The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 13, Issue 1 (2006) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Present of Goethe’s Spiritual Travel to Hafez’s Territory (West-Östlicher Divan)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۶
The European authors and thinkers in classic period and particularly Romantic one were searching the root and basis of European culture and languages. The decoding of Sanskrit emphasized the centrality of the Orient for European culture. Goethe, the famous poet and author of Germany, under the influence of this movement and for his own interest, studied the works of orientalists too. Alltough he never went to the Orient, however, the study and survey of the translation the books by the Orient authors and poets, for him, was spiritual travel to the Orient. Particularly, during the study and survey he acquainted with the poeti-cal works of Hafez which exerted a strong influence on him and thus he created an attractive compilation in German language. The West-östlicher Divan of Goethe is the result of his spiritual travel to the Orient and, in effect, it is a description which joins the two poles of world (East and West). The description of Goethe’s life, his spiritual travel to the east, his acquaintance with Hafez and finally the West-östlicher Divan form the four parts of this ar-ticle.

Urban Design Criteria for Earthquake Preparedness in Organic Urban Areas of Tehran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۷
There are large areas of the world where seismicity is high while they form the whole or parts of urban conglomeration. Iran can be literally compared to a large shaking table; various parts of it have been stricken by earthquake in the last four decades(1). Tehran is also expected to have a major earthquake in the near future(2). Therefore, urban design criteria for earthquake preparedness in organic urban areas of Tehran should be prepared. Among various parts of the city, the organic areas are facing more problems due to their old and unsafe structures and being located in narrow lanes and alleys while gas pipes running every where. In case of earthquake, people will be traped in these places where it will be very difficult for the fire fighting vehicles, ambulances and othe facilities to reach to the affected parts to provide health care services and aid. This paper tries to point out that although prevention of earthquake or strengthening of each and every urban structure is not possible, but at the same time the harsh effect can be toned down with the preparedness of urban transport and built form along them. It is a well known fact that after every earthquake, victims are trapped alive below the debris. This makes it imperative that a hierarchy of earthquake safe centers shall be available at all levels of the settlements and a network of roads is essential for the free flow of emergency vehicles and equipment to make the job of relief and rescue work easier.

Dialogue Among Civilizations as a New Approach for International Relations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۷
After the collapse of bipolar system in the world, different views and theories expressed by the scholars and thinkers about the future of the world and international system. One of them is the theory of “ The Clash of Civilizations” which was propounded in 1993 by the Samuel Huntington, the director of J.M.Olin Institute for Strategic Studies in Harvard Uni-versity. This theory caused some anxieties in the world. In reaction to this theory, Mohammad Khatami, president of the Islamic Republic of Iran, proposed “Dialogue Among Civilizations” as a paradigm in the international relations which was accepted by the 53rd General Assembly of the United Nations on 3 September 1998 and approved a resolution for the purpose of promoting dialogue among cultures and civiliza-tions, and called the year 2001 as “the Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations”. This article based on both mentioned theories, refers to the role of dialogue approach in creation of peaceful relations between nations and states.

Fictional Names(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۴
Fictional names have been one of the most important and serious topics in the contemporary philosophy of language and metaphysics.Several questions such as “Do fictional names refer to any objects?” “Are fictional characters existent objects?” have resulted in a considerable literature of philosophy. In this essay, we will follow two objectives. First we will describe and elaborate the ideas of three great philosophers who believe that fictional names are genuine and proper names which do refer to existent fictional characters. Second we will criticize the theories of two philosophers (Peter Van Inwagen and Saul Kripke’s theories) and will eventually defend the third i.e. Nathan Salmon’s theory of fictional names. Through the issues we will presuppose direct reference theory as our main semantic theory for proper names .

Qavam and International Conflict(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۰
This Article Examines the political turmoil, Iran foreign Policy, great powers interventions with especial reference to Firqa-yi Dimukrat Azarbayejan and oil crisis between 1941-1947. This article also deals with the international reaction, the role of the United Nations, and that of the Prime Minister, Qavam, who concluded agreements with the Firqa-yi Dimukrat lead-ers and the USSR. The successful pressure from the west and the U.S. on the central gov-ernment to crush the movements and the international agreement between America and USSR which led to the fall of Democratic movements particularly Firqa-yi Dimukrat Azar-bayezan are analysed. This field has bee hitherto unexplored for that matter need to know Azari Turkish, Persian and English, to have access to primary sources, because the materials are scorched (secon-dary sources are not reliable), and Also this Period needed the wide research and investiga-tion interviews. In this article, I have tried to present the original material using mostly the primary sources and also limited secondary sources cautiously and carefully.

