The environmental crisis is increasing today and this makes it imperative for people more than ever to expand their understanding of the environmental concepts. Accordingly, films can be an effective tool to do that, but finding the right medium is a matter of debate. Needless to say, different forms of films have different effects. Within the same line, the current paper aims to test out the effectiveness of narrative and non-narrative documentary films on the learning and retention of the environmental concepts. The research method was quasi-experimental, administering a pre-test and a post-test on 20 male and 20 female participants between 20-27 years old. The samples were randomly categorized into two groups. Both groups had an equal number of participants who did not have any earlier environmental activities and their majors were not related to environment and natural resources studies. They were from a variety of educational backgrounds. The groups were homogenous in terms of GPA, too. Firstly, the pre-test was administered to both groups. One group watched a narrative documentary on environmental and natural resources for 8 weeks, while the other group watched the non-narrative version of the same film for the same period. Then, a learning and retention test was given to both groups. The MANCOVA test was administered on the data and the findings showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of learning and retention. It was concluded that narrative films can have a more significant effect on the learning and retention of the variables.
Hard educational technologies received more attention today while soft educational technology has been considered as one of the keys and effective technologies in teaching and learning. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of soft educational technologies in teaching environmental issues in the first to the third grade of elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. This study is a descriptive analysis of the content. The statistical population of the study is all the first, second, and third-grade textbooks of sciences in Iran and the world around us in Russia. The statistical sample included environmental issues in the first, second, and third-grade elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. The research tool was a researcher-made checklist made by soft educational technology and an environmental health checklist from Yale University. The results showed that allegory and role-playing hadn't used at all to teach environmental issues in Iran. Questions and answers Iran 31.95, Russia 31.64)and comparisons of objects, the discovery of similarities and differences, and conclusions )Iran 20.61, Russia 17.72) have been widely used in both countries. In Iran, more emphasis has been placed on solving problems and carrying out projects(13.40), and more emphasis has been placed on the use of daily life activities(16.45) in teaching in Russia. The results also showed that the use of soft educational technology to teach environmental issues was given more significance in the third grade of an elementary school in both of the countries. Soft technology has been used less in the first grade of the elementary school of Iran but in the second grade of the elementary school of Russia.
Purpose of this study was to investigate the sustainability of domestic gas consumption and identify the social factors that affect it. Three questions were asked in this study. 1) How stable is the gas consumption practice at home? 2) What are the elements that affect gas consumption as a sustainable practice?3) What solutions can be offered to increase gas consumption sustainability? After reviewing the research literature and the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable consumption, two categories of factors were identified as predictors of sustainable gas consumption changes. The research strategy is deductive and the explanation was used to investigate the research problem. The approach of this study was quantitative, and the survey method was used for measurement. The data collection tool is questionnaire. Structural validity, face validity and Cronbach's alpha were used to assess the validity and reliability. The statistical population consisted of household subscribers in Mazandaran province. Using systematic random cluster sampling method, 430 individuals were selected as the statistical sample. The findings of the study showed that the level of sustainability of gas consumption by household subscribers was at an average level. After exploratory factor analysis, three dimensions were considered for sustainable gas consumption. Findings showed that and after-sales support and pro-norms had the greatest impact on the dimension of consumer safety. Environmental values and knowledge of gas consumption have the most impact on the dimension of consumer awareness, pro-norms, Environmental values and pre-norms had greatest effects on responsible consumption.
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the environmental curriculum framework based on the upstream documents in the middle school, which was carried out using a qualitative-quantitative method with exploratory design in two sections. The research population in the first section of the research was upstream documents. The sampling method from this population was criterion-based. The data collection tool comprised a checklist and taking notes whose validity was assessed and approved by experts, masters, and professors. The output of this section was the environmental curriculum framework in the format of four elements of the curriculum (purpose, content, method, evaluation), which was used to validate the 42-item questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire approved from the experts' point of view and reliability by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The statistical population of the study in the validation section comprised 2259 people of the experts and masters of the social sciences, experimental sciences, and Farsi literature from six districts of education in Isfahan in the academic year of 2018-19, of which, 329 people were selected by categorized relative random sampling. The data obtained from this section were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis method using Lisrel software. The results showed that the fitness was appropriate for the proposed model based on the indexes (X2/df=1.947), (GFI = 0.95), (AGFI = 0.90), (RMR = 0.81).
