Today, concepts such as place attachment, sense of place, meaning of place, place identity, has devoted many studies In literature of architecture and urban design particularly in the field of environmental psychology. It is obvious that in all these concepts, various aspects of interaction between human and place and the impact that places have on people has been presented. This paper defines the concepts of sense of place and place attachment and explains the factors that affect them. Sense of place is a comprehensive concept which in it men feels places, percept them and attached meaning to them. Understanding the fundamental aspects of sense of place, can be effective in assess the level of public attachment to place sand tendency of people to places. Place attachment refer to emotional and functional bonds between place and people which Interpreted in different scale from a district to a country in Environmental psychology. In this regard different studies point to varied of spatial and human factors. Review the literature, this paper achieves a comprehensive definition of these concepts and then it try to compare them to find their relationship. What will come eventually is that place attachment is one of the sense of place subsets. Thus in encounter of people and place if assume people sense of place a general feeling to that place, place attachment is a positive emotion which people have about the place.
Associating certain forms and designs in Islamic Arts with the promised Heaven may be widely observed in the works of many historians and critics of the field. It is believed that Islamic Art has been derived from the imagination of the Paradise as depicted in Holy Quran. To express this meaning in technical words it should be said that the main concept in Islamic Arts has been the gardens of heaven generally described as containing the green trees (the tree of life), colorful flowers, flowing rivers, the ethereal drinks and foods, and even Huries (beautiful young virgins dressing in green fine silk) at the service of those who are permitted to meet God.
Analysis a Development Framework for Urban Heritage Conservation Versus Development Trends in Shiraz, Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Historic urban areas are a significant part of each city not only due to having irreplaceable cultural and social resources, but also due to their attractive patterns of life. They have being threatened by strong development trends. This paper aims to investigate the impacts of redevelopment trends in the historic city of Shiraz, Iran. The paper begins by highlighting historical development in the different periods such as Atabakan, Safaviyeh, Zandiyeh, Qajar and Contemporary period; and then, it investigates types of heritage in Shiraz, and, the impacts of modernization trends on the historic urban area of the city. The purpose of the present study is to investigate some of the problems involved in the conservation of the historic settlements in Iran with particular emphasize to the historic settlement of Shiraz city. This study found that confrontation between strong development trends and urban heritage conservation led to loss of numerous tangible and intangible heritages in Shiraz.
Walking has always been the most natural, the oldest, and the most essential form of transportation and is still major form of moving, hence, it plays a vital rule in urban transportation. In fact, walking is the most important tool for seeing, being seen, observing city wide daily and social activities, discovering the values and hidden attractions in urban environment, and therefore, feeling of liveliness and being needed amongst citizens. Throughout the last three decades, due to increasing urban problems such as; environmental pollution, traffic and transportation issues, lower pedestrians’ safety against moving vehicles, jeopardizing the spiritual existence of valuable historical sites, lower visual quality of urban environments, and less social interactions. Which has created a worldwide momentum against the moving vehicles domination and diminishing of the pedestrianism. Consequently, pedestrianism and its necessities, which were ignored and forgotten urban issues, once again became one of the fundamental concerns in planning and development in urban design. This movement is called “Pedestrianism Movement”. In this research, after a discussion about the theory of pedestrianism and providing a literature review of the works done by the researchers, the acceptance criteria and characterizations of a walkable environment and the major contributing factors in strengthening or weakening of the pedestrian system will be discussed. Finally, results of several case studies in potential streets in Tehran are presented and recommendations will be provided to create a walkable environment and to accomplish the pedestrianism objectives.
The Theory of “Living Time ” in Periodization of Iranian Architectural History(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The writing of Iranian architectural history has, from its start, followed the principles of western historiography. Portions of this history are well expected to be neglected or unattended when writing of it takes place outside its intellectual framework that essentially reflects the Iranian throught world. To have a truly Iranian architectural historiography, one has to find the theoretical principles which are deeply rooted in the Iranian Islamic culture. Although pre-modern Iranian historians never wrote a history of architecture, they were exponents of historiography during a millennium of cultural flourishing and vigor. Since any sort of historiography, as well as literature, usually is based on principles and ideological views about history and time, Persian historic texts can be considered as worthy sources regarding theoretical bases on which we can build the Iranian philosophy of architectural history. Persian prose of the early centuries of Islam is among these sources. One of the common, prominent themes in these texts is the nature of time or history. It is presented as a sensible, living being whose states relate to human events and phenomena across time. A new theory of periodization of Iranian architectural history can be drawn based upon this theory.
