Haack articulates something of what she takes the moral demands of academic life to be, calling for such virtues as industry, honesty, realism, patience, and consideration. She then explains why she believes the current academic environment is sapping the strength of character these virtues require, and why graduate students are caught in the middle. She writes primarily about philosophy, but much of what she has to say applies to other humanities disciplines and much of that to other disciplines as well---and while she writes primarily about the U.S. situation, much of what she says applies elsewhere too.
From the Conflict of the Faculties to the Reconciliation of Knowledge and Nature at Kantian University and Its Lessons for Iran's Higher Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In the early works of the eighteenth-century German philosopher, Immanuel Kant, besides explaining the philosophical and metaphysical foundations of various sciences, has illustrated a comprehensive philosophical system and desirable metaphysical critique. In his later works, through emphasizing the concept of Nature and the growth of Reason, he has considered special and multifaceted responsibilities for the Education and the University. For him, the alignment of knowledge and Nature in the university is the main mission of this institution; a mission that is required by the Faculty of Philosophy in a legitimate conflict with the top three faculties of Theology, Law, and Medicine to bring them in line with the design of Nature. This effort, in fact, is a necessary condition for accomplishing the future metaphysics and attaining the unity of knowledge and a complete philosophical system. This article, apart from explaining the idea of "the unity of knowledge" and a model of the unity of knowledge and nature in the conflict of faculties, attempts to show the relationship of this model with the plan of a complete future philosophical and metaphysical system in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. In the following, the lessons of this approach have been considered, especially in the discussion of university independence for the reconstruction of Iran's higher education.
In this article, an attempt has been made to analyze the issue of time in education. First, to explore the nature of this concept, the distinction between the temporality of Being [Temporality] and the temporality of beings [temporality] which were distinguished by Heidegger, is discussed. Second, it’s indicated that the moment of vision is the authentic state of falling and one of the six temporal states. Considering the movie “Enemy at the Gates” this moment is explained the temporality of Being, preparations can be made for this moment in education. Third, it is argued that preparing for the moment of vision contradicts the elements of inauthentic education, i.e non-temporal goal and transcendence and speed- based orientation. finally, preparing for the moment of vison in education is a kind of lingering and soaking in the classical texts passing through the paths-experienced in encountering the texts. As a result, the moment of educational vision means time is no longer Newtonian-Aristotelian time. The mentioned moment, has fullness, and its fullness is caused by existentials and being-in-the-world of the learner and the teacher.
Philosophy of Islamic Education: environmental and behavioral pathology of children's religious education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study was conducted with the aim of environmental and behavioral pathology of religious education of children. The research method was descriptive and content analysis. Studies show that the foundation of religious education of children is closed in the family and children are the expression of parents' beliefs and behaviors and they are silent but effective teachers of children; Also, school and friends, as formal and informal spaces that complement their personality, are parallel to the phenomenon of cyberspace, environments whose characteristics have a significant impact on their inclination or non-inclination to religious issues; In the behavioral dimension, the findings indicate that harms such as: upbringing, humiliating behaviors, unjustified harshness and discrimination, etc. are among the incorrect methods that can be inflicted on children by those around them. Suggestions: Promoting media literacy of families, raising children's values, creating a bridge between family and school, paying serious attention to attracting committed people and taking care of the expansion without supervision of non-profit schools.
An Investigation into Teachers’ Perception of (Postmodern) Postmethod Pedagogy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This study investigates into teachers’ perceptions in order to find out whether they are thinking beyond the concept of method. Specifically speaking, the underlying goal is to diagnose whether teachers are context sensitive and are aware of the uniqueness of each specific teaching-learning context, that is, whether they are able to differentiate between the different requirements of one teaching context from another. Instead of exploring teachers’ views on the term’s method, postmethod, which is a dominant pattern in the literature of postmethod studies, teachers’ perceptions of postmethod teaching strategies (Stern, 1992) were explored across two proficiency levels of elementary and intermediate as a kind of contextual variable. To this end, a questionnaire tapped into three teachers’ perceived effectiveness of each of the two distinctive strategies of each dimension across two levels of intermediate and elementary. The statistical analysis didn’t reveal any significant difference in teachers’ perceptions across the two proficiency levels. This indicated that teachers didn’t consider the requirements of context but rather they adhered to just one method at both levels. Therefore, these teachers were not thinking beyond the framework of the method concept and were not oriented toward postmethod pedagogy in their thoughts.
