The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "Tehran Teachers' Attitude toward Environmental Education" and their "Readiness for Environmental Education to Students." This descriptive-sectional study was implemented on 127 primary school teachers in Tehran who were selected by stratified sampling and appropriate allocation and randomly selected in each class. Thus, among the primary schools of education, ten schools were selected and in each school, the samples randomly assigned among teachers of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth grades. To determine the attitude and readiness level, the quantitative score of the questions was used and the score was categorized into three groups of good, moderate and weak based on the 100% possible score. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation of the parameters. The results show that 19.68% of teachers have a good attitude level and other teachers have a moderate to low level of attitude and 13.31% of good preparation and other teachers have a moderate to low level of environmental education. Also, the correlation coefficient between the"attitude" and"preparedness" of the teachers for environmental education is 0.738, although the correlation is not complete, in this case, the coefficient of determination is 0.545, which indicates a reasonably good correlation. The main reasons for this level of attitude and readiness and the relation between these two parameters are environmental media disputes and social networks in recent years, which required primary education.
This study seeks to recognize the impact of ICT development and its role in improving sustainable development indices for Iran. The role of sustainable development and ICT in various fields has been initially undertaken. Then, validated models of ICT impacts were introduced. Subsequently, the related studies in these areas were reviewed and analyzed. Next, the ICT impacts on the main dimensions of sustainable development were explained. In this study, the mixed approach with the sequential exploratory strategy has been used. To identify the main factors of research, the experts' interviews were used. Using the interview results, the analytical model and the research questionnaire were prepared. The statistical population includes experts from the universities and industry. The quantitative information obtained through the implementation of the questionnaire. Validation of research model was examined by analytical tools (Smart PLS and SPSS). The results of this study indicates significant effects of ICT on the social dimension of sustainable development in Iran.
The present study mainly aims to determine appropriate strategies for performing relevant educational programs to promote the level of awareness among different people of society to replace non-renewable energy resources with clean and renewable energy resources as well as to prioritize these strategies for use in the educational system of Iran. This study is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the most important policies and strategies regarding the application of renewable energies and education in this field were extracted. Then 80 strategies proportionateaccording to Iran's educational needs in this field were suggested. The most comprehensive of them were determined using the comments of 50 specialists through a questionnaire. Among these strategies, 40 strategies were selected for training renewable energies at schools (10 cases), Higher Education (10 cases), informal education (10 cases), and non-formal education (10 cases). In the second stage, for prioritizing the selected strategies, another questionnaire including pairwise comparison tables of these strategies was prepared based on the results of the experts' comments and data resulting from it was used to rank the strategies using fuzzy preference programming (FPP) method in MATLAB software. All fuzzy group decision- making matrices are suitably adapted for each of the four educational groups (γi> 0.3679). Prioritization of these 40 strategies for training renewable energies in the educational system of Iran is presented at the end of the paper in terms of formal education at schools and universities, informal and non-formal education.
The growth of social networking has made it possible to define new applications for this tool especially in learning, including formal, informal, and tacit education (visual, auditory and written). The purpose of this study was to explain the impact of the use of Eitaa social network on the environmental attitude of students in three cognitive, emotional and behavioral areas. The present study is the type of applied researches which regarding the purpose, and regarding the data collection tool, it is a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The study sample has consisted of 46 students of Payame Noor University of Markazi province that were selected by the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two control and study groups. According to the results of the covariance analysis test, it was concluded that there is a significant difference between the three variables in the two stages of pre-test and post-test, which shows the effect of environmental training with the application of Eitaa social network on all of the three dimensions of the students' environmental attitude. The comparison of the mean of the two stages of pre-test and post-test showed that the mean of all of the three variables in the post-test was higher than the pretest. Scheffe post hoc test results also showed a higher mean in the study group than the control group in all three variables. According to the calculated level of effect, respectively about 70, 10 and 14 percent of the variance of the cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions of the environmental attitude of the study group was explicitly explained by applying the training method (environmental training of Eitaa).
Recently, sustainability has emerged as a core context for 21st Century living, to maintain or improve our quality of life without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own. This has led to the sustainable development as a basis for overcoming the environmental challenges. The purpose of this research is a pathology study of the curriculum renewal process based on education for the sustainable development strategic approach at Shiraz University for undergraduate courses. The research tools were designed following the Helix model (Desha & Hargroves, 2011) for Rapid Curriculum Renewal. After assessing its validity and reliability, the samples were distributed among the individuals and the final data were analyzed by mean and standard deviations of descriptive statistics method. The statistical population consists of members of the curriculum development council at Shiraz University. Using purposeful sampling method, 54 people were selected as members of the analytical sample. The results showed that in the ‘prepare' stage of the curriculum renewal process at Shiraz University, the mean of element ‘identify graduate attributes', in the ‘explore' stage of the mentioned process , the mean of elements ‘ identify graduate attributes' and continually monitor and evaluate, in the ‘test &pilot' stage of the process, the mean of elements ‘ identify graduate attributes', ‘continually monitor and evaluate' and ‘implement program', and in the ‘integrate' stage of the process the mean of elements ‘identify graduate attributes', ‘ continually monitor and evaluate' and collaborate Internally and externally, were lower than the standard mean and were considered as some defects.