In recent years, the issue of energy consumption modeling techniques in the building sector has been widely considered by researchers and managers. Researches indicate that energy consumption in residential sector is one of the main parts of the total consumption. Moreover, the urban residence is supposed as a significant consumer of energy in every country and therefore a focus for energy consumption efforts. For over increasing building energy consumption there can be some causes including : climate change, increase in household electricity load, fast-growing household electrical appliances, huge energy consumption of the buildings, and the lack of strict government supervision. Recently the issue of assigning different prices to different time-periods of energy consumption has been taken into consideration for energy prices of consumers’ bills. Therefore, in this paper a model for multi-prices and multi-periods single-type energy consumption in urban residential sector is presented; also an efficient heuristic method is provided for solving the mentioned model.
Social Issues in Post Disaster Reconstruction Planning (A Grounded Theory Approach)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Post disaster reconstruction in the destructed zones entails the social aspects in addition to the physical and urban aspects, because of the presence of affected people in the very location. The presented research aims to assess the social aspects of the post disaster conditions in the course of reconstruction, which take into consideration the related social factors in the affected community. The research also looks for the various influential aspects of post disaster urban planning in order to achieve a different framework for the job. Since the subject might be considered as a new approach, and for the vast and numerous aforementioned aspects in the expertise reference, the research method is based on “Grounded Theory” in order to analyze and categorize the given approaches. The results of theoretical studies have been compiled with the academic expertise viewpoints and with the opinions of Iranian experienced experts who were involved in the course of post war and post natural disaster reconstruction, through the face to face interviews. In order to benefit a practical implication of the theory, the post disaster reconstruction process of Manjil-a mountain town in Gilan, north of Iran- after the earthquake in 1990 has been analyzed and reviewed. The fulfillment of the research necessitates; assessment of social questions, collective behavior, individual needs and requests of affected people, in the course of planning for post disaster reconstructions, and ultimately employment of social capacity, as well as the relations among communal network at the entire level of the affected society.
Mediatheque is an inclusive adaptation of library in which public could exchange information in practical way by applying contemporary technology. It is exerting a new method of bilateral exchange information between clients and sources through various media, which not only serve a faster data transmission than books and libraries but also are more efficient than the other services. This comprehensive library, which is centers of activities in different fields especially in arts and films, is a constant element in developed countries. By designing such an original scientific infrastructure, people can have easy access to information and freely exchange of data. This criterion can be one of the most elemental reasons that developed countries are commonly porn to use in urban areas. Investigations on these organized places for cultural activities that are accompanied by comprehensive planning indicated that Mediatheque can increase the knowledge of the public in an effective way. Therefore, for upgrading the cultural and scientific infrastructure in other countries such as Iran, having mediatheques is vital for almost every city. This paper aims to investigate the necessity of creating mediatheques, especially in Iran, and compare some examples of existing mediatheques in international scene, in which it can be applied as an example that would be according to the rich Iranian music culture. Moreover, steps of creating a musictheque will be introduced which should be a symbol of traditional and native music of Iran.
Security is one of the most critical factors affecting the quality of urban spaces. Nowadays, most of these spaces have become merely pathways with neither social life nor sense of belonging to it. Insufficiency of public surveillance along with weak sense of control and surveillance results in spaces with high crime rate. In the late 60s and early 70s, high crime statistics in open urban spaces around America and Europe, forced many city planners to provide physical and cultural solutions for it. Sensitive environmental design can simultaneously prevent the occurrence of crime and increase the control and surveillance over the public spaces. The main purpose of this paper is to achieve the most critical factors enhancing safe urban spaces. The research method is descriptive analysis and is done by comparative study on three outstanding theorists’ point of view toward the subject. Research findings identify that crime prevention is largely achieved through applying territoriality, surveillance and social interaction factors in environmental design.