Political Conception of Islamic Education: Revisiting al-Afghani’s Ideas on Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Traditionally, Sufis, jurists, philosophers, and theologians, are known as different schools of Islamic thought, each of which has its own approach to Islamic education. However, from the 19th century onwards, another powerful approach emerged: political Islam, which also had a different conception of Islamic education. The present study tries to explain how the political conception of Islamic education was formulated in this approach. To achieve this goal, al-Afghani's ideas have been examined. Al-Afghani was one of the first Islamic theologians who formulated modern political Islam and called for accepting modern values because of their consonance with Islamic values. This article, interprets Al-Afghānī’s political theology as an emancipatory proclamation that aimed at the liberation of Muslims. His emancipatory attitude concentrated on the cultural reform; and the education of the nation was the core of this cultural reform. He believed that a general education system must be established that all people enjoy from childhood; and the core of the curriculum of this education should be based on political education with the theme of the greatness of the nation.
The Challenges of Higher Education in Nigeria Vis-À-Vis Hegel’s Model of Development: a critical analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
This work takes a critical and cursory look at the term ‘education’ as well as the challenges of higher education in Nigeria. The paper explicates these issues from Hegel’s model of development. It argues that education is imperative for the development of any nation and underscores the relevance of man to his social-cultural milieu. It insists that the current problems or challenges bedeviling higher education in Nigeria is a systemic one, especially given the long, total neglect by the Nigerian political institution. The article concludes that Hegel’s view of society as containing intrinsic or inner contradictions; exemplified by the dialectic of history—portrayed by the triadic movement could not be sustained when x-rayed vis-à-vis the enormous problems plaguing higher education in Nigeria. However, the view of the paper is that though the challenges are not insurmountable, determined and pragmatic efforts must be made by all stalk-holders to address the ills bedeviling Nigerian education sector.
Comparative Comparison of Self-control and Piety from the Perspective of Psychology and Islamic Education(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The main Purpose of this study is to explore the Nature of piety from an anthropological perspective by reflecting on the Qur'an and comparing piety construct with self-control. Methodologically, conceptual analysis was used. Verses from the Holy Quran that share the root of taqwa were taken into consideration. Based on anthropological foundations of piety in holy Quran , the process of piety entails a goal-oriented valuing of options and making preferences at the moment of selection. The selection can be based on instinctive, intellectual or religious criteria but it contains all three phases of diagnosis, preference, and practical commitment to preferred option. This structure of piety is comparable with self-control. Overlap of Islamic and psychologic perspectives in explaining the basic structure of piety and self-control is very impressive. Although Piety as a monotheistic life concept will ultimately separate from self-control but overlapping of anthropological elements of these two concepts are essential
Since old times the two dimensionalities of human beings, i.e., their having a material body and an immaterial soul (spirit), has been a controversial problem. In the Abrahamic religions, the human soul is considered to be immaterial and in interaction with the body. Furthermore, it is considered to be a special effusion of God to each individual human being. During the modern times, with the dominance of empiricism, the prevalent view considers human soul a byproduct of matter. In fact, from the naturalistic viewpoint of modern science, there is no place for mind or consciousness as a novel and immaterial subject, but there are some important ideas about this subject, and some eminent scientists of our time believe that the human soul is immaterial and is never explainable by science. Among the latter group, there are some celebrated scientists who believe that human soul is God’s special effusion to human beings. In this article, we mention and analyze some of these important ideas.
Ilene Philipson, the Californian born sociologist and licensed psychologist, asserts that Erich Fromm is the second widely read psychoanalyst in the world standing after Freud. Fromm discusses “necrophilia”, love of death, and “biophilia”, love of life. He also studies “being mode” and “having mode”, one’s general orientation toward being a better person or toward having more, respectively. This paper is the case study of Tolstoy’s novella The death of Ivan Ilyich (1886/2009) in light of Fromm’s insights as reflected in his later works. There are two opposing views arguing if Ivan Ilyich, the protagonist, eventually changes for better or worse. Invoking Fromm’s theories, we argue that Ivan Ilyich undergoes positive changes toward the end of his life which are actualized through the protagonist’s departure from necrophilia and conversion to biophilia. In this sense, it is also argued that Ivan casts “having mode” to embrace that of “being”.
