Mountains could change our understanding regarding the Middle Paleolithic of Zagros.

History as a Tool to Identify Stray Coins: Case Study of Reza Abbasi Museum(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰۵
Hundreds of stray coins are being donated every year to different Iranian museums but it is difficult to establish their authenticities due to lack of knowledge about places of their findings. Part of these stray metallic pieces is related to Parthians. Due to their lengthy rule, of about five centuries, Parthian coins form important part of numismatic collection at the museums. Authors have taken Reza Abbasi Museum at Tehran as case study to review the authenticity of those coins. A comparison between statistical data and available historical records give a vivid idea about the genuineness and forgery of these metallic pieces. As such, this article attempts to show the genuineness of some of the coins by taking into account statistical data from early Parthian kings and their comparison with the available historical documents.

Kiarostami’s Unfinished Cinema and its Postmodern Reflections(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۱
Kiarostami’s unfinished cinema emphasizes the importance of audiences’ involvement in a movie by using postmodern images. Some essential points of critically reading his, so-called half-created cinema, could be summarized as self-reflexive style, diagrammatical perspectives, in-between narratives,and Individual minimalism. The main postmodern achievement of this cinema is focusing on the process of creating meaning through the experience of film. Furthermore, the close-ups function as separate independent units that are constantly generating their implicit affections. In this respect, Kiarostami’s unusual works are interpretable by Deleuze’ some neologism like affection-image. The films are some affective micro-dramas formed in a gap between the audiences’ receptions and the close-ups. Despite their postmodern reflections, unfinished movies have no strict disciplines that may limit the process of creating meaning. This paper attempts to present a new approach of reading Kiarostami as an increasing global interest.

Unknown Rulers of Neo-Elamite in Loristan During 1st Millennium B.C.(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۸۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۶
The hoard of Kalmakarra Cave that includes hundreds of golden and silver objects has been unearthed in 1989 in Pol-e Dokhtar located at Loristān Province by villagers. In addition to aesthetical values, these objects bear archeological significance. Their unique value, with respect to inscriptions in Old Aramaic, Neo- Assyrian and Neo- Elamite on some of them. Deciphering these inscriptions by [Jean] Lambert, François Vallat and Rassoul Bashāsh shed light on an anonymous local governorship of the Neo-Elamite and provided a new chapter in the archeological studies of this particular period in Iran, which this paper will focus on it.

Taylor: Transcendental Conditions of Human Agency and Two Versions of Liberalism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۹۰
Taylor argues that procedural liberalism is not viable, or is insensitive to the conditions of social and political possibility, since it cannot justify the political furtherance of common goods. This is because the ontology and epistemology behind it disregard the “transcendental conditions” of human identity and the “dialogical” way of its formation. Taylor’s own version of liberalism, on the other hand, does not eschew promoting collective goals, such as cultural survival, and is supported by these transcendental conditions. However, his charge of non-viability against the liberalism of rights, and his argument for a liberalism of promoting collective goods, on epistemological and ontological grounds, are not convincing. Although he is right that rights-based theories of justice cannot account for promoting collective goals, such as a culture or a language, that liberal societies at large advance, these are goals that go beyond ensuring the survival of the society or its liberal characteristics, and are about preserving the distinctness of the society.

Input-Output Balance Calculation of Energy and Material from Geomorphic Basins in Planning & Management of Basin, Case Study: Kor River Basin(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴۵
This paper tries to systematically survey, with taking theoretical view on geomorphic basin and its changes into account. The purpose of this research is to determine the balance and stability of geomorphic basins from the past to present and then to future. Consequently, it tries to determine the balance between energy and input-output materials for example (rainfall , solar radiation, tectonics and neotectonics …) to the basin based cybernetics (including geomorphic, topographic and geological state) and also to calculate energy and material balance considering positive and negative entropy at basin level. Based on the findings, which is the outcome of cybernetic resultant between form and process in basin, we can determine stability and type of balance in the basin. In this paper, emphasis has been put only on rainfall (express of the energy exponent). However, it first discusses Kor Basin Geomorphic locations and Energy-Material Entropy on its surface and then Quantity form of energy (Isolated & Potential Energy). Considering geomorphic state of the basin, we can determine the best planning method from all systems (planning, risk management and crisis management) for basin that neither requires a great cost nor causes disturbance in stability and geomorphic balance while being the optimal process. In Kor geo planning, we are encountering and determining two dimentions: (Y dimension, for geomorphic change for example throughput topogeraphy geradient formations on Kor Basin and X dimension, for rainfall discharge range on Kor Basin rivers out let only and only on fiat paper surface), but in Kor geo management, we represent at least three – dimensional ordered, for example topogeraphy gradient for Y coordinate and rivers discharge quantity for X coordinate and absolution geography location (for space point Z coordinate). Consequently, Kor River Basin can be studied based on two scientific metod : I . Planning & II , Management .

A Comparative Study of Persian Rugs of 14th - 17th Centuries as Reflected in Italian Paintings(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۴
The art of carpet weaving has undergone changes during the course of history. This ancient art has gradually found its place among other branches of art due to its artistic and consumer characteristics. The art of carpet weaving has heavily influenced other fields like painting for its elegant ornamentation. This paper will elaborate on the widespread relations between Persian and Italian art during 8-11/14-17 centuries; hence, the influence of the ornamentation of Persian rugs on Italian painting will be analyzed. There are several questions to which this paper seeks to answer throughout the article. 1- What were the cultural, political and trading backgrounds of the import of Persian rugs to Italy during 14th -17th centuries? 2- What are the common patterns of Persian rugs reflected in Italian paintings? The data were competed through available historical documents and images.

Contribution of History to the Understanding of Cultures and Civilizations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۱
Man's past condition is related to his present life and history means surveying the quality of the past activities whose traces remain in the present time. The main field of historical research is man's past life, the stages which have been put behind in the process of evolution and changes as well as progresses made in these stages. History is a means to provide human beings with a complete insight into the events under study. Also another subject matter of history is discovering the common relations between the events, but the reconstruction of common relations is an essential part of this subject. History revives the forgotten events and by studying the cultural legacies we come to know about human past. History cannot properly play its cultural role in the form of event recording and mentioning wars and successes and only through philosophical perspective and understanding of causal relations it is possible to achieve historical goals. History is a science that studies human in the course of its evolution. And with developing connection and understanding of the causal relations of events it works with whys and states of events and by reconstructing the past cultural legacy, shows what had gone upon past inhabitants. Culture and civilization and its course in the human history is the best presentation of human development and progress and is the truest part of human history in whose course of development all members of the society take part. In the light of the above, the present article is an attempt to cast a quick look at the contribution of history to the understanding of cultures and civilizations.


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