This s tudy reviewed the effectiveness of architectural space design for healing and humanization in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, (LUTH), Nigeria. The s tudy adopted a semi-s tructured interview and physical appraisal of the selected major departments within the s tudy area. Also, a literature review of pas t s tudies on hospital buildings was done to buttress and advocate for the importance of architectural spaces design for healing and humanization of the users in the hospital environment. Factors of architectural space design in hospital buildings were identified and classified through the literature of pas t s tudies and a conceptual framework was developed through it. These factors were categorized under the following headings. This includes functional design factors (FDF), aes thesis design factors (ADF), environmental design factors (EDF), security & safety design factors (SSDF), and Physiological & Psychosocial design factors (PPDF). The s tudy provides information on the importance of architectural space design on overall hospital performance. This s tudy contributes to methods of evaluating architectural space design quality in hospital buildings in Nigeria and a similar context.
The target bridges in this s tudy were cons tructed during the Safavid era in Isfahan city and are considered as one of the mos t important components of the urban s tructure; during his tory. They have shown various functions in addition to their role as a connecting route, which has varied from individual scale to collective spaces over time. This research s tudy is trying to find out the architectural components affecting the public presence in these urban buildings, specifically in two bridges called, Allahverdi Khan (Si-o-se-pol) and Khajoo bridge in the contemporary era, to see if they would correspond the needs of today’s urban residents. To get this aim, the qualitative research approach was adopted based on an interview framework. To answer the ques tions was arranged based on three functional, physical, and s tructural aspects of these bridges, and a significant result was achieved by applying qualitative content analysis. The architectural components influencing the public presence were included eight general components and sub-components. These items were either in line with or opposite to each other, including the social functions and the contemporary space of bridges, the bridges’ cultural and physical s tructure, the shaping context of the bridges and the memorability of them, the environmental psychology and the related aes thetics aspects. According to the content analysis outcomes, a functional review of the space of these bridges in the future can lead to the qualitative improvement of architecture and space of them.
This s tudy aims to research the origin and development of temporary landscapes, combining the research progress of temporary landscapes in China and other regions in the world, and propose the development trend of temporary landscapes in the future. As a unique form of open space, the temporary landscape has the characteris tics of "time limit," guidance, flexibility, and functionality. It is a spatial s trategy for the temporary occupation of land in urban cons truction. This article firs t introduces the temporary landscape background, combs the temporary landscape's development and connotation, and puts forward the temporary landscape concept based on summing up previous s tudies. Then, s tarting from three aspects: the type mechanism, design practice, and comprehensive functional benefits of temporary landscapes, this paper focuses on the research progress of the phenomenon of temporary landscapes in China and abroad in recent years. Finally, it makes a comparative analysis of the research, summarizes the differences in the s tudy of temporary landscapes between China and other regions, and proposes prospects for future research trends combined with the international development situation.
Phenomenology is one of the outs tanding theoretical paradigms in contemporary s tudies in architecture and urban planning. However, the phenomenology of place in artworks, especially painting and drawings (visual arts), through architectural modalities could be a subs tantial attempt and a new subject that needs more s tudies. The purpose of current research is to achieve a method based on which the phenomenon of place in the visual arts could interpret and explained more accurately. For this aim, a qualitative and descriptive method is applied. In this s tudy, based on the theories of Martin Heidegger and Edward Ralph on the one hand and the ideas of Chris tian Norberg-Schultz, on the other hand, a framework for the phenomenological s tudy of the place has been proposed in three s tages of description, analysis, and explanation. Besides, the drawings of Sohrab Sepehri, one of the famous contemporary artis ts of Iran, have been s tudied as an example by applying this framework to show the efficiency of the proposed framework and method. The results of this s tudy show that the interpretation of artworks based on these three s tages consis tent with the s tage of phenomenological reduction and cons titution which is common in phenomenology. Sohrab Sepehri's drawings were well in line with the phenomenological concepts of place and its components and variables introduced in this research. The challenges of applying this framework discussed and enhancing its validity by further s tudies in the works of other artis ts, recommended.
Empirical s tudies in the field of the design process s tarted in the 60s. Protocol analysis is among the empirical research methods that have been developed simultaneously with the growth of empirical s tudies. Concurrent with the use of protocol analysis for researching in the field of the design process, analysis methods have been presented by some researchers, which can be used with the protocol analysis method in order to analyze the s tructure of the design process. Among these analysis methods, problem behavior graph, decision tree, linkography, and extended linkography could be mentioned. The problem behavior graph is based on problem-solving theories. In the decision tree method, the extracted data from protocol analysis is used for the perception of decision-making processes. Linkography is another method for analyzing the s tructure of the design process. In this method, the design process of a designer is unfolding by drawing a graph, which is called linkograph. This paper considers making a s tudy and comparison of these different analysis methods by the use of sys tematic review. By comparison of diverse analysis methods, two approaches could be recognized, formal and informal ones. In the formal approach, the design is mentioned as a logical research process of solving the design problem. The second approach is informal. In this one, the design process is mentioned as a reflective conversation with the situation. In this approach, which is based on Donald Schon’s theories, the design process is referred as an argumentative process.
The Islamic era is the period of new s tyles and beyond its own time. Shamsa, Muqarnas, S tar, geometric motifs, and decorative elements have fractal nature, which was used as a tool to express the architect’s idea by repeating the same components in a spatial dimension. We will reach the effect of Islamic impacts on fractal architecture and semantic cognition, and by finding the roots of theories about fractal with an analytical-descriptive approach, we will unders tand the relationship between fractals and how they are used by architects. Our focus is on comprehensive s tudy and calculation, not only in ornaments but also in s tructure, to find patterns of fractal form, to represent coordination between components. Firs t, we proved and extracted the fractal properties and patterns between the cons tituent elements, including self-similarity, repeatability, small-scale, and non-integer dimension, using visual analysis, and then we set up the Box-counting analysis technique with two purposes of calculating fractal dimension and finding their relationship. Aware of the mathematical proportions and relationships between the components of nature, the architect of the Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque has displayed the geometric sequence limit with an ascending equation in the interior ornaments of the dome. His goal is both to create the world of spirituality on a micro-scale and make it unders tandable for an observer. Thus, in this way, he has sometimes expressed his concept through mathematics, proportions, and sometimes by showing beliefs in concepts such as unity in diversity, all of which in their essence have concepts consis tent with fractal forms.