Asking from the truth of Cogito as the basis of knowledge, this paper tries to analyze all possible answers in Descartes’ philosophy. Inductively, four possible answers are open to consideration: either Cogito is true 1) based on argumentation, 2) because it is clear and distinct, 3) because of being innate, or, lastly, 4) because of intuition. All of these explanations either entail accepting some prior knowledge to Cogito or fall in a vicious circle. A proper way to explain Cogito’s truth is a new perspective to the meaning of intuition in Descartes’ philosophy. Through this perspective Cogito is a presential experience. Lack of any gap, separation, and disjunction in this presential experience is the reason for the truth of Cogito because this lack is the lack of error’s cause.
Pluralists believe in the occurrence of numerically distinct spatiotemporally coincident objects. They argue that there are coincident objects that share all physical and spatiotemporal properties and relations; nevertheless, they differ in terms of modal and some other profiles. Appealing to the grounding problem according to which nothing can ground the modal differences between coincident objects, monists reject the occurrence of coincident objects. In the first part of this paper, I attempt to show that the dispute between monists and pluralists cannot be settled based upon the grounding problem tout court. I argue that the grounding problem or a very similar problem is a challenge for all monists and pluralists alike if they are ontologically committed to the existence of composite objects as independent entities. In the final part, adopting the Aristotelian account of essence, I propose a solution that enables pluralists to plausibly ground modal differences between coincident objects.
In the context of the care crisis in modern medicine, the existential needs of patients are not sufficiently satisfied. One idea to address the crisis is that physicians should be educated to be virtuous. This suggestion is inadequate because it does not take into account the role of (non-)human factors, including technologies. The paper focuses on online caring forums, arguing that they are technological factors that can play the role of “focal things”, in which the members gather together to do a care-related focal practice. We study empirically the online forums of Ninisite, a popular Persian website on pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting, and suggest that these forums shape focal practices that are helpful in alleviating the care crisis.
Analyzing the alleged Priority of Thought over Language in al-Fārābī’s Philosophy of Language(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
In the present article relationship of thought and language for the priority aspect, from al-Fārābī’s point of view is discussed. Based on the three meanings of nuṭq (: speech), speaking is a process in which human soul is concerned with the three levels of intellectual faculty, apprehended objects in the mind as well as the expression by language. Then, this reveals a close and inseparable relationship between language and thought. Again it is suggested that relying on the tripartite theory of word, world, and intelligibles, by Al-Fārābī, at the time of the process of speaking, human soul makes use of all knowledge either acquired previously, or the knowledge obtaining as the content of experience in the actual speech situation. Thus, in connection with the priority aspect of the relationship between thought and language, I suppose, in an analytical aspect of priority, there is no priority relation between them, namely, they are interdependent. It can be supported by this view that thought and gaining knowledge are continued even while speaking. Besides, it has been argued that the human soul, as the chief agent of thinking and obtaining knowledge, is not completely passive; then human thought cannot have transcendental supremacy over language.
This paper is an examination of Bochenski’s conception of an acceptable methodology for research in philosophy. Generally methodology refers to the building of scientific knowledge, methods are the how for building knowledge. it is the how, why method we have elected to reflect on the method of doing philosophy. This reflection proceeds from a preliminary discourse on the various methods that have been deployed in doing philosophy in the past to a discourse on the lessons from Josef Maria Bochenski’s thought. The paper, found out that such methods as the phenomenological method, the analytical method, the dialectical method, the hermeneutical method amongst others have been used in doing philosophy, past and present. We have argued in this paper that while it is true that real progress in philosophy can only be guaranteed by an adequate method that is grounded in logic and semantics, there is no single universally accepted method of doing philosophy. However, the conclusion that is reached in this paper, drawing from a reflection on Bochenski’s thought and insights from an intercultural perspective is that, an authentic philosophical method that rest on the phenomenological analysis and proceeds through analysis. Finally, whichever method one elects to use in doing philosophy, it must be guided by logic, and it must be complementary and not confrontational.