The present study was conducted to recognize and analyze the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) aesthetics for sustainable education. For this purpose, two methods of the exploratory search (qualitative) and the questionnaire (quantitative) were used for data collection. The research sample in the qualitative section included the electronic resources related to the topic and in the quantitative section, 36 experts in the field of the distance education planning from the virtual learning environments and universities were selected voluntarily. The content analysis method was used to analyze the qualitative data and weighted average and Friedman's test was used to analyze the survey data for content analysis. The qualitative results of the study showed that the aesthetics of the MOOC should have a visual attraction in terms of the learner dimension, and they should be attractive and enjoyable in terms of the content dimension and regardless of any constraint, they must be linked to the natural environment regarding the dimension of the teaching organization and educational environment, indicating the equal effect of each of the four dimensions (the learner, content, teaching organization, and educational environment) of distance education. Quantitative results obtained from the viewpoints of the experts in the field of the distance education on the aesthetics of the MOOC showed that they can be assessed in the dimensions of the content, educational environment, and the teaching organization that will have a significant and special effect on the qualitative results on the MOOC aesthetics.
Humanistic philosophic approaches and the ever-increasing dominance of humans on nature and the excessive use of it have all led to the emergence of an environmental crisis. This incident has necessitated the clarification of the causes, as well as understanding the spiritual and philosophical dimensions of the crisis for all. Researchers have found that this crisis is the result of philosophical approaches that have led to the exploitation of nature through the fundamental transformation of human's understanding of nature. This theory has had many consequences, due to a secular look and the elimination of spirituality from nature and the instrumental look. Seyyed Hussein Nasr, to restore spirituality to nature and revive his sacred reality, by looking at the man as part of nature to save the natural life of man, challenged this theory. The method of this study is library research based on the analysis. The purpose of this research has been to study and analyze the spiritual foundations of the environmental crisis and to improve the awareness of people to protect the environment. In this article, Seyyed Hossein Nasr's views, the oppositional views, and the cause of the emergence The results of the research show that although some scholars attribute the environmental crisis to religious teachings, arguing that the beliefs of religious leaders have led to the deterioration and degradation of environmental resources, as well as weakening their motivation to develop a safe environment, recognizing the spiritual dimensions of the crisis can play an important role in developing the appropriate attitudes and behaviors toward the environment; So the solution to the crisis is restoring spirituality to nature and reviving the sacred reality.
In December 2019, some people in China were diagnosed with pneumonia which was found in the first studies to be related to the animal and food market in Wuhan, China. The newly identified virus which was named "Coronavirus 2019” spread all around the world, influencing different economic, political, and cultural fields. Since one of the most important sectors affected by the virus was the environment, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the realization of the right to a healthy environment. The findings showed that the virus reduced fossil fuels-related activities, especially in the world's oil companies and fashion and textile industries with high water consumption and water pollution, Decreasing air air pollution due to reduced domestic and foreign travel, And increasing the consumption of household safe drinking water and a decrease in the production of waste, especially toxic kinds. Also, the virus partially altered consumerism and international macro-behavioral patterns inconsistent with sustainable development, so that at the individual level, the purchase of unnecessary clothing and consumables was not done solely change the mood and on a global level, it strengthened the hope of living without fossil fuels and replacing them with renewable energy.
