پژوهش های فلسفی

پژوهش های فلسفی

پژوهش های فلسفی پاییز 1400 شماره 36 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

Scientistic Philosophy, No; Scientific Philosophy, Yes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۱ تعداد دانلود : ۷۴
If successful scientific inquiry is to be possible, there must be a world that is independent of how we believe it to be, and in which there are kinds and laws; and we must have the sensory apparatus to perceive particular things and events, and the capacity to represent them, to form generalized explanatory conjectures, and check how these conjectures stand up to further experience. Whether these preconditions are met is not a question the sciences can answer; it is specifically philosophical. This is why the myriad forms of scientistic philosophy in vogue today (neurophilosophy, experimental philosophy, naturalized metaphysics, evangelical-atheist reductionism, etc), are all hollow at the core. Does this mean we must return to the old, a priori analytic model? No! What is needed instead is scientific philosophy in the sense Peirce articulated more than a century ago: philosophy motivated by a genuine desire to discover the truth, and relying not solely on reason but also on experience—only not the special, recherché experience required by the sciences, but close attention to aspects of everyday experience so familiar we hardly notice them.
۲.

Philosophy, Science, Capitalism and Truth(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
Fascinated by the recent scientific progress, even some philosophers today claim that philosophy is dead and that natural sciences (quantum cosmology, cognitive sciences) can answer questions which were once considered a domain of metaphysics: is our universe finite? Do we have free will? etc. The essay tries to problematize this claims by raising a series of questions. First, it is easy to show that modern science itself relies on a series of philosophical propositions. Second, what accounts for the role of science in our world is its link with capitalism. Third, we should distinguish between knowledge and truth: not only philosophy, other discourses (like Marxism or psychoanalysis) also practice a notion of truth which cannot be reduced to knowledge.  
۳.

How to Complete Quantum Mechanics, or, What It’s Like to Be a Naturally Creative Bohmian Beable(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
In another essay, I’ve argued by means of a formal analogy between (i) the incompleteness of Principia Mathematica-style systems of mathematical logic (logico-mathematical incompleteness) and (ii) the incompleteness of the Standard Models in contemporary physics (physico-mechanical incompleteness), that (iii) just as the fact of logico-mathematical incompleteness entails the existence of mathematical creativity, so too the fact of physico-mechanical incompleteness entails the existence of natural creativity. Building on that line of thought, in this essay I present a new and empirically-testable strategy for completing quantum mechanics. More precisely, I argue that if we assume that the Standard Models in contemporary physics are incomplete, and if we also assume that all rational human animals are primitive sources of natural creativity via their free agency, then, by means of an appeal to Bohmian mechanics, together with the thesis that all rational human animals are primitive sources of natural creativity via their free agency, we can complete quantum mechanics.
۴.

The Interaction of Science and Philosophy in the Present Age Two Dutch Philosophers: Herman Philipse and Hans Achterhuis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
Herman Philipse considers “religious beliefs, faith and religion [to be] incompatible with science or reason”; he defines religion scientifically and specifically rejects religious doctrine. He describes reason “… as the whole of methods of empirical scientific research and critical discursive thinking as they have evolved in the scientific tradition and will continue to develop in the future” and he defines “… the phenomenon of conscience as a mental organ that can be scientifically explained and that makes the religious explanation superfluous …”. Herman Philipse classifies science as the highest in rank, discards religion and sees philosophy, a rational view of the world, as based solely on the sciences. For his subject, Hans Achterhuis “… primarily cites biologists, ethologists and evolutionary psychologists with a philosophical interest” because “they presently have more to offer [him] than do his immediate colleagues”. Furthermore, “… it will be clear that ethologists and sociobiologists are of the opinion that the violent behaviour of human beings must be understood in part from the point of view of the evolutionary history of the sort ….. most philosophers and anthropologists are not aware of this. Their considerations suggest that violence only entered our world together with humankind”. Achterhuis’s choice is a “historic concept of violence”.
۵.

