پژوهش های فلسفی

پژوهش های فلسفی

پژوهش های فلسفی زمستان 1402 شماره 45 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

The Objectivity of Science(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Objectivity reality truth Method relativism pluralism Realism

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تعداد بازدید : 250 تعداد دانلود : 185
The idea that science is objective, or able to achieve objectivity, is in large part responsible for the role that science plays within society. But what is objectivity? The idea of objectivity is ambiguous. This paper distinguishes between three basic forms of objectivity. The first form of objectivity is ontological objectivity: the world as it is in itself does not depend upon what we think about it; it is independent of human thought, language, conceptual activity or experience. The second form of objectivity is the objectivity of truth: truth does not depend upon what we believe or justifiably believe; truth depends upon the way reality itself is. The third form of objectivity is epistemic objectivity: this form of objectivity resides in the scientific method which ensures that subjective factors are excluded, and only epistemically relevant factors play a role in scientific inquiry. The paper considers two problems that arise for the notion of epistemic objectivity: the theory-dependence of observation and the variability of the methods of science. It is argued that the use of shared standard procedures ensures the objectivity of observation despite theory-dependence. It is argued that the variability of methods need not lead to an epistemic relativism about science. The paper concludes with the realist suggestion that the best explanation of the success of the sciences is that the methods employed in the sciences are highly reliable truth-conducive tools of inquiry. The objectivity of the methods of the sciences leads to the objective truth about the objective world.
۲.

Fichte’s Role in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit, Chapter 4(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Hegel Fichte lord-bondsman dialectic recognition Self-consciousness

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تعداد بازدید : 970 تعداد دانلود : 134
In this paper I return to the familiar territory of the Lord-Bondsman "dialectic" in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit in order to raise the question of the relation of Hegel's use of the theme of recognition there to Fichte's. Fichte had introduced the notion of recognition in his Foundations of Natural Right , to "deduce" the social existence of humans within relations of mutual recognition as a necessary condition of their very self-consciousness. However, there it also functioned as part of a solution to a problem within the work on which the theory of rights was meant to be based, the earlier Foundation of the Complete Wissenschaftslehre of 1794-5. In Hegel's classic account in chapter 4 of the Phenomenology we find recognition offered as a solution to a problem within an account of "self-consciousness" that has a number of clearly Fichtean features. But I suggest that to the degree that the lord-bondsman episode there expresses any "theory of recognition", it is not Hegel’s own theory but rather his interpretation of Fichte's , a theory of which he is critical. Freed from this misleading assumption that the "lord-bondsman dialectic" represents something deep about Hegel's own philosophy, we might then be more able to get clearer about Hegel's actual views about recognition and the role it plays in his own philosophy.
۳.

What a World! The Pluralistic Universe of Innocent Realism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: metaphysics existence vs reality Innocent Realism the world mindedness virtual reality

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تعداد بازدید : 720 تعداد دانلود : 209
The method of metaphysics: Metaphysics is empirical but depends not, like the sciences, on recondite experience but on close attention to aspects of everyday experience we ordinarily scarcely notice. "Real" is a broader concept than "exists" (which applies only to particulars) and also applies to phenomena, kinds, and laws, which are real, but not, of course, existent entities. But "there are real kinds, laws, etc." doesn't imply that all the kinds and laws we believe are real, are. I call my approach "Innocent Realism" because--though it's certainly not naive--it requires attending to experience, so far as possible, without substantial preconceptions. There is one real world, enormously varied but also integrated. It includes physical stuff, kinds, laws, etc. and, here on earth, a vast array of human artifacts, physical, social, intellectual, and imaginative, all intimately interconnected. All this requires human mindedness (a better word than "mind" because it doesn't suggest that human mentality is an organ like the heart or the liver). Rather, it's a complex congeries of dispositions and abilities: to understand even such a relatively simple thing as what's involved in someone's believing something, we need to take account of the person's dispositions to behavior, verbal and otherwise; to the neurophysiological realizations of these dispositions; and to their connections to the world and to words in the person's linguistic community--this last requiring other people's words-world connection. "Virtual" reality is just one more computer artifact, clever, no doubt, but not metaphysically startling. It's oversold, but this is advertising hype, not serious metaphysics.
۴.