In the Blue Book (pp. 17-18) and in the Philosophical Investigation (§§ 66-67), Wittgenstein offers the idea of ‘family resemblances’ to explain the relation between some ‘things’. This paper first explores two accounts of this idea, one by Renford Bambrough and the other by Ilham Dilman. This reveals that there are at least two different accounts of ‘family resemblances’. Secondly, the paper sets out a critical assessment of both accounts so as to suggest that they both fail at what they claim to do.
Badiou offers a concept of the subject that is completely intertwined with event and truth; in his view, the subject is not an isolated and secluded entity that is supposed to contemplate the world only, rather it is linked to the event, and as a faithful element, initiates the process of truth. Every human being is not necessarily a subject, but in the face of an event and the acceptance of its occurrence, the person in the situation can become the subject. For Badiou, the subject is only part of the process of truth, and this reduces the subject to a part of a material process that has no existential independence. He explicitly states that the subject subordinates to the truth and considers the subjectification of some members of the situation as the result of the occurrence of an event and the beginning of the process of truth. The authors are of the view that Badiou's theory of the subject eventually leads to the relativity of the subject and makes it impossible to provide any explanation about the existence of the subject. He considers truth to be not general but dependent on any particular situation in which the event takes place; again, in his view, truth has a general proclamation and address. But in the authors' view, his type of explanation of the subject also makes the generality of the proclamation of truth relative and so, the truth cannot be generic anymore.
The deepest and most rooted form of racism can be found in the Bible which claims the superiority of a race as God's demand or divine destination. But this idea survived in modern philosophy by appeal to the different methods. In this paper I will introduce methods of justifying racism, most of which are in the philosophical context. Legal racism claims that some races have not enough reason to be members of civil society and enjoy their rights. Racism in its historical method, claims that the history of thought has shown that some races play a major role in the production of thought and this is a result of their superiority. In philosophical method, it is argued that some of the human capabilities in some species have not been activated and finally in scientific method, it is claimed that the superiority of one race in the struggle for survival is a scientific achievement of the scientific laws such as Evolution hypothesis.
What this essay is to discuss is Mullā Ṣadrā and John Hick’s viewpoint about the "nature of the soul". Mullā Ṣadrā considers the real nature of human beings to be "the immaterial soul" based on his own principles in the science of the soul. He explains the nature of the soul with respect to substantial motion that the human being is corporeal in coming into being and the immateriality of the human soul in survival and afterlife. John Hick considers the consciousness as the most basic characteristic of mind, which is identical with the soul. He considers the nature of the soul as “human self” which forms his truth. Most of the viewpoints of both thinkers are similar or close to each other such as belief in the existence of the soul and being two-dimensional, quality of Genesis, substantiality, incorporeity, and corporeality of coming into the soul.
Perception of Religious “Other” and the Quality of Its Narration in the Cultural Context of Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Human cultural vision in religious rituals and ceremonies of different religions, denominations and sects is of such a difference that this difference sometimes puts them in complete contradiction with each other. Apparently, every religion speaks of the eternal principles that must be followed by that religion’s followers and seeks to raise reasons of the veracity of its own claims as well as the refutation of the claims of other religions in order to prove its own supremacy in the face of the inferiority of the other religions. Today, man needs to have an interpretation and perspective of these diversities and to offer a judgement of their veracity, rightness or deviance may it make the best choice in rational terms. Referring to the ideas of thinkers is one of the methods that can help the humans to identify or mitigate these challenges. Thus, this study aims at assaying the perception of religious other from the point of view of the human scientists. The approach of this research is based on the qualitative method focusing on thematic analysis, data collection through semi-structured interviews as well as the analysis of the findings based on the stages of the thematic analysis. The research field is constituted by the professors of the universities of Tehran city. Sampling process continued in a purposeful manner among the professors of philosophy and sociology up to 8 cases until the theoretical saturation. The results of the research show that religious other within Iranian cultural context includes eight sub themes: Sunni, Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, Mandaeans, Yarsans, Derwishes and Baha’is.