From Physics to Metaphysics: Islamic Perspective and Contemporary Outlook(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۵۴
Before the advent of Modern Science, philosophy ruled over sciences. But, after the emergence of modern science, with the appearance of philosophers like Locke and Hume, empiricism which relied only on sense data became prevalent in most scientific circles. This was fortified by the advent of positivism of Aguste Comte which gave value only to the knowledge obtained from sensory experience. Thus, philosophy lost its status among scientists. But with the emergence of some schools of philosophy of science in the second half of the twentieth century, it became evident that all sciences are based on some general supra-scientific (metaphysical) principles. Then, some eminent physicists recognized the significant role of philosophy and several coalitions was formed between some eminent philosophers and physicists in several important universities of UK and USA, which has yielded fruitful results. With the revival of philosophy, religious studies, too, got momentum, and theists have used philosophical arguments to refute the challenges of atheists against theism.
۶.

Philosophical Reflections on New Foundations of Mental Health (The Personality Modulation Clinic)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۶۹ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴
To date, of essential goals in psychiatry and establishment of future medical centers is creating therapeutic environments with the aim of improving clinical outcomes, preventing the progression of personality difficulties to serious psychiatric disorders, increasing self-satisfaction in society, facilitating personal growth and actualization, as well as reducing high medical costs. In this regard, the Personality Modulation Clinic in 2016 in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences was established, with the aim of providing appropriate mental health services for clients who do not fulfill criteria for a specific mental disorder, in the traditional classifications; nevertheless, desiring to eliminate inner obstacles towards mental growth, self-actualization, spirituality and the proper well-being they lack. The services in this clinic provide clients with support in order to seek innovative growth opportunities within themselves, by removing inner obstacles towards personality development. These obstacles are roughly equivalent to the diagnosis of “personality difficulty” in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Moreover, the therapeutic foundation of this clinic is an emerging medical paradigm known as Cosmetic Psychiatry. At the beginning of any new scientific establishment, as usually happens, and was true for this clinic as well, the bond of philosophical concepts are unveiled, and this is the irreversible and undeniable link between science and philosophy. Thereby, important questions appeared, which were approached philosophically.
۷.

Philosophy of Science Meets the Scientific Research: Metatheorizing expertise theories in Cognitive Psychology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۷۰
An obvious feature of the development of the philosophy of science during the past decades is an increasing specialization and fragmentation that have led to reduced impact of philosophy of science outside the sphere of its own discipline. It seems that philosophy of science and scientific research are moving away from each other. The major question of this article is how can reconnect these two?To answer this question I will try to highlight some events especially in the fields of social sciences that researchers are involved in discussions, generally related to philosophy of science, not in an abstract and isolated way, but in a way that is completely intertwined in their research practices.  Unfortunately, this phenomenon has not been properly considered by philosophers of science and has remained more as a subject in the field of social sciences, specifically research methodology. It seems that if philosophy of science enters into dialogue with social sciences, we can expect the revival of the philosophy of general science. In this article, I try to show the signs of this phenomenon in cognitive psychology. I will first turn to one of the most influential theories in the cognitive sciences, expertise theory. After reviewing the important theories of expertise and their differences, in the next step I will discuss the seemingly opposing theories in this field and their efforts to find common ground. Then I will review the current movement in cognitive psychology, which I call the “integration model” stream. After a critical review and categorization of these models, I will show that in a broader view in social science, we can realize the meta-theoretical issues that are a good room for a dialogue between philosophy of science and scientific research. In the end, I will point out the horizons that this view opens to the revival of philosophy of general science.
۸.

A Study on Philosophical Intuition and Thought Experiment: Kripke's Critical encounter with Reductive Physicalism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
In philosophy, many reflections and categories were the result of intuition and thought experiments. Intuition is defined as direct, immediate, and non-inferential knowledge accompanied by a sense of certainty. The thought experiment has always been a source of new insights by imagining possible situations to demarcate concepts and revise common philosophical theories. Metaphysicians usually have consensus on the informativity of intuition, but in the analytical tradition, there are severe challenges in dealing with this type of knowledge. On the other hand, some contemporary philosophers believe that the thought experiment induce the unjustified and unacceptable results in the mind of audience. In this article, by referring to some aspects of Kripke's thought, we show that his use of intuition and thought experiments in his critique of radical physicalism is defensible. By distinguishing between fixing the referent of the mental state and the physical phenomenon, Kripke has been committed to the theory of property dualism, which is a critical approach to physicalism in the realm of philosophy of mind.
۹.