Rewriting Heidegger(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: rewriting Phenomenology Zeitlichkeit Terminology ethics

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تعداد بازدید : 400 تعداد دانلود : 380
Two traps currently ensnare Heideggerian scholarship: the “language trap” and the “being trap”. To avoid them, the text argues we should follow Heidegger’s important indication that movement (aka ex-sistential becoming or Zeit ) determines all forms of meaning (aka the significance of things or Sein). This requires a radical rewriting of the terminology and the structure of Zeitlichkeit in § 65 of Sein und Zeit . The text also argues for moving beyond Heidegger’s early and late formulations of fundamental ontology and into a meta- ontological ethics that would apply to the economic, social, and political worlds in which we live our daily lives.
۵.

On the Univocity of Rawls’s Difference Principle(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Utilitarianism Maximin leximin difference principle

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تعداد بازدید : 340 تعداد دانلود : 778
A double ambiguity has been charged against Rawls’s difference principle (DP). Is it Maximin, Leximin, or something else? Usually, following A. Sen, scholars identify DP with the so-called Leximin. One argues here that one has to distinguish 1° the Leximin, 2° the Maximin (as rule of justice formally analogous to the maximin rule of decision), represented by the figure in L of the perfectly substitutable goods, and 3° the genuine DP. When the augmentation of inequality benefits the worse off, only Pareto-strong improvements are permitted. Leximin would also permit Pareto-weak improvements too (after the first maximum D), where only the richest improves: from (2, 3) to (2, 5), say. This is forbidden by DP. With two classes, unlike Maximin, DP has no curve of indifference and is always decisive, as Leximin is. For undecisive Rules of Justice, which admit indifferent curves, I propose to add a lexically secondary rule, to break ties. That move is able to clarify the links and the differences between on the one hand Maximin alone, with its typical indifference curves in L, and on the other hand, the DP properly understood and the Leximin, which both have no indifferent curves. With two classes of persons (best off/worse off), DP appears more egalitarian than Leximin, because it's secondary rule is MinIn (Minimization of Inequality). But the intuition behind the distinction is that it cannot possible “fair” that only the best off improves in a productive social cooperation. 
۶.

Image, Time, and Photography Based on Heidegger’s Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Image Time Synthesis schema photography

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تعداد بازدید : 148 تعداد دانلود : 642
In Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics (KPM), Heidegger shows how the initial image-making power of the imagination is pictorial in the pure image of time. He further clarifies the recognized link between the syntheses and the time-visualizing power of images which is pictorial formative power, which can visualize time. The three syntheses of imagination are replaced with the modes of existence of Dasein. Three kinds of photographs resemble the images produced when the transcendental imagination functions as Dasein. We can address the ways to visualize time by considering Dasein with a photographic preoccupation through 1. A possible look in the form of presentation (a photograph shows an immediate look of a house or person as intuitable this-here); 2. An immediate look of the thing, house, or deceased person, as well as a copy or its reproduction as a death mask; and, 3. The manner of contemplation of a likeness is an immediate look of a being present in the form of representation.
۷.

Philosophical-Psychological Approach to Culture and Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: philosophical culture Education Psychological approach

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تعداد بازدید : 571 تعداد دانلود : 552
Education is a continually developing activity, it shapes the way an individual develops their attitudes, thoughts and behavior. Education is not just about being literate but it is an overall development of the person in every aspect of their lives. A society's educational system can be greatly linked to its culture as the culture that one is in have an affect on the type of curriculum the institutions will develop in order to cater to every individual of that particular culture. Education moulds and shapes a society and it is influenced by the culture of the particular country or society. The educational system acts as a point of reference for the society's needs and demands. The principles that dominate this article is culture and education are interrelated and interconnected. Every educational paradigm is influenced by the culture of the society in which it operates. This essay underlines the extensive connection between culture and education. As a result, the goal of this essay is to depict these features from a Philosophical-Psychological Approach.
۸.

