: One of the tools for the architectural advent form is the structure, while architecture and structures, particularly in our sociable Iran, are separated from each other. Most successful buildings have dominating designers who are proficient in structural issues and have a comprehension of the structural system's behavior. The extent of attention to the structure of the building will inevitably lead to beauty. If the structure has aesthetic considerations, a successful link between architecture and structure will occur. This research seeks to provide a solution and strategies to formulate both architecture and structure. The purpose of this paper is to articulate a sound and desired theoretical foundation in relation to the aesthetics of the architectural form and structure so that achieve a successful link between architecture and structure. The research methodology is applied in terms of the purpose of the research. The qualitative and quantitative research methodology is used to analyze the information as well as to provide analytical tables and matrix analysis in order to summarize the contents. The research has come to the conclusion that constructive requirements, along with functional requirements and aesthetic issues, bring together an unmatched effect. The study of successful works in the world suggests that if one of the subcategories of these three criteria works, it can be considered as one of the most successful buildings in the world. Formation of forces flow can be effective in the aesthetic structure of the structure.
Because of the limited capacity of coastal lands and conflicting interests among stakeholders for coastal resources, there are intensifying pressures to retain and provide more public access to the coast. Coastal gated communities have been developed increasingly in the middle shoreline of Caspian Sea in North of Iran. They are kind of exclusive space production as they restrict public access to the public resources of shoreline. As space production has roots in social processes, according to Lefebvre’s theory, there are two main approaches in the analysis of social phenomena. First is institutionalism and the other one is discourse analysis. Due to some weaknesses each approach suffered from, the discursive institutionalism became the main methodology to analyze the interaction of discourses and institutions in coastal exclusive space production. Critical realism emphasizes the inherent feature of the world which is categorized into three layers of reality that are constructed by agents, discourses and structures. Rather than experiencing the world in constructivism or conceptualizing the world in interpretivism, critical realism supposes different ontology, the existence of hidden or invisible mechanisms behind what human understand from the social phenomena and though emphasizing on the causality of both agents and structures. This research aims to conduct the conceptual and methodological framework for the analysis of the exclusive space production as a social phenomenon in North of Iran with the help of critical realism perspective in discursive institutionalism approach. This could be a significant guideline for further researches on spatial evolution in coastal urban areas.
Purpose of this article is to introduce different approaches in reviewing the mutual relationship between the built environment and citizen’s behavioral patterns in public spaces with applying analytical and comparative methods by using a questionnaire, a sample of 200 members of the audience in two streets of Mashhad, Kouhsangi and Qaranei, by using two tests of the ordinal logistic regression and the Kruskal-Wallis have been conducted. This study seeks to develop a conceptual framework identifying influential elements in regeneration public spaces and in order to identify factors contributing to numerous variables have been studied such as a variety of activities, Sociability, location of public spaces, diversity, and dynamism, impact and effect of behavioral patterns. This article first attempt to clarify the importance of this issue and establish the position of behavioral patterns in relation to the physical and built environment. Then develop a conceptual framework to identify the impact and effectiveness of various criteria. The results of this study indicate Classification of parameters affecting the interaction between the built environment and citizens' behavioral patterns that can be used in the next preceding studies and in various public spaces, especially street, be measured.
Nowadays, tourism is affected by the knowledge of a region’s climatic characteristics. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the potential regions and appropriate time for attracting tourists in relation to climatic comfort. Due to having climatic diversity and water resources such as rivers, waterfalls, caves and hot springs, Khorassan رضوی province is one of the potential regions for tourism attraction in IRAN. This study attempts to assess human comfort or discomfort for recreational and water sports activities according to Equivalent Effective Temperature (EET) index using meteorological data from Khorassan رضوی synoptic station for 1990-2011. Furthermore, the climatic comfort zoning map for tourism in the province was made by ArcGIS and Geographic Information System (GIS) potentials by inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method. The results showed that October, June, September, April, May, August and July have the best comfort conditions for recreational activities and water sports, respectively. Also, Nishabur and Chenaran cities with 4 and Mashhad with 1 month had the longest and the shortest monthly periods for using water resorts, respectively. Similarly, in this research, available appropriate tourism areas are introduced according to the EET index for different months in order to achieve a higher understanding of the province’s potentials.
Developing a comprehensive document based on the utmost use of renewable energy efficiency in the architecture design is the first step in national level to follow the goals of sustainable architecture and this is not possible without having a deep trend of the climatic compartment. The modeling of comprehensive energy plans in the architecture without having a quantitative approach is incomplete and inefficient in all of these areas without accurate scrutiny Also, one of the main challenges regarding the climatic compartment in architecture is the qualitative approach of designers and researchers of architecture towards this science; which has a basic contradiction with quantitative data of climate science. Hence, through the quantitative potential climatic investigation and integrating it with qualitative components affecting architecture, a suitable approach to architectural design is obtainable. The purpose is to measure and evaluate solar energy in the design of the architecture of buildings in Iran with a climatic approach. The first step in achieving this purpose is to identify and prioritize the relevant factors and criteria for utilizing the solar energy capability in the design of architecture and climate. The variables of this model with the above objective function include 5 main criteria and 15 sub-criteria. In the next step, we define and eliminate non-usable areas and then draw a fuzzy hierarchy structure. After that, the relative weight of criterion is determined using the FAHP technique and based on the views of a group of academic, governmental and industrial experts in the Super Decision analysis software.
Perception and experience gained in the contemporary school could not help human beings' active learning. Totally, participation is the main element in active learning and thus, the active participation of students in the learning process is emphasized by education and learning in secondary schools. Given the importance of active learning, in this paper, the effective components in this type of learning has been identified. Among the three components involved in active learning, the component of participation in the learning process is selected and after a study of the model, two factors affecting the participation of children in the learning process are specified including social pattern and activation pattern of participation in the learning process. In this paper, the research uses a mixed method including a quantitative part and a qualitative part. The quantitative part uses a univariate T-test and the qualitative part uses a case-study method and content analysis to analyze the semi-structured interview. The study population in the quantitative part includes 279 male students of a secondary school in the city of Shiraz and the qualitative part includes 43 male students of the seventh grade of a secondary school in Shiraz. The results show that the majority of the respondents prefer a small class size. The findings emphasize the concept of participation in the learning process and introduce the factors of social interaction, individual and group activities, involvement and experience in the learning process for the indoor educational environment design and ultimately emphasize the factor of interaction as the most important criterion.