Coronavirus Crisis and Philosophizing(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۷۵ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱
The mind prepares for questioning during fundamental transformation in the course of human life. The Coronavirus Crisis brought about a fundamental change in human life that had not happened in the world for decades. In order to deal philosophically with this crisis, new questions must be hunted down. In this paper, I enumerate some of these challenges. Some of emerging questions from those challenges is explained. It is shown that their analysis causes philosophical creativity and in the face of them we will find the success of philosophizing. Some of these challenges is discussed in the following field of philosophy: phenomenological questions about Corona, the new challenges in philosophy of science, political challenges, moral philosophy and norms in ethics, philosophy of religion, the growth of existentialistic attitudes to human beings, highlighting the issue of the meaning of life and the need for a philosophical answer, Corona Crisis and globalization.
۱۰.

Psychology and Phenomenology in Merleau-Ponty(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
The purpose of this article is to examine the close connection between the science of psychology, especially Gestalt psychology, and phenomenology in the thinking of twentieth-century French philosopher and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. This philosopher established his own philosophy under the influence of significant advances in psychology on the one hand, and also under the influence of Husserl's phenomenology. Understanding the philosophy of this philosopher without understanding the close relationship between psychology and phenomenology, especially in the matter of the living body, will lead to a lot of misunderstanding in reading his views. In this article, we tried to show this close relationship in the thought of this thinker. We know, of course, that he criticized Husserl's phenomenology and Gestalt psychology, and argued that psychology fails to understand the nature of the human mind.
۱۱.

Foundations of Quantum Approaches to Consciousness(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۹ تعداد دانلود : ۹۹
As generally accepted, consciousness or mind and material brain are closely related to each other; but how? Quantum mechanics is a new pathway to understand the hard problem of consciousness and its relation to the brain. Consciousness has specific properties such as unity, irreducibility, non-locality, etc. The completely different features of classical physics (locality, reducibility, determinacy, etc.) hindered the success of scientists to study consciousness. But quantum mechanics with its features (non-locality, irreducibility, indeterminacy, etc.) gave scientists hope to study consciousness. Several quantum approaches to consciousness have been proposed in recent decades; the most important point about these approaches is that each one has used its own philosophy to determine its viewpoint about the mind’s nature and even its quantum approach. In general, all scientific theories are based on some metaphysical principles which come from the worldview of scientists. In this article four contemporary approaches are discussed: The Eccles-Beck, Stapp, Penrose-Hameroff, and Avicenna-Bohm theories; philosophical and scientific points are highlighted for each of them. Finally, the theory of Top-Down Causation is discussed because we think it can provide a fertile philosophical ground for theories of “mind-brain relation” and “quantum consciousness”.
۱۲.

German Idealism and the Origins of Pure Mathematics: Riemann, Dedekind, Cantor(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷
When it comes to the relation of modern mathematics and philosophy, most people tend to think of the three major schools of thought—i.e. logicism, formalism, and intuitionism—that emerged as profound researches on the foundations and nature of mathematics in the beginning of the 20th century and have shaped the dominant discourse of an autonomous discipline of analytic philosophy, generally known under the rubric of “philosophy of mathematics” since then. What has been completely disregarded by these philosophical attitudes, these foundational researches which seek to provide pure mathematics with a philosophically plausible justification by founding it on firm logico-philosophical bases, is that the genuine self-foundation of pure mathematics had been done before, namely during the 19th century, when it was developing into an entirely new and independent discipline as a concomitant of the continuous dissociation of mathematics from the physical world. This self-foundation of the 19th-century pure mathematics, however, was more akin to the German-idealist interpretations of Kant’s transcendental philosophy, than the post-factum, retrospective 20th-century researches on the foundations of mathematics. This article aims to demonstrate this neglected historical fact via delving into the philosophical inclinations of the three major founders of the 19th-century pure mathematics, Riemann, Dedekind and Cantor. Consequently, pure mathematics, with respect to its idealist origins, proves to be a formalization and idealization of certain activities specific to a self-conscious transcendental subjectivity.
۱۳.