Does it sound plausible to obtain a strategy for global peace in Farabi’s political philosophy? Put another way, could we procure a common language leading to peace among all cultures and religions, according to Farabi? Farabi’s utopia (al-madīnat al-fāḍila), literally meaning ‘the excellent state’, consists of five levels. On the first level stands the philosopher (fīlsūf) or the prophet (nabī). The second level includes poets (shuʿarā), music composers (mulaḥḥinūn), writers (kuttāb) and the likes. Farabi strongly believes in the power of imagination (khīyāl) and that most people are under the influence of their imaginative faculty (al-quwwat al-mutakhayyila). This faculty has an important outcome which influences his view on religion (milla), prophet, and their relation with the public (jumhūr): imagination, in his view, is the most powerful tool of influencing the public. Regarding this principle, it could be concluded that there is a shared function between the poet and the prophet. Farabian theory of peace may well be identified, based on the shared function between the poet and the prophet. In other words, for Farabi rational truth and rational happiness is fixed and one, having only one denotation, while its connotations, that is, sensory images and imagery forms are more than one—possibly many more. That being the case, various and sundry cultures and religions might well have different ways to pursue the same knowledge, truth, and contentment.
An Analysis of the User's Interpretation of the Product; Comparative Study of Experience Design and Reception Hermeneutic(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The product resulting from the design process can be depicted as a text carrying the meaning whose readers are its users. Among the prominent theories dealing with the category of the meaning in the text, the reception hermeneutic in epistemology, and the experience approach in design, have been discussed in this research. This study aimed to find out whether it is possible to compare the author with the designer, after assuming the product as a text. It also addressed the type of interaction with the user from a reception hermeneutic perspective in the experience design approach. In this regard, subjects such as understanding, reception, and generally, interpretation of the product have also been studied using library sources and the descriptive-analytical method. The results indicate that the phenomenon of the text reading in the reception hermeneutic approach is comparable to the experience at the thinking level in the process of user-product interaction. In other words, text reading can be equated with product experience.
Derrida's Deconstruction and Environmental Graphics: Examination and Analysis Case Study of the Mental Image of Tourists in Isfahan(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Background and Aim: Derrida's Deconstruction has key elements in the schema that affect current realms of environmental graphics. The challenges in current urban life require that graphic science gets involved, at some level, in the architecture and the environment. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of using key elements of environmental graphics based on Derrida's Deconstruction in the schemata of tourists in Isfahan. Methods: library archives and field surveys were employed for data collection in this study. As such, the visual, emotional evidence and documents in the library archives were used to evaluate the criteria involved. Considering the nature of the study, the statistical population consisted of two groups of citizens of Isfahan. The first group includes 18 experts, and the second includes 213 domestic tourists in Isfahan in 2019. Findings: The results of the study indicated that there is a strong and significant relationship between the variables of balance, continuity in the environment, creating unity in the environment, diversity in the environment, texture and light. Furthermore, the findings revealed that the variable of light is extremely strong in correlation, the variable of emphasis in the environment has a very weak correlation, and the variable of proportionality is negatively correlated. Also, based on the beta coefficient obtained from regression, the greatest impact pertained to the components of light, diversity, texture, balance, continuity, unity in the environment, proportionality and emphasis. Conclusion: This study showed a significant relationship between the schemata of tourists and context, diversity, light, unity in the environment, proportionality, continuity, balance and emphasis, among which the variable of light was determined to have the greatest effect.
Somewhat surprisingly, a number of scholars have recently claimed to find an implied theology in Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy. This surprising because the author does not state anywhere in the body of his work that he seeks to align his philosophy with a theology, in fact he states just the opposite, as we shall see. While it is true that Merleau-Ponty does dialogue with certain views of Christianity, and while it is true that he does argue for a religion that treats the divine as “horizontal” rather than “vertical,” that is, as part of human life rather than beyond it, the sympathetic goal of his reflection here is to suggest a Christianity that is more humane and less dogmatically hierarchical, that is more centered in human experience rather than an absolute other. His goal here is certainly not to claim this theology as an essential part of his philosophy. As he says, the role of the philosopher should not be to prove or disprove the existence of God but to consider what God means to human beings in the movement of history. A number of Merleau-Ponty’s own texts will be consider here in some detail along with a variety of texts that claim that his works harbor a hidden theology.
