Bangladesh is still a low urbanized country although it experienced a rising trend in the level of urbanization throughout the twentieth century and had a remarkably high urban growth immediately after its independence in 1971. The country recorded the highest ever annual average growth rate (9.04) and percentage of interval variation (137.57%) in an urban population in 1974; thereafter, growth rates of these two parameters went on falling and reached 5.19 and 65.89% respectively in 1991. As a result, urbanization during the tail end of the twentieth century increased but at a decreasing rate leading to an unsustainable urban growth trend. This study, however, exامینes the factors that contributed to urbanizing Bangladesh during the unsustainable growth period particularly in the last decades of the twentieth century. To this end, a multivariate regression model is developed and analyzed using the ordinary least square method involving stepwise-regression procedure. Primarily ten potential factors are taken into consideration and seven of them emerged as significant in explaining the process of urbanization in Bangladesh. Of these seven factors, the level of industrialization appears as the most influential factor with a coefficient of 1.34, which is followed by the share of urban area, initial level of urbanization and migration with coefficients of 1.13, 0.86 and 0.49 respectively; while the econometric model came up with an adjusted R2 of 0.95 and the Durbin-Watson Statistic of 1.98. Results of this study provide with better understanding towards guiding the urbanization process, particularly in the developing countries.
The main aims of this research are the design and implementation of a multilayered and interactive geomatic map of the cultural heritage of Tuscia, one of the richest and most complex cultural areas of Italy, thanks to the presence of different civilizations, from Etruscans and Romans to the Middle Age. Its cultural heritage is very rich, valuable and above all diversified because including tangible and intangible manufacts and artifacts, placed in a peculiar natural context. For this reason, the research finds to purpose a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) map able to match some of the geomatics options in the field of the cultural heritage with a double level database recording, defined according to the Midas standards. This GIS map of Tuscia was designed to be useful for two different kinds of targets: informal users, like travelers and schools, but first of all entities, institutions, and organizations which protect, promote and manage that mentioned heritage.
The usage of social theories in the human-built environment caused to enhance life quality. It may consist of human needs in residential areas. Sometimes, building codes can help to exist accepted life space, but the building codes do not have basic theory such as actual open space in residential plots. The study was an attempt to represent a new approach in urban land subdivision and the relationship between social theories and built up area. The research question was how to determine the open- space ratio. Main indicators were related to residential areas in urban areas in Iran which the lot size and urban density appear. The study tried to represent optimum open- space ratio based on Edward Hall's theory. The method was based on mathematical model and social theory. Finally, it resulted in optimum OSR in lot and it was not enough open- space ratios in existing situation. This study came to this conclusion that existing open- space measure was not enough for any Lot in new residential areas based on mentioned theory. In addition, investigation showed that the human distances effected on open and built up space ratio in a new residential layout. It was concluded that every residential area can have an optimum open- space ratio based on its situation. The results can use new residential layouts for enhancing human-built environments, but it noticed that there are not certain tools for making high-quality environments based on social theories.
In this paper, it is tried to explain the concept of representation and architectural representation through a qualitative methodology, approach its procedure for gradual creation in architecture and then according to scholars and to obtain the effect of this concept in the process of architectural facts the concepts are presented. In addition, it is referred to theories and practical texts by philosophers, and archaeologists and architects who have spoken about the architectural representation, and its definitions are also provided from the perspective of semiotics. Then through a deductive view aiming to clarify the fundamental differences between types of architectural representation and according to the presented ideas, three fundamental roles in the representation of architecture as mimesis and imitation, architectural representation as abstraction and architectural representation as simulation are described and examples are cited for each of them. In the end, by a qualitative methodology and with an interpretive approach using the theory of Umberto Eco in architectural codes, the comparative tables are provided, and to clarify the relationship between the three methods of representation and the procedure of their ideas on the formation of the architectural reality are analyzed through the semiotic approach. Finally, these comparative tables are separately classified in three groups of three so a variety of architectural representation techniques in diverse historical periods in architecture are explained as a result of this research.
The present study intends to shed light on 25 lifelikeness layers in Imam Jome’eh House (Khaneh Emam Jome’eh) in Isfahan as one of the prominent historical monuments dating back to Qajar dynasty. The present study intends to shed light on 25 lifelikeness layers in Imam Jome’eh House (Khaneh Emam Jome’eh) in Isfahan as one of the prominent historical monuments dating back to Qajar dynasty. The lifelikeness or Zendevari architecture is a general and reconciling pattern (framework) among all the definitions of architecture that in its definition, it consists of 25 layers. these 25 layers include countable layer , spatial layer, geometric layer, Skeletal layer, motor layer, simple mechanical layer, automated mechanical layer, biological layer, environmental layer, climatic layer, sensory layer, visual layer, imaginary layer, unreality layer , media (symbols) layer , analytical( analyzing the elements) layer , historical(importance) layer, creativity (in the building)layer, economic layer, social layer, forensic layer , moral layer , aesthetic layer, political and faith layer and educational layer. Overall, it can be said that in the lifelikeness (Zendevari) development framework, the world and its beings consist of 25 layers, which are in interaction with each other in an unpredictable way, yet a universal and natural relation can be found between layers in two directions. The study method used in the current research is of an analytic-descriptive type, and data collection was performed in a field-, interview- and library-based method, and some strategies were presented to strengthen the zendevari (lifelikeness) of the building under study in a SWOT analysis method. The study method used in the current research is of an analytic-descriptive type, and data collection was performed in a field-, interview- and library-based method, and some strategies were presented to strengthen the zendevari (lifelikeness) of the building under study in a SWOT analysis method.
In today lives, daily trips of house inhabitants to out is made using closed staircase spaces or lobbies. Lack of a place for neighbourly relation results in less recognition and in some cases there is no neighbourly and friendly relationship. Families and especially kids surrounded in-house space so, today kids have less mobility and cause to depression of inhabitants of apartment houses. In apartments and today houses because of economic function of construction, almost it is seen that yard use as parking or cars commute. This research attempts to recognize yard importance in current residential architect and try to discover yard effects on house inhabitants. To do so, a fieldwork is done and existence aspects of a yard from three perspectives, quality, function and environmental condition regulation, in some houses are investigated and using a comparison of results the most important reasons of the yard are introduced. Generally, these reasons are categorized in two axes: human tends to collective life and a deep relation of the human with nature.