During the last decade, researchers embarked on several archaeological surveys and excavations in Luristan and they could unearth 29 Neolithic sites there. The current paper, taking into accounts the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Settlement Analysis, tries to analyze the role of environment on the aforementioned Neolithic sites. The study indicates that Neolithic communities chose foraging as the most important way of their livelihood. Water and food resources, wild plants, and animals were found impressive in the site-catchment process. All of the 29 Neolithic settlements are located at the altitudes between 500 and 2000 meters above sea level. These altitudes cover the southern, central, and northern parts of Luristan, the region that enjoys semi-arid climates, cool winters and hot summers, where pastoral livestock has been common. There are many rivers at these heights, but locals often disposed of using springs water. The distance from 26 sites to the springs is about 300 meters.