Ethics Based on Primacy of Existence (Aṣālat al-Wujūd) with a Focus on Mullā Sadrā's Primacy of Existence(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Mulla Sadra gradation Primacy of Existence Quiddity ethics

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تعداد بازدید : 157 تعداد دانلود : 404
This research endeavors to introduce a novel concept in ethics, namely ethics based on the primacy of existence, drawing upon Aṣālat al-wujūd , the theory of the primacy of existence in ontology. Mullā Sadrā's philosophy, which has three basic tenets—the primacy of existence, substantial motion (Ḥarakat-i Juharī), and gradation in existence (Tashkīk-i wujūd)—is the basis for this doctrine. The primacy of existence holds that quiddity is a mental construct and that existence is fundamental. The writers distinguished between two conceptions of ethics in this regard: one based on existence and the other on quiddity. Human quiddity is fixed and does not grade, hence ethics based on quiddity's primacy will always be fixed and the same for every individual. Moral obligations are universal and shared by all individuals. On the other hand, moral obligations for humans might vary depending on their existential status, according to ethics grounded in the primacy of existence. Moral oughts and ought nots are established by human existential grades in this ethics. This ethical model is flexible and dynamic.
۹.

The Deficits of Scientific Scepticism: Revisiting the Higher Values of Contextualistic Pluralism in Justification of Truth and Knowledge Claims(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: scientific scepticism Knowledge Empirical contextualistic pluralism truth

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تعداد بازدید : 302 تعداد دانلود : 642
Scientific scepticism, fundamentally, questions the veracity and epistemic value of claims not supported by scientific evidence. Motivated by the assumption that only the empirical investigation of reality leads to the truth, the scientific sceptics often maintain that only scientific method is best suited for this purpose. Claims found to be wanting in scientific evidence are considered untrue, and of little or no epistemic consequence. Using the analytical and critical methods, this paper interrogates this epistemic criterion of justification of scientific scepticism. It shows the inherent epistemic deficits in this criterion of the scientific sceptics, and how absolutizing its demands in such a manner as to undermine the veracity and epistemic significance of claims outside the mainstream discipline of science is not only to entrap themselves in many epistemic burdens, but also to sink under the unsavoury weight of criteriological egocentrism, detrimental to cognitive progress. As a credible alternative, this paper explores the epistemic fecundity of contextualistic pluralism – the pluralism of contextually underwritten cognitive positions – in truth and knowledge justification. It concludes with the relevance of this approach in epistemic justification as evident in its inclusive nature as well as its shift of the focus of philosophical thinking from identity to diversity in an interculturality society.  
۱۰.

“Everything is Full of Gods”; Theologia - Muthologia and the Beginning of the Ancient Greek Political Thought(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Homer Hesiod Ancient Greek political thought Ancient Greek poetry Eric Voegelin Greek mythology-theology

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تعداد بازدید : 597 تعداد دانلود : 687
The primary objective of this article is to elucidate that a comprehensive understanding of Greek political thought necessitates an examination of its origins in Ancient Greece. Traditional scholarship in Greek political thought has typically assumed that it originated concurrently with philosophy and the establishment of the polis. In this research, drawing upon the visions of Eric Voegelin and Leo Strauss, we endeavor to establish a refined definition of political thought while challenging the aforementioned conventional assumption. It is argued that political reflection remains intimately intertwined with the theological-mythological beginning of thought in Greece. This theological-mythological mode of thinking initially found expression in the works of Homer and Hesiod, with these poets serving as the foremost intellectual authorities and initial educators of the Greeks. The Greeks, in their self-perception, viewed themselves through a lens of religion and in the mirror of gods and divine forces. Consequently, any exploration into Greek political thought must acknowledge the works of these poets as the seminal intellectual foundations of Greek thought. It is imperative to recognize that political thought in Ancient Greece did not commence with philosophy or the emergence of the polis, but rather with poetry and a distinct form of religious-mythical experience, namely theologia-muthologia. 
۱۱.

A Review of the Theory of "The Spirit of Meaning" with Emphasis on Al-Ghazali's Point of View(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: words hermeneutic interpretation spirit of meaning Al Ghazali Ibn Arabi

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تعداد بازدید : 457 تعداد دانلود : 362
Considering the fact that the words in the intra-religious attitude are considered in two ways, the first is towards jurisprudential words and the second is a rational and conceptual view focusing on their meanings. we have tried to deal with one of the most important issues of intra-religious attitude with a rational approach by descriptive and analytical method, which is the category of "hermeneutic interpretation" of words, especially the most influential idea of interpretation & that is the view of the "spirit of meaning" of Ghazali. After Ghazali, Ibn Arabi used this theory of Ghazali regarding the development of meaning in creating his new idea, and by re-reading Ghazali's idea with a mystical approach, he presented his own theory regarding the expansion of meaning. While accepting the argument of the focal point of the theory of the spirit of meaning, he removes it from the exclusivity to the "linear", and for this purpose, he brought up arguments as well as the Conditions of Hermeneutic Interpretation in this regard. Ibn Arabi's arguments on transversal interpretation include new formulations in the argument, which after him, this theory was favored and accepted by Mulla Sadra, and then it was accepted by his students.
۱۲.