When aesthetics does not lead to an act of environmental conservation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
This paper examines the relationship between the environmental aesthetics approach backed by knowledge (ecological aesthetics) and the possibility of doing an action in favor of environmental conservation. It seems that even having such an approach towards the environment fails to sufficiently motivate people to protect the environment and nature, since there is a tension between the course of daily life and scientifically supported environmental aesthetics. In order to explain such tension, we tend to examine and critique ecological aesthetics (which is in some respects overlapped with environmental ethics) from the viewpoint of the philosophy of Wittgenstein, particularly with reference to his later work including the concept of formal life. Based on this concept, ecological aesthetics can be criticized and examined on three grounds: First, aesthetics is not able to create understanding or appreciation that leads to action. Second, the ecological concept added to reinforce the aesthetics, cannot support aesthetics in this regard and can even make things worse; ecological aesthetics, in fact, diverts aesthetics from its purpose (the purpose with regards to the environment, which is to motivate people to preserve nature) by trying to give it a strong objectivity. Third, the role of ethics in its current form in environmental conservation cannot be an active role.
۱۴.

Realist Fiction as the Rightful Genre of our Time: Realist Fiction after the Postpositivist Intervention(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۶ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
Realist fiction, which had a pivotal place in 19th. Century literature, has lost its central position in the contemporary literary scene as modernism, postmodernism and poststructuralism have raised some serious challenges against it, advocating experimentalism in fiction, instead. Still, in our age, when globalization and capitalism breed different forms of marginalizations and injustices in societies, it is the realist fiction that better than any other form can depict the struggles and pains of these marginalized lives. Thus, realist fiction deserves to be considered a major genre of our time rather than a second-rater. This paper attempts to investigate into the present state of realist fiction in the literary scene, and it argues that, with the significant theoretical backing from the postpositivist realist critics, it can move toward reclaiming its position in literature today. Postpositivist realists base their defense of realist fiction on the notion that the representation of reality, identity and experience in realist fiction, in spite of being theory-mediated and affected by ideologies and discourses, is possible, as these objects of representation are real and important for being real. The paper maintains that the postpositivist support can favorably affect the present place of realist fiction. Still, the rightful realist fiction of our time, in tune with the developments in the theories of knowledge and fiction, unlike the 19th. century realist fiction, has patches of experimentalism, while keeping its realistic ethos, which further indicates that the contemporary fiction is the fiction of an era affected by postpositivist realist concepts.
۱۵.

Metaphysical Foundation of African Epistemology: A Study of the Afemai-Etsako of Edo State in Southern Nigeria(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
Truth and knowledge are essentially the dictates of some rationality or metaphysical ordainment. By sense experience man is capable of accounting for his past, contemplate his life and predict his future and all of reality, for traditional Africa, however (as is the case with most native societies), there is another mode of knowing beyond man’s immediate capacity in search of truth and reality. An analysis of this perception indicates that there is some metaphysical tinge to epistemology or knowledge claims—whether in the spheres of justice, morality/ethics, religion, political authority, prosperity, law, or ontology/world-view. Put on a plain pedestal: Isn’t there an African mode of knowing? By the study among the Afemai-Etsako of Southern Nigeria, this article tersely adumbrates the scope and nature of knowledge and discovers that, beside the common routes to it (experience and reason), the gamut of knowledge among the traditional Africans also have several metaphysical strands reducible to creative determinism, reactive interference, and representativeness in timing and naming.
۱۶.

The Rise of the "Other" and the Fall of the "Self": from Hegel to Derrida(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۴۴
Since time immemorial, due to its metaphysically grounded perspective, western philosophy has not been able to detach itself from the egoistic outlook, and thus, the interaction with the "other” had no role in this philosophy. The world has always been interpreted from the perspective of "self" ignoring the "other". Reviewing this mode of thought from Ancient Greece to Modern Age, one can reveal a kind of repression and forgetfulness of "alterity" and difference which Levinas has well highlighted in his philosophy. The very foundation of this egoism can be traced back to the Socratic slogan "know yourself”. In the same spirit, a kind of self-centered moral philosophy has been developed, the clear example of which is Kant's ethics. In line with Hegelian tradition of recognition, contemporary thinkers have redefined ethics and politics and acknowledged the constitutional dependence of the “self” on the "other." Based on the coordinates of their thought as well as the historical condition of their own time in the formation of subjectivity, these thinkers have criticized the neglect of the “other”. Hegel's role in underlining the importance of the vital status of the “other” is unique. Hegel bridges all post-Hegelian currents on the concept of “Other”. Then, in the present essay, we seek to show that since Hegel’s time up to Derrida, we have been witness to the rise of “Other” and the fall of “Self”.
۱۷.