When we can make emphasis on recycling and processing materials, that enough energy and materials are not available. Rapid population growth and excess urban development are a significant cause of the destruction of the environment and natural resources. To achieve sustainable development, the human need to manage the waste. One way to manage waste can be done through environmental education; of course, this possibility depends on a positive attitude in this regard. This is applied research. The semi-experimental research method was employed in this study, which was carried out using a pretest-posttest design involving control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of girls and boys in the sixth grade of two elementary schools, and a prepared questionnaire was employed as the tool for measuring the students' environmental attitude and behavior concerning the methods for less waste production, reuse, and recycling before and after the education program. The related experts and its reliability confirmed the validity of the questionnaire by Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.8. The students were taught topics on resources available in the world, the scarcity of these resources, and the methods for less waste production, reuse, and recycling. The obtained data was analyzed for the independent groups using Levene's test and T-test. Results indicated that there is a significant difference between the girls and boys' mean environmental attitude and behavior concerning less using and less waste production, reuse and recycling waste before and after the education program. Overall attitude and behavior levels of the girls and boys concerning the taught subjects increased after the education program. However, the environmental attitude and behavior level of the boys in this regard increased more compared to the girls.
Energy literacy is essential in decisions related to energy and energy application in our daily lives, and various levels of knowledge and awareness about energy can affect on the activities and personal and social decisions. The aim of this study is investigating energy literacy of the middle school students. The research method is descriptive-survey. The study population consisted of all male and female middle school students in the city of Orumiyeh (35835). This study applied random cluster sampling. According to Morgan and Krejcie table (1970), a sample of 380 subjects (199 boys and 181 girls) were selected from among all students in Urmia city. The data collection tool is the energy literacy questionnaire provided by DeWaters, Graham and Powers (2013) that professors and experts have confirmed its validity. Cronbach's alpha established the reliability of questionnaire and obtained in the three domains of cognitive, affective and behavioral respectively, 0.71, 0.75 and 0.76. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using independent samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results of the survey questions indicated that the cognitive scores of students were lower than the affective and behavioral scores. Findings also indicate that relationship between cognitive-affective aspects and affective -behavioral aspects was positive and significant, but the relationship between the cognitive-behavioral aspects was not significant. Evaluate the performance of students based on age and gender showed that girls and boys in cognitive scores were significantly different, but there was no significant difference between genders in affect and behavior. The difference between the average scores of Seventh and eighth grades, eighth and ninth grades were significant. Eighth-grade students had better performance than seventh and eighth grades.
The predecessors were very careful in dealing with the environment when trying to meet their needs. Without inflicting any harm on the environment, they utilized best out of the least possible in the environment. In the past, the architecture practiced in Iran made use of all that the surrounding environment and climate capacities. In doing so, architecture never weak or wreck the structure and the nature of environment, but its purpose was to consolidate the surrounding environment. Being acquainted with the natural, economic, social, and other capacities of a region enables the tourism planner to come up with a sustainable tourism development for the region based on its current status and potential. This paper was an attempt to study Larestan’s b-Anb rsand examine their potential impact on the development of tourism in Larestan County by drawing a connection between the principles and elements of sustainability with the architecture of these b-Anb rs. Accordingly, the present research, using a comparative research method, aimed at comparing the principles of sustainable and compatible, with the environment, architecture with the structure of b-Anb rs.The results indicated that the climate of Larestan County had an underlying influence through a historical process on the quality and construction of b-Anb rs. Both in the construction and use of b-Anb rs, special attention must have been paid to the principles of sustainable architecture such as energy conservation, climate compatibility, reducing the use of new resources and materials, meeting the needs of the locals, being in harmony with the environment and the site of construction, holism, and the protection of residential areas against the atmospheric agents. Using accessible and native methods, optimal use had been made of the atmospheric agents. In this regard, Larestan are the real examples of adaptation to the climatic conditions and factors. Far from causing any damage to the environment, the architecture of these water reservoirs is compatible with the environment and is actually devised in a fashion to protect it. Larestan, despite its enormous potential and capabilities as regards tourism, it has not yet found its true place in Iran’s promising tourism industry. With respect to this dormant source of tourism, both the central government and people in the region should pay more attention to restoring and using these water storage facilities.