An Evaluation of Kant’s Transcendental Idealism Using the Inversion Theory of Truth(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: inversion theory of truth Active Subjectivism essential falsehood representational inexactitude falsifiability transcendental idealism Categorical Imperative

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تعداد بازدید : 144 تعداد دانلود : 924
This paper examines the work of Immanuel Kant in the light of a new theory on the nature of truth, knowledge and falsehood (the Inversion Theory of Truth). Kant’s idea that knowledge could be absolutely certain, and that its truth must correspond with reality, is discredited by a dissection of the Correspondence Theory of Truth. This examination of the nature of truth, as well as knowledge and falsehood, is conducted with reference to Sir Karl Popper’s writings on regulative ideas, the criterion of demarcation and the principle of falsifiability. It is argued that if truth is to be regarded as certain, it should be used to describe objects and events in the objective (noumenal) state, and that subjective knowledge must contain (and is improved by) falsehood. Perceptions and knowledge are obtained by the biological and evolutionary process of Active Subjectivism. Ideas we have knowledge of can be metaphysical or scientific, according to Popper’s Criterion of Demarcation. Kant’s “Copernican revolution” claim that our intellect imposes absolutely true laws on nature could not allow for the possibility that ideas might be constructed from fallible perceptions, and hence that all knowledge is uncertain. Instead, he developed a Critique of Practical Reason in which religion, though not provable through logical reasoning, could be proved by our innate moral sense, giving us a Categorical Imperative that could lead to perverse results. By rejecting the absolute certainty of a priori knowledge, and admitting a degree of essential falsehood, we arrive at a more reasonable grounding for moral behavior.
۱۳.

Analytical Study of the Role of the Industry of Religion of Ibn Khaldun, Discipline and Technology of the Self of Foucault in Power Domination(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Ibn Khaldūn Michel Foucault Power Asabiyyah industry of religion domination

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تعداد بازدید : 659 تعداد دانلود : 240
In some point of view, neither Michel Foucault nor Ibn Khaldun are considered philosophers in the conventional classifications, but both are very  important in intellectual and, of course, in philosophical contexts, especially for those who are interested in the deep study of human life from the perspective of political thought.The main concern of two thinkers, one in the 14 th century, the other in the 20th century, is the issue  of power, although neither of them provided a precise definition of it. In this article, an attempt has been made to show the place of power and domination in the political thought of both thinkers by examining the thoughts of two thinkers. And in search of an answer to this question, how did Asabiyyah and industry of religion in Ibn Khaldun's thought and social control through self-technology and discipline in Foucault's thought lead to the expansion of the domination of power? This article is written by analytically comparing the opinions of two thinkers based on Ibn Khaldun's most important book called Muqaddimah and Foucault's late works
۱۴.

A Dialectic Approach to the Conception of Beauty and the Natural Aesthetics: an interdisciplinary perspective in focus(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Natural Phenomenon Aesthetics Mental Conception dialectic Literature/ art Aesthetic Geotouring

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تعداد بازدید : 984 تعداد دانلود : 405
Nature has aesthetics of its own, what can provoke the human mind into better recognizing the concept of beauty via mental perception. As such, human mind can interact with the nonverbal expressions of nature only to better his/her primitive aesthetic knowledge and reach a more novel recognition of aestheticism via the practice of interpretative deduction. This article has been the result of a series of discussions and dialogues between the authors on the nature of aesthetic geotouring and exploring the natural phenomena based on the Dialectical Method of Socrates and modelled after the Platonic dialogues. The outcome of this dialectic study brings to light the fact that touring in nature through providing the due opportunity for mental perception of aesthetic phenomena can provide a clearer definition of ‘beauty’ in its rich variety. Aesthetic search as such will culminate in forming a more illuminated mental concept of beauty in mind, what can influence human rationale for aesthetic judgment and enrich even more the texture of human aesthetic creation. Such aesthetico-interpretative endeavor might lead to a higher potential for creating more original works of literature and art and culminate in a better judgment about such aesthetic creations.        
۱۵.

