Earth-Shelter construction is one of the aspects in architecture where the thermal mass of the earth behind the outer walls are applied in order to reduce heat loss and keep the internal temperature at human comfort range. In case of earth-shelter buildings, housing is especially important. As for its applicability the earth-shelter provides good housing. Typological studies of earth-shelter construction in Iran by introduces various Iranian examples of this type, could be a model for the today’s innovative designs with an approach to energy saving. This type of construction responded to human comfort requirements when modernism was absent to claim that it could do the same through mechanical technology. The study method adopted here consists of qualitative-descriptive and deductive analyses. The categories of earth-shelter architecture are three worldwide: Earth Mound, Rocky or In-Hill and Bellow ground. Here the genotype of earth architecture and phenotype of earth-shelter are studied in details. The same is of two in Iran: Rocky, which is divided in continues and discontinues types and closed underground type. Studies conducted in Iran have revealed a new type of these structures named Combined Continues Rocky open Underground by the author.
Eco village design is a new field of knowledge still under development. It will be the physical manifestation of the unfolding of the ecovillage dream held by so many. It is generally agreed that concept of sustainability should play an increasing role in future urban development world-wide. In order to ensure ecological sustainability, cities around the world have to decrease their environmental footprint. In this article, will try to find some principles of designing eco-villages in Iran that have less environmental footprint. Two aspects are important in this regard: the decrease of energy consumption and the decrease of waste products and its subsequent management. The concept of eco-village, despite having arguably limited influence, does have the potential to serve as an alternative urban model. As relatively small experimental communities, eco-villages are in the position to explore and apply novel solutions, the necessity of which is evident in the global concern for sustainability. Valuable practical lessons can be provided in the current for suitable urban development. In this article, some eco-villages around the world have been compared with each other and will suggested some solutions for designing eco-villages in Iran.
This research was carried out to investigate the role of natural resources cooperatives in ecotourism development. This was an analysis-descriptive study conducted through survey method. Statically population of study was 123 members of the directors of these cooperatives. A structured questionnaire was designed and distributed among the cooperative directors. Census technique was applied in this study. The validity of the questionnaires was proved by panel of counselors and experts of pastures and forests organization. In order to measuring the reliability of the questionnaires, a pilot test was carried out. Result of Alfa-Cronbakh 87% for ecotourism development was obtained. In order to data analyzing was used SPSSwin15 software. Results of stepwise regression test showed that organizing service providers and training local population in cooperatives have positive effects on ecotourism development. Totally those factors explained 50% of effective factors on measure of ecotourism development variable by natural resources cooperatives.
The aim of this paper is investigate the social sustainability of the bazaar according to viewpoint of citizens as the main owners. What factors are the main reasons for back to this place in the image of people. Bazaar is not only a shopping center like modern commercial center in the city, but as one of the oldest urban spaces which is also active today, has an important role in shaping urban communities, creating interactions between citizens and has been known as the center of economic exchange in the Iranian cities too. In this term, causes of obtaining this long-term’s stability according to the image of citizens is the main purpose of this paper. Methodology of the paper is Qualitative and quantitative. First we used questionnaire, then we had formal/informal interviews. Parameters of the questionnaire obtained from studying samples and review main factors in creating bazaar. Findings show that “memorable” is the most important factor in viewpoints of people. “Responsibility”, “diversity”, “safety”, and “accessibility” are the other factors. Results express “economic dependence of cities and citizens is not the main reason for bazaar sustainability, there are more important meaningful factors such memorable and diversity with determinant roles
Of building cultural centers in all communities and with any kind of attitude has always been one of the designers’ issues. When we use the term in ordinary daily conversation, we often think of culture as an equivalent to the “higher things of the mind”- art, literature, music and painting. According to sociologists, the concept of culture includes such activities, but also far more. Culture can be conceptually distinguished from Society, but there are very close connections between these notions. Culture concerns to the “life Style” of the members of a given Society- their habits and customs, together with the stuffs they produce. Society refers to the system of interrelationship which connects the individuals who share a common culture. No culture could exist without a society and no society could exist without culture, as well. Nature, as a sort of context for society has always been the catalyst for cultural issues. Architecture is considered as a link between man and environment around, which is a step forward to close up the society, culture and nature. By considering human attitudes to nature and the principles of sustainability, Green Architecture, helps to expand the favorite Cultural themes for designers in such cultural centers. This paper aims to assess and analyze the connection between society, culture and nature. Also, investigating this form of addressed sustainable cultural centers regarding the improvement of society in the case study of Cultural Center and Garden of Niavaran. It is prepared on the basis of library-based phase of the research, case study method and observation for its field study phase. At the end, to sum up, the findings of this study comprise the distinguishing characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of our case study and some efficient proposals have been used to achieve sustainable development.
Vernacular architecture has always had appropriate answer in conformity with the environment and climate. This paper has considered values of Iran vernacular urbanization and architecture in humid and moderate climate looking through sustainability and sustainable development concepts. Gorgan city has been studied using laboratory studies and available sources and relying on the content analysis and values hidden in the vernacular architecture in humid and moderate region of Golestan Province. Effects of weather on urban structure, landscape and views have been analyzed and considered in this regard in order to provide designers with some strategies for their future designs.
In developing countries, the domination of peripheral and dependent capitalism relations and the lack of appropriate structures and channels of attracting, this system have caused some kind of spatial-anatomic unbalances that has resulted in the appearance of single cities with national and regional prevalence. This situation is the main reason for small, medium and intermediate cities to lose their role in the third-world countries and, therefore, for some kind of urban network to appear having consequences, especially at regional scales, like the deceleration or, in some cases, the stop of the dispersion of the expected effects of development and the lack of a chain or network of settlement focuses connecting the settlement system of the region together. The presented work has been planned to focusing on the study and analysis of the urban system of Hamadan province, Iran, with aims to present an appropriate pattern for mentioned province according to the common models and techniques of urban system analyses and methods. Results showed that currently the urban system of Hamadan province is unbalanced; however, the analysis of this system at a regional scale could be useful in regional development management and planning. Nevertheless, it is necessary that the urban system is considered in relation to neighbor regions and national space and in systematic terms. Finally, improvement of systematic viewpoints in planning for urban system and Location and leveling of new activities and settlement areas are recommended to be implemented in coincidence with the suggested urban system.
This paper seeks to investigate a new definition for architecture by unifying the three Vitruvian principles of firmitas, utilities, and venustas via a phenomenological approach in the interpretation and analysis of their role in defining architecture. The paper is composed in two main sections. The first section investigates the nature of architecture based on the mentioned principles, where architecture is interpreted and analyzed in terms of its “thingly,” “equipmental,” and “artistic” characters. While it seems that architecture could be in view of its “thingness” alone, or “equip mentality”, or “artless”, but each perspective reveals only a dimension of the nature of architecture. Therefore, the second section of this paper focuses on unifying the Vitruvian Triad, attempting to define architecture from the single stance of “architecturality” the sphere from which architecture is seen as a way of disclosing the truth in the desired life of humans in an architectural work. In this definition, there is the simultaneous presence of thingness, equip mentality, and artless of architecture, thus establishing an integral unity between the principles of the Vitruvian Triad. Thus, the three Vitruvian principles come to unify in architecture which is defined as “the manifestation of truth of human desired life in the work of architecture.” This definition also allows us to assume three fundamental principles for architecture, “truth of human desired life”, “work of architecture” and “manifestation of truth”. These three principles are themselves, in fact, reflections of the three Vitruvian principles.