The Relationship between Psychology and Phenomenology: an analysis based on Husserl’s views(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۷ تعداد دانلود : ۷۱
The relationship between an independent scientific discipline called psychology with phenomenology that presents the methodology and method together is an excuse for investigating the relationship between Husserl and Brentano’s thoughts. Although their relationship is come from different sources, according to Husserl’s main problem, end, and concern in confronting psychology, a researcher can find a good issue for research. Psychology and phenomenology bond together in favor of philosophy and seek a different intuition. Husserl keeps a type of psychology and uses it to achieve a philosophical attitude. The difference between Husserl and Brentano is both thematic and methodological, and of course, we can refer to the understanding of others and empathy that reduces the subjective aspect of the experience in Husserl’s phenomenology. Husserl goes to descriptive psychology with criticizing Brentano’s opinion about inner perception and also he criticizes Brentano's psychological reality that is the only appearance for him.  Husserl’s attempt for modifying descriptive psychology makes to provides practical and functional solutions for contemporary psychologists. Of course, he does not forget the distinctions between psychology and phenomenology in terms of issue and method but especially holds them together. The brief article wants to follow the relationship between psychology and phenomenology from its origin (Husserl’s phenomenology) to achieve this purpose, the data of research have been collected through the library method and internet search then they are described and analyzed to reveal the concomitance of psychology and phenomenology. They must come together in the interpretation of the word description.
۱۸.

The Seven Earths and Seven Heavens in the Light of Jung, Maslow and Hindu Psychology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳
The Holy Quran tells of Allah creating seven heavens and seven earths. These have been traditionally identified cosmologically with seven stars etc. or geographically with seven lands. We provide an alternative interpretation that these refer to seven centers in the spinal cord. Each center has a physical location and a psychic quality. Abraham Maslow has suggested that a human being evolves progressively through seven needs. We suggest this evolution refers to the consciousness of a person rising thorugh the seven centers in the spinal cord. Car G. Jung has commented on the Hindu understanding of these seven centers and endorsed that these have psychic qualities. We find that this understanding is consistent with the Quran. In particular, a Hadith tells of the area from the Prophet’s “throat to lower part of the abdomen” being washed. This is the location of the lower five of the seven psychic centers in the spine. The Hadith then goes on to tell that the Prophet ascended the seven heavens and met with Adam, Jesus and John, Joseph, Idris, Aaron, Moses and Abraham sequentially. In the seventh heaven He was shown Bait-al-Ma'mur or Allah's House which could indicate that his consciousness reached the crown center which is said to be the seat of “spiritual emancipation.”
۱۹.

Redefining Cartesian Reductionism in Biological Issues with Big Data, such as COVID-19 Worldwide Pandemic, Using Formalism based on the Intermediate Attitude of Rationalism and Empiricism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
Reduction is a concept first introduced by Descartes in explaining his view of the rationalization of philosophy through mathematics. He seeks to consider length, breadth, and depth for phenomena so that reducing the phenomenon to his own analytical geometric apparatus; thus shrinking the whole world into a small machine. In the present study, the authors took into account the deficiency in defining the reduction of phenomena to a mathematically sound system as the reason for a large group of problems and therefore they came to redefine the Cartesian reductionism of phenomena by removing the search space through a learning system. In due definition, it is possible to reduce the NP problems to P space without using a quantum algorithm that requires a quantum computer to exist. The present study points out that the problems arising from the mathematical modeling of the Covid-19 pandemic are due to a deficiency in the definition of Cartesian reduction, which leads to an increase in the computational complexity of its diagnosis and treatment using computational tools.
۲۰.