Memory as a Mass-Based Graph: Towards a Conceptual Framework for the Simulation Model of Human Memory in Al(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: human memory computational model Dynamic simulation mass-based graph LEARNING

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تعداد بازدید : 400 تعداد دانلود : 531
There are two approaches for simulating memory as well as learning in artificial intelligence; the functionalistic approach and the cognitive approach. The necessary condition to put the second approach into account is to provide a model of brain activity that contains a quite good congruence with observational facts such as mistakes and forgotten experiences. Given that human memory has a solid core that includes the components of our identity, our family and our hometown, the major and determinative events of our lives, and the countless repeated and accepted facts of our culture, the more we go to the peripheral spots the data becomes flimsier and more easily exposed to oblivion. It was essential to propose a model in which the topographical differences are quite distinguishable. In our proposed model, we have translated this topographical situation into quantities, which are attributed to the nodes. The result is an edge-weighted graph with mass-based values on the nodes which demonstrates the importance of each atomic proposition, as a truth, for an intelligent being. Furthermore, it dynamically develops and modifies, and in successive phases, it changes the mass of the nodes and weight of the edges depending on gathered inputs from the environment.
۱۶.

Beyond Metanarratives and Universal Ideologies: Exploring Postmodernist Educational Concepts for Autonomy in Iranian EFL Context(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: learner autonomy autonomy Modernism Postmodernism Paradigm Postmodernism

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تعداد بازدید : 747 تعداد دانلود : 907
Postmodernism represents skepticism toward metanarratives and universal ideologies that dominated the modernist era. The study focuses on three key postmodernist concepts - alternative assessment, process syllabi, and self-directed learning. Alternative assessment emphasizes evaluating the learning process over summative testing. Process syllabi focus on the learning experience rather than rigid outcomes. Self-directed learning enables student responsibility in setting learning goals and processes. This paper examined the effects of postmodernist educational concepts on improving Iranian EFL learners’ autonomy. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design was utilized with 60 intermediate level Iranian EFL students divided into an experimental and control group (n=30 each). The experimental group received instruction utilizing the three postmodernist concepts over 14 weeks, while the control group received traditional modernist instruction. Autonomy was measured using a validated questionnaire before and after the intervention. The results showed the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in autonomy compared to the control group. Paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between pre-test and post-test autonomy for the experimental group across all three postmodern concepts - alternative assessment, process syllabi, and self-directed learning. This suggests postmodernist concepts that decentralize instruction and emphasize student process over outcomes can enhance Iranian EFL learners’ self-direction and responsibility for language acquisition. The study implies EFL syllabus designers and instruction should transition to postmodern models centered on individualized assessment, flexible syllabi, and student-guided learning to boost autonomy. Further research can expand sample sizes and explore additional postmodernist concepts across diverse demographics.
۱۷.

Rethinking The Lockean Approach to The Problem of Personal Identity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Consciousness Person Self Identity Personal Identity

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تعداد بازدید : 997 تعداد دانلود : 328
The problem of personal identity among others may stem from the following question—what does be the person that you are, from one day to the next, necessarily consist of? The diachronic problem of personal identity raises question on the necessary and sufficient conditions for the identity of the person over time. The synchronic problem is grounded in the question of what features or traits characterize a given person at one time. To answer these questions, John Locke discarded the soul and the body as necessary and sufficient substances for personal identity over time. He accepted consciousness as the only criterion for personal identity; the only thing capable of remaining the same and preserving personal identity through change. Though Locke’s argument is somewhat clear and coherent but what remains vague and incoherent is embedded in the question—what exactly is consciousness? How and why should it be the basis or criterion for the determination of personal identity? Using the method of critical analysis, I argue that Locke’s choice of consciousness as the determinant of personal identity, though quite novel, is incoherent and vague. Secondly, Locke had already presumed and anticipated clearly though fallaciously the very thing he wishes to substantiate. I therefore conclude that Locke’s argument is just another way of trying to escape but inadvertently prolonging the difficulty of apparently articulating a distinction between the psychological approach and physiological approach to the problem of personal identity. However, in my submission, I propose the concept of the “other” as alternative approach— a sort of an extrinsic-intrinsic approach to the problem of personal identity.
۱۸.

