The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities

The International Journal of Humanities, Volume 25, Issue 3 (2018) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Use of MALL Instruction in Iranian EFL Context(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۸
This study sets out to explore English as foreign language (EFL) and Iranian teachers' attitudes ‎towards the implementation of MALL instruction. For that matter, a mixed-methods design, ‎including questionnaires, structured interviews and observation were employed. A total of 87 ‎EFL teachers participated in the questionnaire, which was the quantitative phase of the study. ‎In addition, 10 EFL teachers were interviewed and their classes were observed for the ‎qualitative phase of the study. The participant EFL teachers have been teaching at a number of ‎universities and language-teaching institutions in Mazandaran. One-sample t-test was used to ‎analyze the questionnaire data and the results suggested that the Iranian EFL teachers adopted ‎moderately positive attitudes towards the implementation of MALL instruction, but the ‎observation data indicated that most teachers preferred traditional ways of teaching English in ‎the EFL context. At the same time, the interview data revealed that the implementation of ‎MALL instruction in Iran is challenging due to a number of perceived barriers and obstacles. ‎The most considerable perceived challenges to the implementation of MALL instruction ‎comprise lack of online facilities and resources, lack of interaction in online instruction, and ‎teachers’ limited knowledge of online instruction. The findings provide crucial insights into ‎teachers’ attitudes towards integrating MALL into their EFL classroom instruction in Iran. ‎

Becoming an EFL Teacher: Prospective Teachers’ Professional Identity in a Critical Teacher Education Program(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۳۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۳
Transmission-based teacher education programs have mostly dominated the field of teaching English as a foreign language. Considering the prominent position of critical pedagogical principles in prospective teachers’ perceptions of their professional roles and responsibilities, there is a need for detailed investigations of teacher education programs informed by the tenets of critical pedagogy in prospective teachers’ professional identity. There has been a paucity of research that addresses the impact of such programs on prospective teachers’ professional identity in an EFL context; therefore, this study intends to address the gap. This qualitative study was conducted to examine the role of a critical-informed teacher education program in influencing prospective EFL teachers’ professional identity construction. Participants were 19 prospective teachers whose process of professional identity construction were analysed through reflective journals, class discussions, and semi-structured interviews before and after the program. Results of the study revealed three major shifts in prospective teachers’ professional identity: “from a student’s voice to a teacher’s voice”, “from an uncritical attitude to developing agency”, “from a narrow view of ELT to a broad view”. To foster critical ideas in EFL prospective teachers, the study recommends the use of dialogic discussions and written reflective tasks in teacher education programs.

The Uncanny Gender: Gender and the Unrepresentability of Subject Formation in Margaret Atwood's Surfacing and Bodily Harm(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۲
This article is an attempt to study subject formation in relation to gender in Margaret Atwood's (1939- ) Surfacing (1979) and Bodily Harm (1983) within the frame of the uncanny. The issue of gender has been discussed in Atwood's novels from different perspectives but this article claims that what have been rarely discussed in Atwood's novels are the unrepresentable realities in relation to gender which can be foregrounded by dislodging the uncanny. The uncanny which was once a rather minor issue in Freudian oeuvre has been reconsidered in the contemporary era by prominent thinkers, such as Jean-François Lyotard and Julia Kristeva whose ideas are used in elaborating the unrepresentability of gender in this article. The idea of the female sublime is the most significant issue in the context of the uncanny in this article which challenges any representational system of gender formation and problematizes our preconceived hence familiar perceptions of gender formation and reevaluates them in an unfamiliar, dynamic and unrepresentable space.

The Honor of Being Colonized: A Bhabhaian Reading of Elif Shafak’s Honour(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۹
The present paper examines Elif Shafak’s 2011 novel Honour based on Bhabhaian concepts of hybridity and unhomeliness. Bhabha broached the idea of hybridity in order to address the social dimensions of postcolonial analyses. 4 Hybridity occurs when the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized blurs various boundaries. Bhabha explores the possibility of a hybrid space to elucidate the recollections of migrants and their unhomeliness. He defines hybrid identity as one constructed through relocation and separation in the contact zone. In fact, it is in a third space of enunciation in which every thought by both the colonizer and the colonized finds a means of expression or exchange. Using concepts of hybridity and unhomeliness to delve into Shafak's Honour , this research concludes that within the social and cultural structures and discourse of their ‘new’ country, diasporic characters feel unhomed and struggle to fill gaps and redefine their identities. The paper argues that characters in the novel seek refuge in diasporic communities to counter stereotypes. Their attempts, however, result in new experiences and feelings of isolation, nostalgia, insecurity, split self, and a sense of being out of place.

In-service Professional Development Scale for EFL Teachers: A Validation Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۴
In- service professional development activities seem to be of much significance to teachers who face challenges in teaching or teaching related issues such assessment and curriculum development. Despite the rich literature review of teachers' professional development, in-service professional development needs of EFL teachers have not been assessed yet. The present study aimed at developing and validating an in-service professional development needs scale for EFL teachers. In doing so, a mixed research method was used. In the qualitative phase, the professional development needs were explored through interviewing with 20 EFL teachers who were selected through purposive sampling. In the quantitative phase, the professional development scale was submitted to 220 teachers. Data were analyzed through running exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Results showed that extracted professional development needs were reduced to four main areas: a) teaching, communication skills and assessment, b) educational psychology and technology, c) material development, and d) language and meta-language skills. The findings can be used by language schools and educational centers to provide EFL teachers with the most urgent professional development needs.

Intercultural teaching in L2 classrooms: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۴
With increasing intercultural communication among people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, the integration of language and culture has recently been foregrounded in language education. This has led to a growing need for studies on intercultural communicative competence. To address this need, this study aimed to afford an insight into the beliefs of 20 Iranian language teachers on intercultural language teaching (ICLT). Based on a mixed-method design, two different instruments were used to collect the data. First, an ICLT questionnaire which included 12 items was administered to 20 teachers. This study also used semi-structured interviews to obtain an in-depth understanding of the EFL teachers’ attitudes toward ICLT. The findings from the questionnaire revealed that the teachers were favorably disposed toward ICLT and thought that culture teaching is as important as language teaching. They believed that language teachers are required to inform the learners of intercultural issues. Also, the thematic content analysis of the interviews led to the discovery of four main themes, namely definition of culture, ICLT and its significance, challenges in ICLT, and sources used by the teachers to improve their intercultural knowledge. However, many teachers’ responses in the interviews indicated some degree of uncertainty regarding the concept of ICLT, as they were not confident how to integrate language and culture or how to deal with challenges in implementation of ICLT. These findings imply as the teachers’ perceptions would guide their practices in the classroom, more attention needs to be devoted to the inclusion of ICLT-related topics in language teacher education courses to equip the teachers with requisite skills and expertise.


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