This s tudy examined national culture dimensions that cons titute barriers to the implementation of sus tainable cons truction practices among cons truction professionals in Nigeria. It deployed S tatis tical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software to analyze data collected through a ques tionnaire survey. Mean Score Index (MSI) result revealed 47 national culture variables that have great potential for causing barriers to implementation of sus tainable cons truction practices in Nigeria with the MSI range of 3.30 - 4.72. The variables were grouped into six of Hofs tede’s national culture dimensions (large Power Dis tance, Individualism, Masculinity, s trong Uncertainty Avoidance, Short-Term Orientation, and Res traint) with an average MSI range of 3.84 - 4.22. The Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tes ts indicated that irrespective of organizational and individual characteris tics, there was no significant difference in the national culture of cons truction professionals hindering the implementation of sus tainable cons truction practices in Nigeria (p>0.05); but for Individualism (IDV) and Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) dimensions which indicated significant differences (p <0.05) due to personal attributes, disposition, and exposure. The study established that the differences have only a small effect (r = 0.171 and 0.156 respectively), signifying that the observed differences in IDV and UAI culture dimensions based on years of experience, were not a result of differences in the sizes of the groups. They then study raised concern for a new way of thinking towards overcoming barriers to implementing sustainable construction practices in Nigeria and suggested for optimization and operationalization of national culture dimensions that support the implementation of sustainable construction practices and eschewing those that cause barriers.
Important subjects in architecture is the design of buildings according to their contexts. This context can include his torical, physical, cultural- social, or climate aspects. Abadan is a city that its basic s tructure has been formed in the Pahlavi era. This city has been attracted to the local architecture in this period. Also, it has been influenced by the modern s tyle. The method of this research is applied and a survey one with an emphasis on the ques tionnaire. The main purpose of the present s tudy is to es timate the relationship between culture and identity factors of the contextual architecture of three important buildings of the Pahlavi era such as oil cinema(Taj), oil indus try college, national bank building in Abadan, and modern architecture of Europe. The research data has been gathered according to the ques tionnaire. Cronbach has been used to get the validity of the research. The number and the type of sampling are through the snowball method. SPSS, K.S, and the single tes t have been used for the research analysis in the present s tudy. The research results show that the amount of tes t level in all cases is less than 0/05. Therefore, the normal trend of data has been rejected. Moreover, there is no relationship between the building indicator with 3.87 and level of 0/000 and the plan indicator with 3.82 and the level of 0/000 in the aforementioned buildings. In this case, the use of the indicators of building and plan in the architecture of the Pahlavi era in comparison to European modernism has been less important.
Due to the thousands of years of Persian garden his tory, it has taken an indigenous color and aroma and its components have formed according to the needs that have exis ted over time; whereas the park suddenly entered Iran to induce modernism in the Qajar period. For this reason, its features don't fit the circums tances of Iran and ins tead fit with its territorial characteris tics. A solely his torical attitude to the Persian garden has led to the exclusion of this space from the process of regeneration and adaptation to recent needs. On the other hand, in the 50 years since the park’s emergence in Iran, some of its features have harmonized with the context. Accordingly, the research ques tion is: following the characteris tics of urban public spaces, which patterns of green space -Persian garden or park- might be more adaptable to the Iranian context. Several experts' opinions were used to respond to the research ques tion. The criteria for reviewing were selected from the project for public spaces and the results of the ques tionnaires were analyzed in the form of the hierarchical analysis process method and were adapted to the theoretical background. Although regarding some of the use and activity criteria, the park has more adaptability as a public urban space in Iran, in terms of access and linkage, comfort and image as well as overall measurements, the garden is more adaptable than the park.
The s tudy endeavors to identify and analyze the relationship between physical elements in his torical texture walls in the Qajar, Pahlavi, and contemporary periods; and classify the factors affecting the resident's sense of satisfaction in these neighborhoods. The research method is consis ts of both correlation in the firs t part and descriptive-analytical technique in the second part. In this regard, the criteria and indicators of physical factors in the context and neighborhood wall include the scale of proportions and height, entrances and portals, windows, and context and ornoments in the walls of residential, commercial, and cultural facades have specified. This Physical indicators consis t of relationships and organization, specific locations, and local services. In continue, a significant relationship and correlation between the desired variables were identified. Indicators were evaluated in three different textures in the his torical periods. The positive and negative points of each period were dis tinguished, and the privilege parameters of each neighborhood were examined. Then the general s tructure was explained and drawn to develop the context and body of the neighborhood walls. The results show that people are more inclined to live in neighborhoods with the same height scale and proportions and similar ornoments and appropriate to their specific use. People also tend to live in residential buildings with high-end entrances amids t large windows covered with curtains and wrought iron.
Believing in the world of Mesal has always been relevant in the beliefs of the illuminationis ts (ishrāq). This world has proximity to the world of Barzakh in the viewpoints of Muslims as the layers of the spiritual unconscious. Therefore, it’s borne results in the ideology of philosopher’s line Mulla Sadra in the Safavid era. Since architecture has always been a language for the values of its time, especially the unconscious of the society, to find out how and if the world of Mesal is manifes ted in the Safavid architecture, this writing is s tudying this case in the architecture of this era. Using the descriptive-analytical method, the present s tudy has s tudied the ornaments of Isfahan’s Imam Mosque to evaluate its conformity with the world of Mesal in the Muslims’ beliefs. The descriptive-analytical research method and information-gathering are through the library and observational sources. It’s concluded that the ornaments of Isfahan’s Imam Mosque could be the manifes tation of the details of the Muslims’ beliefs and spiritual subconscious in the Safavid era in Iran, especially Isfahan, and the amount and manner of this matter in the of decorative patterns topic, the numbers used in them and then, the colors in the architectural ornament have been s tudied.
Inves tigating the effectiveness and relationship between environmental factors and the quality of the educational environment in the s tudents’ mental health is the main S tatement of the problem in current research. Intending to recognize environmental quality components and their role in predicting the s tudents’ mental health in the educational environments, the present s tudy has proposed the following hypotheses: There seems to be a direct and significant relationship between the environmental quality and the s tudents’ mental health. and It seems that the functional component of the environmental quality has the greates t influence on mental health prediction. The research method is descriptive of correlation type using s tructural equation model. The s tatis tical population of the s tudy was selected from the coeducational Highschool s tudents of Sama schools related to the Islamic Azad University of Arak, and 270 individuals were selected using the convenience sampling technique. To collect the data, texts, and documents, as well as two ques tionnaires of Goldberg’s mental health and environmental quality, were used. Also, for the data analysis, factor analysis, and SPSS software were employed along with descriptive (mean and s tandard deviation) and inferential (Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression) s tatis tical methods. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between environmental quality and the s tudents’ mental health. It was also found that 51% of mental health changes are predictable based on the mental health in the educational environment. Moreover, it was concluded that the functional component of environmental quality has the greates t impact on predicting the s tudents’ mental health.