The Dēnkard VI: ‘Consequentialism’ and ‘Capitalism’ as Well as Paymān (The ancient Iranian ‘golden mean’)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: The Dēnkard VI paymān consequentialism the golden mean Capitalism

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تعداد بازدید : 387 تعداد دانلود : 202
Dēnkard  (Acts of the religion), written in Pahlavi, is a summary of 10th-century knowledge of the Mazdean religion and is described by Jean de Menasce on the title page of his translation as a ‘Mazdean encyclopedia.’ The  Dēnkard  VI (Book VI of the  Dēnkard ) is representative of late antique and early medieval Zoroastrian ethical ideas. This article analyzes Book VI of the  Dēnkard  based on modern moral philosophy and introduces it as a candidate for early consequentialism and capitalism. The first generation of Iranian studies scholars in the late 19 th  and early 20 th  centuries such as Buch, Darmesteter, and Menant were aware of these concepts and even explained some of them, but the next generation did not take them seriously. This article also analyzes paymān (the ‘right measure’), that is the ancient Iranian ‘golden mean,’ in Book VI of the  Dēnkard  and shows the similarities and differences between  paymān  and the Aristotelian ‘golden mean.’ Probably, due to the biblical tradition in the interpretation of ancient religious texts or the anti-utilitarianism and anti-capitalism atmosphere in the second half of the 20 th  century, many scholars like Shaked inclined to the view that  paymān  is the main ethical principle of the  Dēnkard  VI and neglected its consequentialist and capitalist concepts. 
۱۹.

Transcending Otherness: Overcoming Obstacles in the Mystical Journey in Shabestarī’s Rose Garden of Mystery(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Shaykh Maḥmūd Shabestarī Golshan-e Rāz Sufism Spiritual journey Transcendence of Otherness Divine Unity

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تعداد بازدید : 955 تعداد دانلود : 317
This study explores the distinguished Persian Sufi mystic Shaykh Maḥmūd Shabestarī’s Golshan-e Rāz, or The Rose Garden of Mystery . Adopting a hermeneutic approach, it scrutinizes the intricate spiritual journey towards divine realization delineated in Shabestarī’s poetry, utilizing qualitative content analysis of original texts and interpretations by scholars such as Lāhījī and Ibn Turka Iṣfahānī. The main question the paper addresses is this: “How can the spiritual journeyer overcome obstacles—particularly ‘otherness’—and achieve unity with the divine Essence within the framework of Islamic mysticism, as interpreted through Shabestarī’s teachings in Golshan-e Rāz ?” To answer this inquiry, the paper addresses pivotal questions concerning Shabestarī’s depiction of the spiritual journeyer’s path, its stages and challenges, and the critical role of the human form in divine manifestation. The study underscores the necessity of overcoming duality and distinction, alluding to the transformative nature of the journey that necessitates self-purification and the cessation of otherness. Findings from this study provide an enriched understanding of Shabestarī’s thought, contributing to the discourse on Islamic metaphysics. It presents valuable insights into the spiritual journeyer’s path, offering a comprehensive interpretation of the challenges, practices, and transformative experiences leading to divine realization and unity.
۲۰.

Fardid and Nasr on the Confrontation of Western World(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: traditionalism Western world Seyyed Ahmad Fardid Seyyed Hossein Nasr

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تعداد بازدید : 457 تعداد دانلود : 806
Regarding the way of facing the West and modernity, Ahmed Fardid is among the thinkers who, by adopting a philosophical and judgmental approach, rejects modernity, philosophy, and western civilization in its entirety. Fardid considers modernity and the West to have an inherent crisis and considers any attempt to patch up modernity with Eastern religions or cultures futile. Fardid, who is the creator of the word “ Gharbzadegi (Westoxification)”, considers human sciences and Western civilization to be nothing more than the inciting soul vanities and blasphemy. By adopting an essentialist and negative approach towards the modern world, he calls for a complete break from the subjectivism and humanism associated with the modern world and a return to Islamic-oriented philosophy (Hekmat-e Onsi). Seyyed Hossein Nasr, as a traditionalist thinker, rejects Western civilization and modernity as a unified whole. He wants to incorporate modern science and reason and take perennial philosophy. In this paper, via a comparative analysis method, this hypothesis is examined that although Fardid and Nasr are sympathizers in the complete negation and rejection of the modern world, Fardid confronts modernity and its consequent subjectivism using Heidegger’s western thought. This is when Nasr confronts modernity from the perspective of a traditionalist thinker who believes in the foundations of tradition. Nasr considers the return to the perennial philosophy to solve confronting the Western world and modernity, but Fardid faced with the modern world, emphasizes that although modernity is the exposure of self-fulfillment, one must strive to overcome it. It is difficult to return to the past.
۲۱.