Consumerism is a new phenomenon created in the 21st century that can play a substantial role in the destruction of national resources of any country. Nowadays, concerning the ever-increasing improvement of fashion in the world, consumerism in the field of textiles and clothing is raised more than ever. Considering the wasteful consumption of products may bring about remarkable damages to the environment, presently certain methods such as no waste clothes production with a sustainability approach are under attention and survey. Researches accomplished in this regard resulted in the initiation of methods that are used by designers around the world as leading methods. Since this approach is an unprecedented opinion that is still in the route of extension and expansion, just a few studies have been conducted regarding the results obtained so far from designing zero-waste clothes and the experiences of consumers' awareness of this approach. The present research, regarding its objective, is of applied type based on descriptive-analytical method and procedure. Data collection is achieved by library method, relying on documents, written sources, and the internet. It challenges the discovery of the roots in this being formed field using the point of view proposed by Keith Fletcher. By explaining the experiences of this researcher in holding workshops related to this opinion, the out comings are surveyed. The obtained results confirm the application of various techniques such as digital printing patterns and the use of updated universal technology for the elimination of wastes.
Sustainable agriculture depends on the use of eco-friendly technologies by farmers.This research was conducted to identify and evaluate farmers' intent to use pheromone traps for controlling rice pests in paddy farms of Simorgh County, Mazandaran Province. Methodologically, this research was carried out using a questionnaire-based survey. The statistical population of this research included 1,500 farmers in 29 villages of Simorgh County, in which 204 farmers were selected using Cochran formula. Samples were selected using proportionate stratified random sampling. The formal and content validity of the questionnaire was based on experts' opinion and its reliability was calculated based on Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated between.70 and.80 for the scales of research variables. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software. The results showed that 33.8% and 16.7% of the respondents intended to use pheromone traps relatively strongly and strongly, respectively. The regression path analysis method was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of independent variables on the final dependent variable of intention to use the pheromone traps. The results of the path analysis showed that subjective norms had the most direct effect on the dependent variable (intention to use) (r=0.947). In terms of total direct and indirect effects, the perceived barrier to use with a total impact of 1.373 was in the first place. According to beta coefficients, the variables of attitude, behavioral control, and subjective norms had total effects of 0.391, 0.690, and 1.076, respectively.
Today, the issue of sustainable development has become one of the most important global issues and has become the focus of attention and human attention in the economic, social, and environmental perspectives. Various human activities, as well as the development of industries and the expansion of urbanization with waste and wastewater, have contaminated soil. Different methods are available to clean up the soil about economic issues. One of them is the electro remediation method, which is often applied in low-permeability fine-grained soils and is successful as a greenhouse effect in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals and is a new and developing approach for organic pollutants. This paper will be presented the effective parameters, the strong points as well as limitations, to clarify the basic concepts in the electro remediation process. Conduct experiments with the three-dimensional arrangement of electrodes instead of the linear arrangement of electrodes could be more practical. Using geosynthetic electrodes to prevent corrosion of metallic electrodes, combining the electro remediation process with other designs and different operational modes, and overcome to the problem of reducing the electro-osmosis flow and reverse electro-osmosis flow with pH control are methods to enhance the rate of removal of pollutants from soils.
today, with rapid advancement of industry and technology, many concerns about the adverse consequences threaten human life. The objective of this research is to investigate environmental education as an implement to reduce and evaluate the environmental consequences of petrochemical products based on the hierarchical analysis. The methodology was a survey of a statistical group involving 30 managers and experts in the petrochemical industry. The tool for the survey has consisted of a questionnaire with a pair scale-single response. In this model, the validity of the research was confirmed by the Delphi method and obtaining the opinion of experts in the field of occupational health and reliability of the questionnaire calculated by the inconsistency rate (less than 0.1). First, three criteria including environmental impact, destruction of the natural environment, impacts on individual health, and the most important harmful effects of each criterion were identified. Among the three main criteria, the most influential factor is the environmental impact criterion with a relative weight of 0.670. The criteria for the destruction of the natural environment and health effect of petrochemical workers with a relative weight of 0.260 and 0.699, respectively, are in the next priority. The water pollution parameter with a relative weight of 0.602 is the most important among the 5 sub-criteria. The parameter of effects on the biological environment with a relative weight of 0.373 among the 3 sub-criteria, and the parameter of the respiratory system with a relative weight of 0.417 among the 5 sub-criteria have the greatest effect, respectively