The Second Bush Administration and US Policy Towards Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۱
The present article discusses about the US security policy after the incident of 11 September 2001, with reference to the Middle East, in general and Iran in particular. The author focuses the design of current US administration and its endeavor to capture some of the strategic places in the name of terrorism and as a savior of democracy such as in Afghanistan and Iraq, although those designs have brought uneasiness and destruction in those countries. Further, this paper highlights the emergence of neo-conservatism and Christian Zionism and their evil design since the creation of Israel, who sees the State of Israel as the fulfillment of biblical prophecies. Although the Christian Zionism took root during the Second World War, however, the current Bush administration have seen coming together of this movement with neo-conservatism. This paper also discusses US presence in Iraq and continuous use of its surveillance to monitor the Iranian defense establishment as well as rhetoric from Washing-ton, especially from the neo-conservatives commentators, for the Iranian nuclear issue.

Difficulties of Learning and Using French Compound Words(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۷
Learning vocabulary constitutes a crucial step in language learning. Amongst different word categories, compound words have failed to attract the attention they deserve. This led us to conduct a study trying to pinpoint the difficulties learning these words and to suggest some techniques facilitating their acquisition. To that effect, a questionnaire as well as a vocabu-lary test were given to two groups of FFL (French as a Foreign Language) learners. Carried out from a descriptive and analytical point of view, this study was based on a real corpus and led to the following results: Firstly, learners showed little tendency towards making use of compound words, both in writing and in speaking. Secondly, teachers can contribute to a better learning by providing learners with convenient strategies. Thirdly, familiarity with Greco-Latin roots enormously help learners to guess the meaning of an unknown word.

Globalization and the Democratic Turn in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۸
Globalization and democracy have become the most debated issues throughout the world, which, no doubt also influence Iran. This paper highlights these phenomena with respect to Iran but takes up the issue through various description and features presented by the con-temporary socio- political thinkers and economists. Considering globalization, although the subject matter is very recent but Iran has been experiencing this phenomenon with the emergence of modern communication networks and economic growth. The democratic proc-ess had started early in 19th century but was thoroughly suppressed by the despotic regime. However, the globalization trends in 1990s have affected most of the countries and Iran too has experienced the changing mood of the people. Present study focuses on the various as-pects of globalization and its influences over democracy during post- revolutionary period.

Effect of an Interval Progressive (Pyramidal) Aerobic Training On Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles in San Shou Athletes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۵
The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the influence of an interval progressive (pyramidal) aerobic training on serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles in San-Shou athletes. 13 national levels male San Shou player were (23.23 ± 2 years and 66.27±2.75kg,171.8 ± 2.8 cm in high and 22.42± 0.51 BMI) were voluntarily participated in this study. Blood samples (10ml) were taken from an arm vein before and after training program. All blood samples were prepared for glucose TC, TG, HDL-C LDL-c VLDL-C and some other blood factors and atherogenic indexes measurement. The results of this study show that there were a sig-nificant decrease in serum TG , VLDL-C concentrations and TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratios and a significant increase in serum HDL-C levels after an interval progressive (py-ramidal)aerobic training for 14 weeks. The present date indicate that this training program was able to changes lipid and lipoprotein metabolism toward an cardiovascular indexes im-provement independent to any significant changes in TC and LDL-C levels.

Parsing Preferences in Structurally Ambiguous Relative Clauses: L1 vs. L2(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۱
The present study attempts to investigate parsing preferences (early vs. late closure) of native and L2 learners of both English and Persian when they read ambiguous relative clauses. The purpose is to find out if L2 learners process L2 linguistic input in the way monolingual speakers of that language do. The participants took tests including 10 test sentences plus 10 distractors, each followed by a comprehension question. Monolingual speakers of Persian and English were provided with tests in their own language, while bilinguals were provided with tests in their second language. Results showed a significant preference of monolingual Persian speakers for high attachment to relative clause (early closure), whereas monolingual English speakers showed a high preference for low attachment (late closure). The results also indicated that bilinguals adopted the same parsing strategy used in their L1, suggesting that their L1 might be influencing their L2 processing. The results are discussed in terms of the implications they may have for ultimate attainment in L2.


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