Commonalities of the Abrahamic Religions in the Worldview of Science: Metaphysical Presuppositions of Science(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Abrahamic religions science worldview Metaphysical presuppositions

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تعداد بازدید : 593 تعداد دانلود : 405
The Abrahamic religions include the three monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All of these religions consider Abraham as their ancestor, and they consider science to be the knowledge of the universe and humanity, which are divine revelations. The framework of science in the Abrahamic religions uses three basic concepts: 1) monotheism (as a fundamental principle, a single and all-encompassing Divine vision) 2) the universe (as a divine creation) 3) science (as an all-encompassing knowledge about the world as the sign of God). The purpose of writing this paper is to find the common principles governing science among Abrahamic religions, using a descriptive-analytical method based on library sources. The results of this research is an intellectual attempt to draw on the commonalities between various Abrahamic religions in the areas of constructive dialogue in the field of globalization, based on revelatory and spiritual teachings, to achieve the unification of the world, which is one of the divine promises and is rooted in the natural foundations of humanity. 
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Beyond the Bodily View and Psychological View of Human Beings: Human Beings are Rational Animals(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Animalism psychological view hylomorphism Persistence Identity

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تعداد بازدید : 601 تعداد دانلود : 452
We are... So, to reframe the inquiry: who are we on a metaphysical level? Which aspects of ourselves are the most universally representative of who we are? How do we fare in the face of the passage of time? For decades, philosophers have debated the concept of diachronic personal identity, which focuses on the question of what keeps us alive. An intricate debate has developed between those who hold the body view (animalism) and those who hold the psychological view (memory) on the question of who we are. The two groups will eventually become so firmly set in their views that they will be unable to compromise. Hylomorphic animalism, or the view that humans are rational animals, living bodies made of prime matter and a rational soul, is an alternative answer to this divisive question that I propose in this study, following in the footsteps of Aristotle and Aquinas. We only survive if matter and rational souls do.
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The Philosophy of Teacher Immunity: EFL Teachers’ Perspectives(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: EFL Teachers teacher education teacher factors teacher immunity philosophy

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تعداد بازدید : 134 تعداد دانلود : 234
Teacher factors encompass the teachers’ cognitive and affective characteristics that are likely to affect their instructional efficacy. Language teacher immunity is one of the affective factors that determines the teachers’ psychological well-being in their settings. The present study strived to itemize the factors in novice and experienced EFL instructors’ teacher immunity philosophy. To this end, first, the researchers used convenience sampling for selecting 62 EFL teachers including 38 novice and 24 experienced teachers at ten prominent language institutes in Tabriz (Iran) as the participants. Second, they conducted 30-minute interviews with the participants for determining the factors that influenced their TI philosophy using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview protocol. Lastly, they used thematic analysis in order to particularize the main factors in their teacher immunity philosophy. The findings of the study indicated that while the novice teachers considered external support as the main factor in their philosophy, the experienced teachers regarded their internal strength as the decisive factor that influenced their teacher immunity philosophy. The findings may have practical implications for teacher education courses in foreign language contexts.
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Flourishing and Essential Capacities(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Flourishing human good essential capacities conflicting theories of universal terms Basic needs Meaningful Work consequentialism the capabilities approach

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تعداد بازدید : 804 تعداد دانلود : 555
I have previously argued that human flourishing partly consists in the ability to exercise essential human capacities, many of which are non-distinctive and shared with other animals. The concept of flourishing is itself species-specific. Thus, the development of essential capacities (human and nonhuman) comprises a large part of the goods that we ought to promote. Problems about the definition of ‘essential’ are discussed, as are related issues about whether there are necessary and sufficient conditions for the correct use of sortal universal terms. The relation of the exercise of essential capacities to basic needs is investigated, and the essential nature of the human capacity for meaningful work, which has been disputed by John White, is defended. Finally, some suggestions are offered about what the proponents of the capabilities approach might derive from that of essential capacities.

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