Nigeria has had several housing programmes and policies geared towards the provision of housing her citizens since colonial era to the post-colonial period. The Nigerian Government had always been directly involved in the provision of housing for the public servants and with the advent of the public-private partnership initiative, the low-income public servants’ acceptability of this new housing policy was exامینed through a survey researchin which questionnaires were administered on public servants in the three tiers of government. The new housing policy through public-private partnership promises to make housing available and affordable to this class of the citizens. The study reveals that the low-income public servants embrace the public-private partnership initiative in housing provision. Recommendations were proffered in making the public-private partnership in housing delivery a workable panacea for the housing problems of the low-income members of the society.
Light is one of the many wonders in the architecture Iranian houses. It is a major tool for space creation and design. An important consideration in the Iranian architecture, which takes a functional and conceptual approach to the extensive subject of light, has been that light should create a beautiful and spiritual space in addition to being functional. The light used in a house should be pleasing to the eye, and it should not be dazzling or bothersome. Optimal use of light plays a major role in creating mental peace and physical comfort and saving energy. This paper investigates different methods of exploiting natural light in the architecture of Iranian houses. For this purpose, three houses of historical interest in the city of Kashan in Iran (Boroujerdi-ha, Tabatabaei-ha, and عباسian) were studied for the position and role of natural light in them. A qualitative research method was used within an analytical-interpretative approach. First, the elements and components used to exploit natural light were studied, and then the strategies employed to manifest values, meanings, and concepts were explored within an analytical model.
This research paper lays stress on philosophies of human desire. All the human being has some psychical need in addition to physical needs. And to satisfy the psychical needs, there is a need for stimulants, more in case of exclusive pedestrian precincts. Having exclusively Pedestrian precincts/Cores in city design draws its inspiration from the fact that public zones, accessible to majority of citizens, represent zones where anything and everything, that characterizes a town, happens. They, consequently, must allow for the most varied form of behaviour from that of a child to that of old people to that of physically challenged. As a result such zones need to have Design Elements to serve their varied behavioral patterns. Designing Pedestrian precincts are different essentially because of time dimension where a longer time lag is required to experience the pedestrian friendliness of pedestrian precincts. Such external stimulants can be a moderate degree of complexity, novelty, surprise, and uncertainty attained by incorporating appropriate pedestrian friendly design elements in pedestrian layouts such as richness of architecture, landscape elements, water bodies, to sit and stroll through, and commuters’ infrastructure.In this article/paper a detailed study of abovementioned Design element, external stimulants and pedestrian friendly design elements in pedestrian layouts will be discussed in detail.
Integration and coherence within a city’s physical structure have become an issue for towns and cities as they rapidly expand, incorporate new elements, and undergo incessant changes. At present, we are facing an extensive accumulation of signs and traits in modern urban patterns; many unaccustomed to and incongruous are affecting the socio-cultural and physical characters of cities. Here, we will be discussing whether it would be feasible to create a system of domestic signs which would reflect domestic social values and mental images held and entertained by citizens, and thus to re-create the sign system of cities. We will also discuss factors involved in interpretation of signs and symbols within a city structure. To prevent emergence or exacerbation of contradiction and disunity within syntagmatic urban structures which have been formed through centuries, we must acquire the knowledge and skill necessary to contain the newly adopted elements and assimilate them into a meaningful and coherent whole. In line with this goal, we have conducted a study of changes of physical structures of the city of Yazd through time (a diachronic analysis) with the aim of identifying sustainable parts of the city’s sign system and with an emphasis on the extent in which it has been formed. The questions which were the motivations behind this work and which we will be trying to answer are: Can the sign system within a city be used as a means for creating an alternative structure within the city’s physicality? Is the sign system (as a tool) characterized by specific patterns on whose identification the coherence of the physical structure of a city depends? How can we achieve an appropriate paradigm within an urban sign system? Here we will try to identify processes of integration of modern urban structures into a city structure, and we will do it through combining views held by semiologists with the ideas of urban incongruity and contradiction, which arise as a result of introduction of modern structures into old cities. To transform the medley into a coherent entity, we need to be aware that cities possess markedness. To this end, we have employed the structuralist analytical method with an emphasis on identification of syntagmatic structures (identifying the structural elements and their relative positions within a city) and of paradigmatic patterns (the ways in which elements substitute for or replace one another). Our main aim here is to extend the scope of studies of urban semiology and introduce analytical tools including the use of structuralism theory in the analysis of urban patterns. We have conducted an in-depth analysis of subjective and objective causes of appearance of signs within cities. We have then conducted case discussions as well as discussions about backgrounds and have tried to establish past and current trends of these signs and symbols in Yazd. Extended data were analyzed based on theoretical notions, paradigms and principles governing systems of signs and symbols have been sought.