Aristotle on Ontological Pluralism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۶
Aristotle has repeatedly stated in his works that 'being has several senses'. Is this to be regarded as his pluralistic ontology, an approach that seems to be too nascent? If so, how can this newfound approach in ontology be linked to the ideas of the father of this science, i.e. Aristotle? These are the questions that the present article seeks to answer. First, we will show that Aristotle thinks of 'being' in four senses. Then, step by step he proceeds to leave different senses aside, insofar as only one sense remains: being in the sense of the figures of the categories. We argue, then, that it is better to found Aristotle's ontological pluralism upon the fourfold sorts, instead of the tenfold categories. We will provide some reasons for this preference, i.e. in defense of the fourfold sorts and against the tenfold categories. Each of these four modes of being will be discussed. Finally, a version of ontological pluralism will be provided and attributed to Aristotle: Sorting Version. According to this version of pluralism, we will demonstrate how Aristotle speaks of the ontologically fundamental structure of the world.
۲۱.

Explanation of Stephen Hawking’s fallacy of the Big Bang Theory and denial of the existence of God(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۵
Hawking emphasizes the big bang theory as a practical theory, thus answering the question of how the universe began. It has been emphasized by Stephan Hawking. He, according to this ideology has had various outcomes related to the concept of God and the beginning of existence. He believes that all of Universal Existence is comprised of Material, Energy, and Laws of Physics, eventually leading to the independence of a Metaphysical God's existence for creation of the universe. This logical-fallacy study is based on the hypothesis that the Big Bang theory cannot be positive about the existence or non-existence of God. The main issue is the possibility of replacing God in the big bang. Since Hawking's expression of such an argument is distorted by the fallacy of detailed composition or co-authorship, it lacks philosophical rationality from a philosophical point of view. The explanation of what Hawking’s -with inconsistent differences- has expressed about this topic sheds light on the big bang being termed as the starting point of the creation of the universe cannot be convincing. This article seeks to explore the argument for the Big Bang theory to prove the non-existence of God and to apply rationality and the laws of logic to achieve the designated goal.
۲۲.

The Power of Music for Farabi: A Case Study as to Gender(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
Abu Nasr Farabi focuses on influence of the music on emotions and emotional problems including extreme emotions and moods. But how effective is music in changing a specific emotional issue? This essay reports what is probably the first scientific study of the effect of music on a precise extreme mood. Using a randomized experiment, we measure how a music affects sexism. More specifically, the experiment measures the extent to which a piece of music that we have created weakens the belief among some Muslims that women are not as suitable as men for positions of chairmanship. We find that the music reduces sexism by 22.48 percent, compared to a control treatment that presents the same argument and story verbally. Results, moreover, indicate that prejudice against women is not an inherent feature of Islam and is rather a function of the descriptive beliefs that prevail in some Islamic societies regarding women’s capabilities.
۲۳.

Philosophical and Epistemological Foundations of Contextualism in Postmodern Urban design and architecture(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۸۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۱
In this essay I present a new and empirically-testable strategy for completing quantum mechanics. In recent decades, urban design and architecture disciplines witnessed plenty of theories and school development. Primarily, those disciplines are inspired by philosophical perspectives. Thus, it is required to have a good deal of perception on the philosophical roots. Contextualism theory and approach is considered one of the most important controversial approaches in urban design and architecture. The present study intends to elaborate contextualism and explicate its difference with other similar philosophical ideas. Subsequently, it tends to explain the epistemological and philosophical foundations of contextualism in postmodernism and Gestalt school and subsequently to elucidate its position in the postmodern art and specifically in postmodern urban design and architecture. Contextualism is an idea based on the epistemology that the meaning perceived from an epistemological sentence would differ according to the epistemological standards. The idea has three distinct uses in philosophical views, primarily, the truth condition of the sentences is come to be assessed; in the second use, the language meaning is dependent on the context. The paper indicates the first and second uses of contextualism are mostly seen in urban design and architecture contextualism theory.
۲۴.

The Position of Sense in Ibn Sina's Epistemology (The Empiricism of Avicenna)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵۷
Philosophers consider sense as a means for true cognition. In spite of the fact that Islamic philosophy are generally regarded as rational philosophy, it does not mean that they do not assume epistemological value for sense. To some of them, including Ibn Sina, sense is extremely important. In the present article, I argue that the role of sense in Ibn Sina's epistemological system is very significant although the I would not consider Ibn Sina  as an empiricist in the sense that Hume is in the Western philosophy. Rather, I consider Ibn Sina empiricism similar to  the theory of Locke. It is due to the fact that Ibn Sina considers the human mind as a tabula rasa with no actual data at the birth. It is believed that with sense the knowledge begins. In addition, in this study, by taking into the account of both empirical and rational criteria (in Ibn Sina's epistemological system), it is ultimately accentuated that in the most cases, Ibn Sina's tendency is found to be more toward empiricism. In another part of the paper, the role of sense in the realm of the concepts and affirmation (sensory and rational) is explained. It is concluded that sensory conceptions are the outcomes of sense. Other ideas (concepts) are mediated by sense; sensory affirmations immediately come from sense and in rational affirmations, sense plays a role as an introduction. In sum, this is the explanation of Ibn Sina's statement: "Whoever has no sense will have no knowledge"
۲۵.