Soren Kierkegaard, as one of the leading anti-philosophers of the school of existentialism, employs an ironic and groundbreaking approach to find fault with rationalism, abstract thinking, heteronomy, ethics and pluralism developed from the ideas of thinkers such as Kant and Hegel. Instead of valuing society, government, and conventional ethical and moral norms, he supports de-familiarization, creativity, autonomy, activity, individuality, and singularity. Kierkegaard argues that there are three stages on life’s way or three spheres of existence on the path to self-realization. He believes that the highest realm of human life is the religious sphere in which Abraham, as a believer in the realm of faith, decides to sacrifice his son Isaac to God with the aim of saving his agency, individuality and singularity from the clutches of moral, governmental and public systems. Kierkegaard argues that the leap of faith is making a decision in the very moment of madness, and considers it as a kind of gambling and risk-taking. He believes that faith is a belief in the impossibility, irrationality and paradoxicality. In this sense of faith, on the one hand, Abraham is willing to obey God’s command regarding the sacrifice of Isaac, and on the other hand, he believes in his heart that Isaac will be returned to him in this material world by God’s command. The present paper, accordingly, examines the following hypothesis: Although Kierkegaard is against the official government policy based on sovereignty and pluralism, his leap of faith, which implies standing on the boundaries and suspending the moral and the general, can lead to the emergence of a political event and, consequently, the birth of an active and autonomous subject.
Open Theism, as a new perspective in theology, has attracted attention of many scholars and mainly claims that some teachings of classical theism are not in accordance with Scripture and depict God in the way of Greek metaphysic and Hermeneutical pattern. Therefore, Open Theists proposed a new model of theology based on the notion of Openness in reaction to deterministic model of classical theism. Their point of view had some implications like mutability, temporality and direct involvement of God. But these lead to some problems in their view like inconsistency and ambiguity in addition to denying absolute perfection from Him. In this paper, we will clarify these defects and give solutions based on Islamic thought and Lastly introduce Doctrine of Badāʾ by which we will answer many of unsolved problems that led some theologians toward Open Theism. It will be shown that by Badāʾ there will be no room for inconsistency in Devine properties.
The Philosophy of Teachers’ Power based on Leech’s Politeness Maxims in Iranian Context(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The philosophy of education is an important issue in learning and teaching. Also, the relationship between teachers’ power and abilities can tremendously influence the learners. The purpose of this article is to explore the practice of power bases and Leech’s (1983) politeness maxims among Iranian teachers. A descriptive-qualitative method is used in this research. To this end, nineteen sessions of five classes of five different teachers in a private institute were audio-recorded and transcribed. In the second step of this study, the learners were asked to fill out a questionnaire consisting of 25 Likert-scale items relating to power and politeness issues. In the last stage, four teachers were asked to take part in an interview with the researchers for gathering the complementary data. The classes being observed were chosen based on the rules of convenience sampling method and among young-adult, pre-intermediate learners. The results revealed that Legitimate power among the power base uses and Tact maxim among the politeness maxim practices were the mostly used types of all. Also, it was concluded that in most cases, teachers used one form or a combination of politeness maxims with the practice of power bases.
Reflecting the Hero's Confusion in Sartre's Existentialist Attitude: conditions of appearance and characteristics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The current article discusses the issue that the hero in Sartre's existentialist attitude lives alone and confused in an absurd world where moral foundations are not very important. He is forced to choose and by choosing values, he creates his desired ethics and by this means he invites others to those self-created values. In this way, Sartre gives a new meaning to the word hero. Sartre's hero becomes even more limited by the "other" with his terrifying decisions, the only way to save him is conscious self-deception. Although he knows that he is free and has to choose, and he is also familiar with the responsibility and commitment. The current research was carried out with a fundamental purpose and its main issue is to investigate the characteristics of the hero in Sartre's existentialism philosophy and the conditions of its emergence. In this research, in search of the conditions for the emergence of the hero from Sartre's point of view, it shows that originality is the result of practical actions in the situations in which Sartre's hero is placed, so it is connected with consciousness and freedom is the relationship of consciousness with the world. The research method is qualitative and in order to reveal the research problem, the Paris-Texas film has been selected and analyzed as a case of study based on the purposeful selection. The result indicates that every action of today's hero is original and self-determining because it was formed in freedom. He is nothing but what he makes of himself; This construction happens in the public sphere, so authenticity is no longer an individual action, but a conflict in social relations.
