The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 21, Issue 4 (2014) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Effect of Major Stockholders Ownership Concentration on the Firm Value in Tehran Stock Exchange(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۱
The aim of the study is to examine the effect of ownership concentration by sum of major shareholders on the firm value. The sample used for the research included 69 firms listed during the years 2005-2009 in Tehran Stock exchange. The statistical method used for testing the research hypotheses was "Panel Data". To test the relationship between ownership of major stockholders and firm value, multi-linear and nonlinear regression was utilized. The findings are indicative of the existence of a significant and positive linear relationship between ownership concentration of sum of major stockholders and firm value and also of lack of nonlinear relationship between the square sum of ownership by major stockholders and firm value. The results of piecewise test of sum of major stockholders shows that there is no significant relationship between sum of major stockholders and firm value in the break points of 10% and 25% and 50% and 70%.

EFL Teacher Performance Evaluation in Iranian High Schools: Examining the Effectiveness of the Status quo and Setting the Groundwork for Developing an Alternative Model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۶
Performance evaluation is one of the important components of each organization, and educational organizations are not the exceptions. Teachers are believed by many researchers as the single most important factor influencing student academic success or failure. Therefore, they need to be at the center of attempts to improve or reform the educational system of any country. Considering the pivotal role of teachers, educational systems need to be assured that teachers perform their best to enhance student learning, and also they should try to improve by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of teachers' practice for further professional development. The present study tries to examine the effectiveness of the current teacher evaluation system in Iran from EFL teachers’ perspectives. For that matter, a survey consisting of both Likert-scaled and open-ended questions was developed based on theoretical underpinnings of purposes for teacher evaluation, experts’ views, and the purposes of foreign language education as stated by the National Curriculum. 423 English language teachers were asked to answer the questions included in the survey. The results indicated the current teacher evaluation system did not contribute to teacher professional development nor could it assure teacher accountability. The results of the study as well as the requirements for developing an alternative model for EFL teacher evaluation are discussed

The Protection of National Minorities within the Council of Europe: An Analytical Review(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۱۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۶۷
According to the preamble of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (which entered into force on February 1, 1998) minority rights are an integral part of fundamental human rights. universal level that taken on great importance in addressing the challenges of minority protection in evolving and increasingly diverse societies. So, this survey has an analytical approach to the protection of minorities within the Council of Europe and for this, especially, focuses on the Framework Convention: namely its content, its rights-holders, and also- the most important point of view- the problems, challenges and tasks that this legally instrument faces with it in practice. One must take into account that the Framework Convention has passed 13 years of its born and the authors aim to analyze its achievements and in the same time, its challenges as well. Thus, we reiterate once more that our method is analytic to examine the topic.

Colonial Scholars, Persian Historiographical Sources: Translations and Past India(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۲
The importance or centrality of Persian histories (whether imperial, regional or universal) can be gauged from the deep reliance placed by British historians on them for their own understanding of India’s past. The examples are numerous: Dow, Erskine, Elliot and Dowson explored Persian sources for their writings. Stewart also based his History of Bengal mainly on Persian materials; Mill did not know Persian and so wrote his History of India from Persian sources translated into English. Marshman used published English translations of Persian texts in the compilation of his History of Bengal . Hunter also depended for his understanding of the insight into the history of Muslim rule in Bengal on Persian source materials translated for him into English. Elphinstone, Thomas, Wheeler, Keene, Blochmann and Berveridge were all good Persian scholars and used, in addition to Persian sources, coins, inscriptions and archaeological finding for their writings can be fitted with this group. The recent work of Kumkum Chatterjee alerts us to the twin activities of British scholars and historians: translating Persian histories, as well as writing new histories of India based on the already established Persian model. The former indicates a serious engagement of colonial scholars with older models of history writing (as the appreciation heaped on the A’in as a historical source in the preface to its published edition indicates); the latter proves the adage that imitation was indeed, in this context, a form of flattery, however unintended.

A Typology of Control in Persian Language(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۳
This paper investigates different kinds of control predicates in Persian subjunctive complements. First, it is shown that the obligatory control (OC) constructions syntactically consist of two subtypes exhaustive control (EC) and non-exhaustive control (NEC). Then building upon Jackendoff and Culicover (2003) and Culicover and Jackendoff’s (2005) semantic analysis of control which is devoted to the treatment of infinitival and gerundive complements, we show that in a very large class of cases of OC in Persian , the controlled subjunctive complement also denotes an action. Providing a descriptive typology of each verb class, this analysis justifies the syntactic classification of control predicates proposed in this paper. Classes of exceptions are treated as coercion in the sense of Sag and Pollard (1991), Pollard and Sag (1994), followed by Jackendoff and Culicover (2003) and Culicover and Jackendoff (2005), in which internal conventionalized semantic materials, not present in syntax, are added. The article shows that both semantic and syntactic properties of control predicates determine the type of control relation in Persian subjunctive complement clauses.

A Deliberation on the Position of Vuzorg Farmzar and his Jurisdiction during Sassanid Era, Relying on Historical and Epigraphic Evidences(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۳
In its course of evolution, the Sassanian rule accepted a change in temporal exigencies, condition and manner of governance of each ruler where more attention was paid to the institutional establishment, grades/ranking, titles, symbols and administrative hierarchy. In a way, the organizational manner, to a larger extent, could engulf the period into a curtain of ambiguity. One of those ranks was Vuzorg Farmzar that apart from having equivalents in different periods of time, with respect to its real application, encountered with sectional and temporal confusion as well. As such, an increase or decrease in jurisdiction of the above rank was influenced more by policies of each emperor. According to this fact, the issues which are to be dealt with in this article are: Which title was synonymous to the word “grand vizier” or “Vuzorg Farmzar” in the early Sassanid era? In which era of Sassanid dominion, the title “Vuzorg Farmzar” was addressed as “Hazarpat” ? How was the factional evolution of the position of “Hazarpat”? This research is concerning to show that the word “Bidakhsh” , is a title that in the early Sassanid era was employed to endow titles of person such as “grand vizier” or “Vuzorg Farmzar” and after some time it was completely forgotten. The word “Hazarpat” was one of the other titles which was equivalent to “Vuzorg Farmzar” in the middle Sassanid era and we can distinguish three Functional phases for it: It was a militaristic position in the early Sassanid era, a militaristic- civil jurisdictive position in the middle era and a militaristic position once again at the end at of Sassanid era. Taking into account historical sources and epigraphic records, the current research tries to find out the basis and essence of “Vuzorg Farmzar” and titles synonymous to it as well as their actual or the honorary functions during the era In order to clarify, the extent of governance and administration establishment, on the top of which was the “grand vizier” (Vuzorg Farmzar). To achieve this goal, the connections of the titles such as “Bidakhsh”,“Hazarpat”, “Vuzorg Farmzar” and “Sepahbad” are questioned, by determining the existence, primacy and recency of these titles in epigraphic records and also in the historical sources in which the functional jurisdiction of these titles mentioned,the accuracy or inaccuracy of these hypothesis would be distinguished.


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