Foucauldian Panopticism in Donald Barthelme’s “Subpoena”(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
Some of Donald Barthelme’s works have been undeniably influenced by Michel Foucault’s socio-political philosophy, however, few scholars have explored such concepts in his works, especially the theme of “panopticism.” The purpose of this article, which is library based, is to analyze and scrutinize the panoptic society of Barthelme’s “Subpoena” in the light of Foucauldian “panopticism” which is a segment of his more general concept of power. Keeping the Benthamite “Panopticon” in the back of his mind, Foucault outlines the “new physics of power” represented by “panopticism” as a modern or disciplinary power; he, then, draws our attention to its most important feature, i.e., the penetration into the most trivial and personal affairs of social subjects. It is worth mentioning that the basic characteristics of disciplinary power such as omnipresence, omniscience, and omnipotence can be discovered in panoptic society of “Subpoena.” In this society, there is always the possibility of resistance and rebellion because wherever power is found, resistance emerges as well, though, eventually, power prevails upon individuals. Barthelme creatively portrays a post-modern society in which disciplinary power, with its meticulous and permanent surveillance, on the one hand, has transformed the subjects into the men of modern humanism, and, on the other hand, has changed the traditional society into a panoptic one. Barthelme successfully finalizes the story with the message that modern society intends to make obedient and useful machines out of the subjects.
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Hegel's Absolute as Negativity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
The relation of the many and the one, difference and identity, multiplicity and unity, particularity and universality, and finally that of negativity and negativity of negativity through reason and history is the core of Hegelian Absolute which is still an inevitable philosophical source to deal with most of the contemporary ontological problems. The article’s claim consists of two parts: Absolute is internally a retrospective totality of the System, on the one hand, and it is intertwined with a prospective negativity in a reciprocal relationship, on the other hand. Therefore, Absolute would be an absolute totality and an ongoing openness to the future at the same time. This article explains how Hegel’s articulation of the absoluteness is still a challenging ontological problem since it would simultaneously include both totality and negativity.
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Khaqani’s Late Style: The Mada’in Qasida(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶
This article discusses Khaqani Shirvani’s poem Aivan-i Mada’in (The Mada’in Qasida), from the vantage points of literary history and the theory of ruins. The Mada’in Qasida is a product of Khaqani’s “late style” in multiple senses, including the meaning that Edward Said attached to the term when discussing Adorno and Beethoven. While offering a close reading of The Mada’in Qasida, I consider how Khaqani refashioned his poetic persona within a prophetic lineage and set forth the terms of his argument for poetry’s discursive authority. In the case of this poem, Khaqani used his late style to critique the injustice of rulers past and present.
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Tracing the Black Sun in the Derridean Khôral Mise en Abyme: elliptical reflections on the “word-space-flesh”(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۳۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۴
This paper reflects the inversion between the discourse on the Good and that on the khôra in view of the deconstructionist paradigm of the khôral mise en abyme as portrayed by Jacques Derrida and later elaborated on by John D. Caputo. Iddo Dickmann, further describing this paradigm as “lacunal”, schematically illustrates how it can create sameness in difference through reflective repetitions. This schema is used here in a Christian negative theological context and on the accounts of Incarnation and reincarnation to investigate the immanence khôra introduces into transcendence, rendering the Word/Logos as flesh. The present study takes a novel perspective in observing how this self-referential and meta-significatory paradigm can conversely render flesh as the Word, when flesh comes to reflect/interface the Good by negating itself ending up with the elliptical and creative contours that transcribe the Word, and outline a khôral negative-fleshly space that infinitely traces an abyssal “black sun”.

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