The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 27, Issue 1 (2020) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



The Flaws of Cosmopolitanism:‎ On John Rawls’s Idea of Global Justice(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۴
John Rawls’s political philosophy is involved in what has been called constructive interpretation. It requires that a theory of justice be limited within the boundaries of political or social practices of any particular society, but not with the most abstract elements. A constructivist conception of justice represents the principles of justice not as part of some abstract moral rules known through theoretical reason, but rather as “the outcome of a procedure of construction” founded in practical reasoning. Rawls argues that reasoning about what justice is demanding should proceed from the social practices which are already established. He maintains that among the many existing social practices, we should attend to the most basic existing social structures (i.e., major institutions) because their effects are “so profound and present from the start.”

Etymology of “Dikaiosune” by the Plato’s Other: Cratylus 412D – 413D(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۵
Here I will consider the Greek word “Dikaiosune” on the basis of the rather short etymological exploration by one of Plato’s other called Heraclitus. Apart from un-ended discussions and controversies about the nature and quality of etymological surveys of Plato’s Socrates in Cratylus , it is worthwhile to figure out and see how a figure such as Heraclitus wants to demonstrate and stablish the working and influence of “Dikaiosune” in the macro and micro universes otherwise it is an ordinary and petty notion. Plato’s other mentions ( Cratylus 412D – 413D) that where everything is in the flux Dikaiosune should function as an uppermost penetrating principle that can penetrate all moving and changing things in order to make a linkage and binding among all of them.

Weapons of Mass Destruction Prohibition: In pursuit of peace and Justice in ‎ International Relations and the Middle East(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۹
Mass and indiscriminate killing has been condemned by all civilized nations, and yet, Weapons of Mass Destruction -WMD- exist in the arsenal of the world military powers. This paper delves into the effects of the WMD on the two main concepts of justice and peace at different war doctrines and reviews the main paradigms over nuclear weapons prohibition in relation with the international security. I examine key concepts of the three main schools of thought in International Relations -IR- to assess their consequences on the feasibility of cooperation for a WMD free world. With elaborating on how to team up basic assumptions in international relations and harmonizing different national viewpoints regarding abandonment of these weapons to uphold peace and justice globally, and prohibit WMD in the Middle East; this study suggests that a balance approach to enhance exchange of relations rather than denial, sanction and isolation is essential to abandon WMD.

More than Justice ‎“Friendship” in Phenomenology and Mysticism(Erfan)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۳ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳۸
In his Nichomachean ethics, Aristotle has introduced Friendshiop (philia) as a civic virtue higher than justice. After Aristotle, Latin and Iranian thinkers articulated on the notions of “Amiticia” and “Dusti” as equivalent to Aristotel’s philia. In the modern times, while justice was regarded as legal system protecting individual rights, Friendship was reduced to a personal concern and was confined to private sphere of life. In recent time once again friendshiop has entered the intellectual melieu both in Iranian and German culture. In this paper three models of Friendship, namely Phronetic, Erfanic, and Phenomenological, are analysed, and, according to what these models pertain to, it is suggested that as regards convergence, it can be brought about by Friendship more than by Justice.

Measuring Democracy and Justice by Public Reason: Towards a more just framework ‎for social cooperation in Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۵
John Rawls introduced the idea of public reason as a precondition of decision-making processes based on justice in a well-ordered society. There are critics, however, who doubted whether the idea is consistent with deliberative democracy. While Rawls saw his idea of reasonable overlapping consensus as an outcome of public reasoning, his suggested political liberalism seems to be morally too thick to work as the basis of such a consensus in culturally diverse societies. Here, through a critical evaluation of Rawls’s view, I try to use his idea of public reason by reference to the brilliant distinction he makes between ‘the rational’ and ‘the reasonable’. I show that it is the latter, which defines the nature of ‘the political’, that could be employed for the relationship between different cultural identities of a society, governed by political principles justified by referring to thin or non-moral arguments that in turns allow liberal as well as non-liberal cultural communities to participate in a just framework of social cooperation. Moreover, I argue that this revised interpretation of Rawlsian overlapping consensus can help us in the democratic assessment of constitutions and revising them in order to became more legitimate to citizens. Using this theoretical framework, and as the Islamic Republic is claimed to represent a religious democracy, I suggest that the criterion of public reason can be used in assessing the Constitution of the Islamic Republic and, therefore, highlights the necessary revisions for achieving more democratic basic structures of the Iranian society.

Political Economy of Cash Subsidies in Iran (2005-2013)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۲
The Purpose of this Paper is to examine the goals of the ninth and tenth government in formulating and executing targeted distribution of subsidies under the title of 'Targeting Cash Subsidies Plan' in iran. The question is how targeting these Payments during the presidency of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad can be explained. The hypothesis of this research is that the characteristics of a rent prepared the circumstances for making such payments by the mentioned government. in this research considering the nature of collector government which is always accompanied by an increase in the rent incomes, the government's policies have a distribution approach which aim to increase supporters and provide political legitimacy and popularity.


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