This paper deals with the concept of “residential models” and the role it plays on human relations in residential complexes. It intends to; review the concept of residence; understand how a residential model takes form; the influence of a residential model on future human interactions. To this end, having reviewed comments and viewpoints, focused on “what is residence? which factors may create the sense of residence and how an individual can choose his/her place of residence? Finally what are the factors affecting their choice”. Then two residential models analyzed: balanced and unbalanced, and their effects on human relations. Afterwards the research hypothesis was posed: “residential model is an effective factor on human relations”. Whereas the above study is limited to a small number of complexes in Tehran, for the purpose of testing the hypothesis and, in turn, for determining sample population, the residential complexes were classified into three categories in terms of facilities, features and characteristics. From each category a sample was chosen for testing the hypothesis. It was eventually decided to test the hypothesis in Ekbatan, Behjatabad and Farhangian residential complexes. The results indicated a strong relationship between residential model and its impact on human relations: more balanced the residential model, stronger effects on human relations. On the other hand, more unbalanced the residential model, weaker effect on human relations.
Building construction challenge, in recent years, is the reduction of social, economical and environmental impacts along with economical nature and increasing life quality, as here sustainable construction is important. Pre-fabrication and industrialization are referred as a solution of sustainable construction due to some of its main characteristics consisting of many sustainability aspects. Due to this fact, the application of these building systems in most cases, makes achieving to sustainable building more easy. Sustainability aspects in industrialized systems are categorized in four groups of environmental, social, economical and technical issues and in each group some of general characteristics of industrialization in these methods are studied. Today, industrialized construction systems by relying on quality increase idea and blending with the environment and more flexibility, good design and planning and optimization, can fulfill the goals of sustainable construction.
Effects of neglecting climatic patterns in buildings are more intense in severe climates such as tropical. It is resulting an excessive consumption of fossil fuels and consequently environmental pollutions in and after modern era. The objective of this research is to find climate-oriented intentions and solutions in tropical areas and compare them with Dezful and Bandar-e-Lenge vernacular houses to exامینe how differences in mesoclimates may affect the climatic pattern of buildings. The present study will initially classify the experts’ viewpoints on the architectural patterns in tropical climates and prevailing targets, solutions, and will present features of the architecture in such regions. The solutions are tested on vernacular buildings of Bandar-e-Lenge and Dezful. The findings demonstrate that in the above areas, climatic solutions have been used to moderate high temperature and humidity. The local houses in Bandar-e-Lenge are in accordance with both climatic objectives but the houses in Dezful pertain solutions for only high temperature. Results also confirm that the difference can be observed because of the different sub climatic groups they are placed in.
City growth and environmental difficulties last decades leads the art of urban design and development think more precisely and new approaches for conserving environment and developing urban areas have been evolved.The present study deals with concepts related to ecology in the city and in particular the theory of Ecological Urbanism and its criteria is expressed. Also theory and characteristics of cultural landscape is described. Persian traditional architecture and urban design especially in historic urban fabric has unique criteria, Shushtar ancient urban fabric is investigated in this research and its extraordinary characteristics are compared with theories mentioned above.This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative research methods reviewed recent and reliable articles and documents. Also case study is assessed by reviewing, historical books and different official documents in addition a complete assessment of case study is performed by site survey, socioeconomic survey, physical survey, and demographic analysis. Plenty of data gathered by questionnaires, interviewing officials, authorities and residents. Result came out from comparison theories and case study indicates that Shushtar has both ecological urbanism and cultural landscape values and it could be argue that cultural landscape are special features of the culture, art and relation between human and nature in each society, they were existed long before the eco urbanism criteria formed, yet, it seemed there are some similar criteria to define them that illustrate the inseparable fact and relation between them.
Nasuh, Known as Matrakci was a miniature painter who accompanied King Suleایمان Kanuni during his campaign to Iran in 940-42 AH/1533-36 AD and he has drawn many miniature from lots of Iranian cities including Khoy, Tabriz, Zanjan, Soltaniyeh, حامدan, and Ghasre Shirin to Baghdad and Shahre Zur, Baneh, Bukan, Maraghe. Being capital during one part of the Safavid dynasty and in the other part as the second most important political, economical, social, cultural and architectural city in Iran, Tabriz was considered a very important city. Unfortunately, the natural and artificial disasters such as incessant earthquakes and war with the powerful neighboring countries like ottoman had destroyed many parts of its structure. Therefore drawn miniature from Tabriz is the most comprehensive visual documents of one of the powerful city of Iran in Safavid Era that it’s reviewing helps a lot to recognition lost elements of this city in the 16th century.
One of the fundamental notions of realization of sustainable city within the framework of the theory of sustainable development is what affects the urban green spaces as well as the influence they may have. As the upshot of years’ worth of experiences in the ideology of Iranian urban design, Iranian garden is of magnificently high position which possesses the potentials to act as the green space with a variety of functions to serve the promotion of sustainability in today’s cities. Closely studying Dolat Abad garden as one example of the exquisite Iranian garden architecture in a comparative analysis, this study exامینes the role of gardens in the achievement of today’s cities to sustainability within the frameworks of the theory of sustainable city. It will also attempt to prove the hypothesis regarding that Dolat Abad garden and the Taj Mahal have established themselves as sustainable elements in the two contemporary cities of Yazd and Agra, and will accordingly continue to remain so.