The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 16, Issue 2 (2009) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Seleucid Mintage: A Pattern for Parthian Coinage(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۰۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۸
Silver coins of Alexander of Macedonia, until the arrival of Parthians in the 1st century BC, have been put in WDXRF in order to determin Ag, Cu, Pb and Au as major and trace elements for fineness, debasement and refinement of silver in ancient Persia. Seleucid kingdom from 4th to 1st century BC was succeeded by several dynasties and kings. But the chemical composition of their silver coins and their fineness shows there was no changes in technology and economic policy.

Alamut Castle (Eagle’s Nest): Hassan Sabbah Stronghold(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۱
The valley of Alamut is situated in the north – east of Qazvin province. The region is an enclave in the form of a U shape valley in the central Alborz chains and opening up to the fertile Qazvin plains. The mountains of Alamut were ideal for construction of castles. The natural heights contains a section of the defensive structure of the castles. In 1090 A.D, Hassan Sabbah , the leader of Ismailites in Iran , chose the Alamut region , as his headquarter to campaign , preach and convert new followers. This proved to be a turning point for destiny of Alamut Valley. The result of over two centuries Ismailite stronghold, the region witnessed innumerous castles throughout, of which at least 20 “castles “dating back to this era have been identified. The most magnificent castle in the Alamut Valley is the Alamut or the Hassan Sabbah castle, which is built on top of a high rock reaching 2163 m above sea level near the Gazor Khan Village .The rock is 200 m high, with its steep slope and deep and dangerous ravine, the rock is practically inaccessible and forms a part of the Fort’s structure. Covering an area of 20,000sq.m. Currently only ruins of the fort and some towers are apparent and it is only through archeological excavation the mains can be discovered. During the7 seasons of excavation (2001- 2007) more than 5000 Sq.m were unearthed. The discoveries include: main entrances, road networks, steps and stepsflanked, workshops, water reservoirs, depots, living quarters, significant main portal and mosque. With molded and carved delicated brick decoration, as well as broken pieces of turquoise glazed tiles, luster painted tiles, these findings speak of the magnificents architecture of the castle during the Ismailite. Excavations show that the castle has undergone at least four major alterations, first in the 11 century A.D (Hassan Sabbah period), and then during his seven successors ( until 13th century AD ) and before the attack of Hulaku Khan in 1257 AD during the reign of Roknoddin Khorshah , the last lord of Alamut, the Safavid era 16-17A.D; when castle was used as prison and exile for political opponents and was referred to as “oblivious castle” and finally during Qajar unfortunately ravaged for treasure hunting.

Developing a Model for Market-Centric Organization Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶۱
The primary focus of the present study is to review organization analysis models from the standpoint of marketing and to propose an appropriate model for information centers and entities. A detailed literature review is made concerning marketing concepts, principles and services with respect to information organizations. The second stage deals with review and study of information entities, their goals, duties, structures and existing approaches. While many suggest a Norbert-Weiner model as the most appropriate for a flexible organization often represented by an information center, it does not totally the variety modes of services cape deployments available to such entity. Depending on their image representation in either physical space or web space or even service space, as many as four different models could be used for organizational analysis of essentially such a single entity. To develop a more unified model, we decided to study the marketing philosophies in such entities as a point of departure for corporate analysis. It was found that 27 factors should be considered in order to analyze a typical library or information entity from a marketing standpoint, regardless whether it is a passive or an active analysis. These include items like organization product range, customer convenience, people, synergic matrix, involvement and interconnection. Using Iranian Scientific Information and Documentation Center as the baseline, we were able to arrive at and verify a Market Mix Model that can effectively address such analysis and provide the information and library managers. Hence, it seems an effective tool for identifying not only the competitive advantage but potential challenge areas within their respective organizations.

An Optimality-Theoretic Account of Dissimilation in Persian(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۲
This paper provides an Optimality-Theoretic account of dissimilation in standard Persian as well as some other accents and dialects of Persian. As such, this work starts by introducing Optimality Theory (henceforth OT) and its basic concepts and then it investigates dissimilation in this framework. It argues for the superiority of OT over derivational approaches regarding a case in which both dissimilation and assimilation, with no clear feeding order, are involved.

The Lady Represented in Narseh’s Relief: Shapurdokhtak or Anahita?(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰۴
Among the various of Sasanian kings, Narseh (293-302 A.D.) is the one whose important and striking rock relief remained at Naqsh-i Rustam in Iran’s Fars province. This relief records investiture ceremony from Anahita ( known as Goddess of fertility and protector of water). Until now, various views and interprations have been put forwarded about the real identity and historical theme of this relief. But the attribution of a lady to Shapurdokhtak II (Narseh`s wife) is the latest and most controversial view given by Alireza Shapur Shahbazi, who has conducted excavations and archaeological studies at Takht-i Jamshid for several years. In fact, this attribution has also provoked the authors of the present article hence; he has tried to highlight the depiction through opinions of various researches. The present study supports the accuracy and validity of the attributed lady to water goddess Anahita and refuses other theories.

Philosophical Approach in Studying Iranian Architecture(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۵
The endurance of any type of architecture is contingent upon the study of the characteristics that led to its formation. Two general approaches have been adopted to study and analyze the Iranian architecture. A number of scholars have taken a historical approach, while others have merely considered a genre- based approach. Making use of many historical studies, these scholars have attempted to produce an exacting categorization of Iranian architecture. They focuse on outward form and embellishment to identify and distinguish various classes and sub-classes of architecture in Iran. The third approach, which is outlined in this article, tries to explain such architecture from a conceptual point of view. This essentially involves identifying and analyzing those features that have allowed it to endure. The article shows that there has been a precise and thought- provoking interaction between architects and the intellectual classes that led to the formation of an enduring and transcendent form of architecture in Iran.

Serious Violations of Human Rrights in Gaza (2008-9) Under International Humanitarian Law(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۹
The inhuman acts of Israel in the Gaza Strip (2008-9) have seriously violated the international humanitarian law.International documents such as the Geneva Convention (IV) and Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions (II) relating to protecting civilians during armed conflicts have clearly indicated violation of humanitarian law during Israeli’s deadly offensive at the turn of the year. Under these laws and other documents such as Convention on the Rights of the Child, the crimes and violence against Gaza’s children created a particular form of inhuman acts. Also, in accordance with the statute of International Criminal Court, the Israeli onslaught can be called as war crimes and genocide. Considering the violation of fundamental human rights of Gazans in all circumstances, the prosecution of persons who committed the crimes are possible regardless of their nationality or ratification of treaties and conventions.

Analysis on Effects of Urban Centers on Peripheral Settlements in Iran The Case Study of Qazvin Province(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۴
The interactions and linkages between urban centers and peripheral settlements are increasingly recognized as key factors in the process of social, economic and environmental changes in peripheral settlements. Despite this, most practices are implicitly based on a dichotomous view of population and activities in urban and peripheral area. This paper presents that how interactions between urban centers and peripheral settlements include spatial linkages (flows of goods, money, capital, people, information, production, technology and wastes) affect on peripheral changes. The interactions and linkages between the urban centers of Qazvin and 20 peripheral settlements there show that the effects of this interaction upon the peripheral settlements have included more inorganic effects. Urban and peripheral development need to be considered as complementary process rather than competing activities for the limited resources. The benefits of such an integrated approach will outweigh of the costs.


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