Nowadays, paying attention to the facade and facade design has considerable importance. The facade of the buildings and cons tructions is an essential part of the urban landscape, and thereupon it plays a significant role in urban quality. One of the crucial factors in forming urban landscapes is employing aes thetic measures as touchs tones in the design process. This s tudy aims to reach a set of aes thetic measures from the viewpoint of people in the same society according to the perceptual differences of citizens in the northern and southern regions of Tehran. There are several measures that, by relying on them, we can arrive at an ideal facade design from the viewpoint of people and the building users; designers can also help designers cooperate with the idea and viewpoints of people, their approval in their designs. The following research is done in an applied-analytic method, and gathering the data was done by library and field research and by designing ques tionnaires for the users. By scrutinizing and analyzing the data, it is concluded that the objective criteria are in priority for specifying the beauty in the residential facade.
Indus trial heritage includes remnants of an indus trial period with his torical, technological, social, architectural, or scientific value and is therefore worthy of protection. The adaptability of indus trial heritage is one of the conservation approaches that will lead to sus tainability while preserving heritage and preserving social and cultural values. Accordingly, the purpose of this s tudy is to provide a comprehensive model in the field of indus trial heritage adaptability with the perspective that covers as much as possible the components affecting adaptability and empowers s takeholders in this field to answer the ques tions. This research is of a mixed type, which is done in two qualitative and quantitative phases and two s tages of model presentation due to comparative s tudies and model validation. The components of the proposed research model were identified through a comparative s tudy of 5 successful examples in the field of indus trial heritage adaptability to the landscape. In order to validate, the final model was presented to 180 experts, and the model's validity was confirmed using s tructural equations in the confirmatory factor analysis phase. The results showed that nine economic, his torical, physical, social, cultural, infras tructural, technological, environmental, and policy factors affect the adaptability of indus trial heritage to the landscape. This research presents an improved model that can be useful in adapting the indus trial heritage to the landscape in the country.
Identifying and reviving los t spaces to reduce them is one of the duties of contemporary architects and urban planners; in the meantime, paying attention to the quality of revitalization and users' and beneficiaries' satisfaction is an issue that determines the success rate of this critical issue. The aim of this s tudy was twofold. Firs t, it has assessed the quality of revitalization of los t spaces using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Second, it has inves tigated Zanjan Match Factory's revitalization success rate, converted into a museum of indus try and mining after renovation and recons truction. The present article's conceptual model is based on the exploratory analytical research method based on Bradbent's theory and the introduction of his five principles as assessment parameters. Each component in the case s tudy is considered, prioritized, and assessed by a survey of 15 participants in two groups of experts and users. Findings show that the criteria of human protection and economic productivity have a greater score in the proper revitalization of this heritage. In contras t, space proportions with a pattern of behavior have the lowes t score (preferences). Furthermore, this space's revitalization shows revitalization's success is the proper coordination between revitalization experts and users of this space regarding fulfilling their desires and needs.
Today, given the rapid population growth, development of sciences, new changes in all aspects of human life, and ultimately, the occurrence of unfavorable conditions for the human environment, sus tainable development has attracted considerable attention as one of the mos t critical and common issues at the international level. Among the s trategies to achieve sus tainable development, education is the mos t effective mechanism of society to deal with the century's bigges t problem, i.e., sus tainable development. According to the United Nations, education is needed to promote sus tainable development and improve public awareness of environmental and developmental issues. Sus tainable development using educational tools, in the firs t s tep, requires identifying the areas and factors that play a role in the development of sus tainability education. This s tudy aims to identify the effective factors for the development of sus tainability education in Iranian architecture universities using the analytical-inferential s trategy. The qualitative analysis of the documents revealed that the educational environment, educational sys tem, and society were the mos t effective ones in the development of sus tainability education of architecture s tudents. Finally, solutions were presented to improve public awareness and reform the educational environment and sys tem to develop sus tainable education in Iranian architecture universities.
The vernacular architecture of cities with old civilizations like Hamadan, located in a cold and mountainous area, s tems from centuries of optimizing material use, cons truction techniques, climate considerations, and the leas t use of fossil fuels to provide residents comfort. This region represents a specific type of dwelling that is a spectacular example of its climate conditions and compatible with its surrounding environment. This s tudy aims to inves tigate the geometric conformation of Hamedan houses and elicit the proper sugges tions to provide comfort conditions. To reach these goals, 15 houses located in the old dis tricts of Hamadan belonging to three different his torical eras were selected. Then, according to Mahoney's Table, Evan's index, Pen warden graph, and climate consultant software thermal comfort factors were assessed and calculated to compare elicited design s trategies with typology. These attributes to architectural s trategies for this region like southeas tern orientation, medium-sized windows, thick outdoor and indoor walls, thick insulation with sufficient temporary heating equipment, the high heat capacity of materials, compact urban texture and planning, protection agains t intensive wind aimed to provide comfort conditions. Then these methods were compared whit three eras' houses to illus trate how much compatibility was there practically, which eventually reduced in each of them.
Properly inves tigating the potential of nature in the formation of architectural concepts needs a theoretical framework in which its analytical components can explain the methods of utilization of nature. Although some attempts have been made in this regard, considering the missing elements, there is s till a significant gap in the literature and a s tudy for introducing a more comprehensive theoretical framework has yet to be conducted. The aim of this s tudy is, therefore, firs tly, to present a theoretical framework that can explain the role of nature in the creation of architectural concepts by its detailed factors and, secondly, to apply this framework for inves tigating nature-inspired works of Toyo Ito. Accordingly, this documentary paper is based on a theoretical approach supported mainly by the outcomes of a literature review and case s tudy analysis, which utilizes the descriptive-analytical method. For the case s tudy part, projects were selected from various scales and functions to ensure proper evaluation. Both qualitative and quantitative tactics have been used in data analysis. Findings demons trated that the highes t rate in regards to the itemized factors of the Theoretical Framework of the s tudy relates to ‘Integration of natural elements in spatial articulation’ and the lowes t rate corresponds to ‘Usage of material in their raw and brutal s tate’. Moreover, though the highes t level of utilization of nature among the cases, is related to ‘Grin Grin’, a large-scale project, yet considering all the frequencies, it can be argued that the larger scale does not necessarily imply the higher frequency.