Human presence and accordingly establishing suitable condition for social interactions are important factors in shaping urban spaces. Caring to different aspects of improving environmental qualities especially perception aspect and ease of perception from the environment with legibility improvement is an element that was emphasized from the base of urban design. The role of time, commence of day and night and its effect on perception and legibility of the environment have not been investigated deeply. Although time effects the level and the way of perception and legibility and it should be noted that there is clear difference between human perception and space legibility during day and night.This research is looking for effective major factors on urban spaces qualities in day and night with descriptive and comparison method on the case studies and their images of Zanjan and Abadan cities and tries to approve the differences of these images. Results of performing this research clearly approving that, social, functional and perceptional dimensions are the most important dimensions of improving space quality at night. It should be declared that there are a lot of differences between the images and the perception of the city during day and night. In addition, the mention priority to urban five elements in shaping these maps are differ either.
The body of residential complexes is affected by social interactions between residents over time. Of the most important places for social communications are bazaars as the backbone of Iranian cities. Ancient bazaar of Babol in north of Iran contains natural features which makes a special sense of place. This essay tries to answer to how concept of sense of place is presented and what are factors affecting on sense of place; in historical site of Babol. Theoretical study of essay is based on Interpretive and qualitative approach through written documentaries. In this way first; the concept of sense of place is reviewed. After an explanation about the bazaar and the city, important features defining the site and their relations are analyzed through phenomenological approach. Then symbolic elements are identified and classified in fixed, semi-fixed and non-fixed feature elements, and their role on creating a Sense of Place is investigated. Any of fixed feature elements of the studied area like doors, columns, roofs, windows and doorways, transfer significant architectural qualities. Semi-fixed feature elements containing wooden elements, roofs, furniture, symbolic inscriptions, hung lights and plants; make a sense of dependency and safety. Nonfixed feature elements containing peddlers, voices, odors and climatic conditions depend on activities in place, prove the existence of human and modify a personal territory or place-behavior .Existence of these elements in the environment not only gives us an experience of sociality and public activity; but they also create a sense of presence and dependency or sense of place.
Just like any other economic field, housing market has two basic foundations which are demand and supply. Its obvious that disequilibrum between these foundations, will drasticaly affect the housing affordability and can also lead to wide slump in many markets. That’s why, policy makers usually intend to stimulat the supply by means of providing low intrest loans, low priced land, etc. In this paper the correlation of private sector’s inclination to invest and supply housing with various criteria has been analyzed. Dependent variables deputed for investment inclination are investment volume and estimated floor area of started residential buildings, completed residential units and total floor area and number of residential units in permits issued. On the other hand, the independent variables used are liquidity, house and land price and accumulated deficit of residential units. Besides, the Hodrick-Prescott filter (HP) has been applied to time series data, in order to separate the trend components and the cyclic components. The result of analysis indicates that the liquidity has the most correlation and the accumulated deficit of residential units has the least correlation with the private supply inclination.
Rehabiliating Bushehr historic fabric and paying to it as an important urban fabric through increasing capabilities and facilities is main concern. Bushehr historical fabric can be the consequence of several factors the most important of which is the Persian Gulf and its past history as a national one. This fabric, is organic, dense, compact, having its own characteristics. One of its main priorities is reaction to weather, cultural, and social conditions. Most of the fabrics in our country are either endogenous or exogenous. Bushehr historical fabric proves to be a dualistic architecture, being both endogenous and exogenous; thus, it is unique among the existing fabrics. Past architecture of southern Iran has influenced the culture and architecture of the Persian Gulf countries. It has caused Arabs to progress in different fields including architecture. Historical fabric architecture of Albastakiyeh in Dubai is a prominent example Iranian architecture. Bedouin Arabs are trying to introduce our artist ancestors’ experiences, transferred into their lands, into their own culture and art, as Arab architecture. It is our duty to protect, reconstruct, maintain, and develop this great national heritage.
Attractiveness principal in Iranian- Islamic architecture and decorating in this issue Iranian Architecture in the period of Islam use different means to show the influential and effective thoughts and interpretations and meanings on the people. One way to identify the means is to Research and investigate in the audience’s cognition and understanding particularly architectures and identify the current Theories and Ways which describe the presses of perception and cognition. Cognition and mind system of middle periods of Islamic is obvious for us particularly with helping from left texts and the way of describing issues and subjects, Although mental and thinking studies from this period of time has been studied but some principles not all of them have been considered . In fact in cognitive system based on Islamic understanding. The stage which the characterize the beauty, amazements and attractiveness derived from creations and world. And can help the level and quality of maker and his ability. as in good arguments to understand It, the issues are considered which gradually can create the meaning, symbol, emotional concepts in the person who understands It. One of the principles is the sense of beauty and attractiveness and in literal language is wonderfulness and this article shows that this sense has been influential and effective in Islamic thinkers and architectures. And gradually some means have been used to derive the meaning and perceptions from It. Material means in Islamic architecture are decoration.
In addition to attention to natural light as a renewable, costless and environment-friendly source of energy in the late 20th century, numerous studies have been conducted into the effect of natural light on human being’s soul and body and all such studies reiterate the undeniable role of natural lighting on people’s behavior, attitudes, and efficiency. However, in spite of the awareness of the effects of natural light on human beings as well as on the environment, source of lighting in most buildings is still limited to artificial lighting and most of the solutions used in the old architecture with regard to the use of natural lighting have been forgotten nowadays. This paper, based upon a holistic approach and a qualitative research method analyses a few traditional houses in Hot and Dry climate of Iran and showed how their builders by using architectural elements as well as different methods of space organization so to better use light to satisfy the physical and psychological needs of the inhabitants,including visual and heat comfort, health, introducing variety and increasing space quality. As we will see, this research describes the methods they tried to create a balance between physical and psychological needs of the inhabitants and to supply the required energy.
Desired physical form of cities has been noticeable since the beginning of urbanization, from old patterns of early civilizations to the latest urbanism’s theories, which offered to build better cities. The opinions in recent decades have expressed that compact physical form of cities is a better form than sprawl form to achieve urban sustainability. The form of the city is the embodiment of its physical form so in compact and sprawly form of city, it will be created various visual effects for the residents. In this paper, visual impacts of cities’ form, which it caused by compression of their forms, exامینed with utilizing method of content analysis of texts. For this purpose, review the comments, which presented in the form of city, proving that the more compression the city is desirable for its better form. Among these theories, we used the elements of “Lynch’s” theory for a better cognition of the city. Finally, this article shows the desirability of the compact physical form of cities for achieving better cognition of its form.
Looking from an historical perspective, it can be seen that many civilizations have lived in the country and consequently produced many different cultures and architectural products. One of the oldest cities which contain such historical examples which have lived until present is Tabriz. Its traditional houses are the most important places to represent the life style of the past. Lack of recognition and appreciation of these buildings by authorities and the public will gradually lead to their destruction and replacement by contemporary buildings. The present study seeks to introduce specific architectural features of traditional houses in Tabriz. Preservation of the features of these houses helps maintain the architectural heritage and culture of the region. Most old houses in Tabriz were reconstructed at the beginning of the Qajar era after a devastating earthquake in 1780. The destruction caused by contemporary constructions, in the chaos of modern period, makes it difficult for researchers to gather information about the principles of traditional buildings and to identify their typology. The survey is a compilation of a process in the typology of 52 traditional houses of Qajar and Pahlavi periods in Tabriz. The study revealed that it is possible to accomplish the classification of the monuments with the application of a quantification process in which the qualitative data related to architectural elements was successfully converted into quantitative data by assigning numerical values and using coefficients.