The complete streets movement has been defined as the latest movement for providing safe streets for all modes of transportation and people of all ages and abilities through redesigning streets' spaces. The first phase in planning a successful complete street for any location is establishing a solid policy. To identify the key components of the firm policy, this study surveyed the highest-ranked complete streets policies in North America since the concept of the complete street has emerged in the USA. This study aimed to provide an exemplary policy structure for other societies to use as a model for developing successful complete streets policy in their communities. To support this effort, an integrated literature review made for an inclusive methodological approach. As a result, fundamental approaches to writing and defining an ideal complete street policy are clarified. Also, two characteristics outside the policy elements, which improved the policy's potential for success, are discovered.
The transportation sector, which is affected by travel patterns, has a significant stake in energy use; these patterns depend on a variety of factors including social and economic factors. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of social factors and economic factors on energy consumption, with an emphasis on family travel patterns; for this purpose, the Malek-Shahr and Amir-Arab neighborhoods in Isfahan, Iran, were selected as the research cases. A mixed-paradigm methodology (the qualitative research methodology paradigm and non-experimental research methodology from the quantitative research methodology paradigm) was used. The required information needed to examine the measures and the related factors was obtained by documentation and field study i.e. observation and questionnaire; In addition, the Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the significant differences between the neighborhoods considering social, economic and travel pattern variables. Also, factor analysis and regression were applied in order to carry out path analysis and explain how the factors and variables were related to each other. The results indicate that the Malek-Shahr neighborhood has a significantly better social and economic status and more arbitrary travel patterns in comparison with the Amir-Arab neighborhood. It was also found that in both neighborhoods, there was no significant relationship between the social factor and the travel patterns while the economic factor played a major role in this respect; this was more pronounced in the Amir-Arab neighborhood that is afflicted by a lower economic status.
ABSTRACT: Education is effected by many factors, including the mental and emotional conditions as well as the physical environment. The quality of architectural space in educational spaces, since it can affect students' sensory, intellectual and perceptual cognitions, can also affect their satisfaction with the school environment. This research tries to identify satisfaction as one of the factors affecting the quality of school architecture and takes steps to improve the situation. In addition to addressing the basic needs, qualitative considerations are also addressed. Research Method: In this research, documentary and survey research method (descriptive-applied) has been used to analyze the perception of adolescent girls about the meaning of sexuality in society and compare it with their level of satisfaction with the educational environment. The statistical population of female high school students in Baneh city is considered to be 120 students through Cochran's formula. The results were analyzed in SPSS software. Findings: There is a perception and understanding of sexuality in female students and also there is a significant relationship between perception of sexuality awareness in students and their satisfaction with the environmental quality of school. In this way, the more students know about their gender, the better they understand and respond to the school environment.
Environmental dimensions can be used as indicators of urban quality of life due to their potential contribution to subjective well-being. The environment is constituted by the interacting systems of physical, biological, and social elements interrelated in various ways, individually and collectively. This study aims to uncover qualitatively whether these two environmental elements, namely social and physical factors, are indeed predictors of subjective well-being and reliable indicators of quality of life in cities. The study presents and tests a model that examines a matrix of cross-effects between social and physical indicators with subjective well-being. Data are obtained through an expert survey in the city of Tehran. In this approach, a group of urban planners undertakes the effect of social and physical components on subjective well-being. First, the existing literature is studied, and the related components are identified. Then, some interviews are made, and the cross-section analysis effects are extracted in a cross-effect matrix. As the finding revealed, among physical factors, percapita and spatial justice can have the highest impact on subjective well-being in Tehran. This was followed by access to urban transportation networks depending on their type, quality, and amount. Also, commute, neighborhood, housing, and job satisfaction were predictors of subjective well-being. Among social factors, spending leisure time, continuous social interactions, and health status impact subjective well-being.
Augmented reality (AR) builds better participation for placemaking by focusing on real time features, communication, and direct information flow between project s takeholders. This s tudy attempts to access to specification of the Augmented Reality Sys tem for Placemaking (ARSP) model and make the research a basis for a profitable e-business model. By inves tigating AR and placemaking, this research seeks to build an augmented reality sys tem specification of the information flow and communication for project s takeholders' management. This paper explores the potential for using AR technology in interior design by three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) and façade placemaking by 2D textures of brick material. The sys tem consis ts of a qualitative proof of concept (POC) model, a prototype model, and a minimum vital product (MVP) model to s tudy to compel quantitative research. The ARSP POC model, prototype model, and MVP model are programmed by building an information modeling (BIM) sys tem, Revit and Unity software, and different software development kits (SDKs) as an application for Android devices. Seventy-four experts tes ted the MVP model in the Delphi method and observed, interviewed, and filled out a ques tionnaire. The research shows that the contributions of this s tudy to the body of knowledge are twofold. Firs t, this s tudy extends the unders tanding of AR applications in placemaking. Second, this s tudy identifies possible improvements using AR sys tems in design, procurement, and cons truction.
Need to solve the housing problem, the formation of experimental projects and the design and construction of new organized concepts have been done. One of the areas that, due to the development of industries, contains various examples of corporate housing is the city of Ahvaz. The present study intends to explain these concepts by recognizing the components of optimal housing containing internal and external characteristics in these complexes. The research method in terms of applied-developmental goal and mixed technique includes; Descriptive methods and content analysis in the theoretical and correlational sections are comparative, and field in the case studies section. The type of simultaneous variable design combines quantitative and qualitative approaches with a theoretical framework. Finally, based on the conceptual model, In the first step to finding descriptive statistics, questionnaires with answers from the Likert spectrum according to the sample size are provided to the residents of 105 units on the news site and 66 units in the water and electricity dormitory for analysis by SPSS software In the next step, interviews based on research questions from a community of 10 experts who were selected by snowball method are compiled and inferential statistics are extracted by analyzing them. After introducing the results of two areas, quantitative and qualitative, and to achieve the desired housing components, a link between human factors, physical-social factors, and decision-making factors should be established. Strategies should be presented in the short, medium, and long term.