Architecturally, the Seljuqs' dominion makes a significant shift from the Pre-Islamic Sassanid squinches into a sophisticated transition mechanism employed to change the walls of a square chamber to an octagonal base to set a dome which this initiated a new construction methodology to hybridize the previous experiences of Sassanid domes with new architectural tendencies since the previous understanding of the transition zone was a makeshift in quality, not consistent enough for future architectural adventures in creating larger structures. Although a cursory investigation of transition zones of Seljuq dome chambers in some respects might reveals a fairly homogeneous framework, it has never meant the stagnation of architectural creativity in different parts of Seljuk territory. On the other hand, the typology and local schools of Seljuq transitions zones of dome chambers have not been thoroughly considered by geographical centralism in Iran. For a better understanding of the standardization of various techniques considered in Seljuq architecture between 11th and 12th centuries in order to spanning the cubic structure to a circular plan, this project is aimed to clarify three various schools of architectural articulation concerning transition zone in the Seljuq dome chambers.
The settlement pattern and dwelling sys tem reflect the socio-economic condition and cultural behaviour of the community people. The riverine fishing community is one of the ancient and special communities of Bangladesh that has a unique lifes tyle and some special features characterize their dwellings. This paper aims at explaining the exis ting dwelling sys tem of one of the eighth oldes t fishing village of Chittagong with relevant problems and identifying the factors that affect the dwelling sys tem of that fishing community. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used here and the data were collected from the community people through PRA methods and ques tionnaire surveys. A number of problems and some special features of the exis ting dwelling s tructures in the s tudy area are identified in this research. A relation between the socio- economic condition of the people and their dwellings is also es tablished here by explaining the influence of various factors on their dwelling. Finally, some recommendations are mentioned for improving their dwellings without adversely affecting their livelihood, culture and tradition.
Human communication and interaction with architectural spaces need unders tanding and information from their surroundings. Since there is a difference between males' and females' attitudes towards the universe, their priorities lie in unders tanding the environment as well as the process of perceiving and recognizing them. This s tudy aims to inves tigate the relationship between space perception based on gender and its effect on architecture design, which could be identified by recognizing gender's components and unders tanding the perceptions of peripheral people, which decline the difference between perceptions of both genders. Accordingly, this articles tudies the factors affecting the formation of the relationship between gender and perception and the components of perception based on Ges talt's theory and its impact on design quality. The research method used in this paper is a descriptive-analytical method with a visual image ques tionnaire and data collection was conducted through librarydocumentarys tudies of literature review and field s tudies. The population under s tudy in this research is Samarkand Commercial Complex located in Dis trict 5 of Tehran, among which 217 people were examined using Morgan table. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS software and considered by inferential and comparative analysis method and the ques tions’ results are identified in the tables. The results show that gender-based perception is that both men and women are in one's perceived desirability, experience, symbiosis and aggregation , however in the perception of other elements of Ges talt, which are known as role and background, common area, common result, similarity, and the proximity is different.
The aims of this s tudy is to analyse the planning and design process, basic principles and the change-transformation process of the apartment type residential buildings in Turkey, Gaziantep city based on his torical background. The scope of the research consis ts of residential buildings built in the city of Gaziantep, which were built in the pos t-Republican period. In addition, s tate-building maps, zoning-city plans and plan disclosure reports, photographs and other materials are among the other materials. In this research, a method based on the spatial usage of the apartment buildings cons tructed in Gaziantep and the changes in the housing plan schemes and the spatial usage of these buildings and the changes in the housing plan schemes were followed. These changes are evaluated from the analysis of a series of variables ranging from parcel level to plan schemes, access graphs to spatial size and ratios. As a result of the s tudy, it was seen that the access graph and space sizes of the apartment-type residential buildings in the city of Gaziantep, which dates back to the 1960s, have changed. However, differences and variations are observed in the firs t plan typologies and it is noteworthy that this diversity is reduced and similar plan schemes are widely used.
The present-day architecture of the present era represents the emergence of ethical issues arising from the ideas of the " Modern individual-oriented" and "Pos tmodern being oriented", such as the consideration of personal interes ts and the reduction of human relations. Therefore, the exis tence of such shortcomings requires the identification of an architecture that considers the individual and social morality of today's society based on transcendental values, such as Emmanuel Levinas' "attention to the other" philosophy, agains t the above ideas. The aim is to identify those architectural possibilities that, by providing the conditions for creating the moral relations considered in Levinas philosophy, resis t some of the shortcomings of the ethical issues of modern and pos tmodern schools. In this research, Levinas' thoughts with Modern and Pos tmodern schools are discursive analysis through three dimensions of humanism, human rights, and ethics, as three points of reliance and position in them. Then, in the framework of these three criteria, modern and pos tmodern thoughts are traced in between the architectural expressions and by comparing these traces of the concepts with key concepts in Levinas' thought, also by utilizing the sources of visual literacy and body theoretical foundations, identifies the architectural appearance of it. The result of the research shows that the architectural displays of Levinas' philosophy such as "impromptu", "centricity", "Attention to Family Scale" and "Kush" can be considered as possibilities other than the possibilities of modern and pos tmodern architecture, to improve some of the shortcomings in highlighting transcendental moral values.
Wind environment in the populated built area especially in campus is important. This s tudy tes ted 57 crossroad spots over of the whole campus in North China University of Technology (NCUT). The data of wind speed and direction were measured at fixed time and fixed place. The average, maximum values as well as the speed variation scale were calculated. Wind comfort criteria were adopted to examine the spots of s till wind zone, wake flow zone and risky zone. The overall measured data in wind scale map was analyzed to find out the changes of wind speed and direction in different seasons and in different locations of the school. Research and analysis show that The results show that the overall wind environment of the campus is good, the average wind speed is between 0.04-4.8, the average wind speed in spring (1.38m/s) is slightly larger than that in autumn (0.87m/s). However, the overall frequency of campus wind comfort location measurement is not high (52% and 30% in spring and autumn respectively). Finally, with analysis results, some sugges tions were given to improve the wind environment of NCUT campus. Additional CFD simulations are undertaken in order to help identifying the wind risky points.