The Notion of Causality in Edo Metaphysics: a hermeneutico philosophical study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
One of the most important and most discussed problems of traditional and contemporary metaphysics and philosophy of science is the problem of causality. The problem has generated a lot of controversies and debates from scholars. One clear point amidst these discussions on the causality problem is that the last has neither been written nor heard. It remains an open-ended issue for philosophical consideration. The causation problem itself is not just a problem but a cluster of problems with puzzling questions such as; how do causes bring about their effects? Our concern in this paper is not to examine all the problems that are embedded in the relationship between cause and effect, but to focus on the metaphysical problem of how cause, conceived as a separate event is related or connected to the effect. Several theories have been postulated by Western scholars like Aristotle, Spinoza, Hume, Hempel, Russell, Kant, Mill, among others to explain the kind of causal connection obtainable between causes and effects. Some of these theories of causation are traditional view or common sense view, Humean, and the host of others. It is a fact that some of these theories have failed in proffering a philosophical solution to the traditional causation problem. In an attempt to further reflect on the traditional causation problem, this paper undertakes an exposition of the nature of causality, determinism, freedom and predestination in traditional African thought with the aim of proffering better explanation towards resolving the traditional causation problem.
The History of Education in Old Tabriz City and its Philosophy in the Qajar Era (from the Maktabs to formation of the new schools)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Education in the Qajar era had been considered in Iran, especially in Tabriz. Most kind people tried to help scientific development and performed many educational and cultural efforts. The establishment of printing, translation skills, publishing the newspapers, and new schools were the first efforts that had been made in Tabriz. Education was in maktab forms until Nasereldin Shah and had many limitations, but there were more than 100 maktabs in Tabriz; most of the people were poor, the number of pupils was a few, and the lessons were religious. The classes in maktabs were held in houses and mosques. Every maktab had characteristics. The methods of teaching were not equal. The teachers in maktabs had some notable qualifications. The maktabs in that period had many problems. The curriculum in maktabs involved Quranic instructions, Arabic grammar and some religious passages. In that period, some new schools were established by Iranian Muslims, such as Roshdieh, Mozafari, Loghmanieh, Mellieh, Kamal and Sanaye Mostazrafe.
Virtues and Value: How Virtue Theory Plugs a Gap in Practice-Consequentialism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
What confers their value on genuine virtues, it is argued, consists in the intrinsic value that instantiating them in thought and action standardly brings about. This granted, virtue theory is argued to be capable of plugging a gap in consequentialist theories of the kind that make actions right which either exemplify optimific practices or are directly optimific. Compliance with optimific practices like truth-telling makes the relevant actions right, subject to certain exceptions. But even if such compliance is combined with the optimificity of beneficent actions, considered singly, that do not exemplify these practices, the resulting theory of rightness remains gap-ridden. The gap can be filled if it is granted that virtuous actions are generally optimific, and this knowledge is incorporated into consequentialist theories of rightness. Thus where no optimific practices are relevant, and no actions are manifestly directly optimific, dispositions of a generally optimific character (virtues) can rightly be adopted.
Critical Study of the Epistemological Foundation of Constitutionalism in Face of Modernism(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
The encounter of Iranians with the modernism of the West happened for the first time during the constitutional period and through familiarization with the events and political technologies that happened in Russia, Japan, and Turkey. According to what Gadamer says, according to their political, social, economic, mental, and cultural structures, Iranians have received an understanding of modernism that is appropriate to their existential conditions, an understanding that stands as an application, and in response to the Iranians' question about the application of modernism to their lives. This article attempts to compare the epistemic foundations of both sides with a descriptive critical analytical method to show that the due to the structural differences that existed in the epistemic system of Iran and the West during the constitutional period is that it was very difficult to understand modernism in Iran and therefore, instead of bringing modernism into the country, Iranians have settled for some political technologies. Political technologies are considered a salve for their countless pains.
Abstraction of the Soul and the Presence Abstracts in Dream From; the psychological and philosophical perspective with an emphasis on the views of Carl Gustav Young(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)
Describing the abstract of the Soul in the words of rational and logical philosophers is the expression of ancient philosophy and the implementation of a new ontological view. Psychology, or inner epistemology, is constructed with a deep look at the spiritual aspects of the soul. The world of dreams has always been of special importance in the view of philosophers, as the manifestation of human thoughts and the soul outside the body. Psychology, especially from the contemporary view in the field of science, has a different perspective on understanding the inner dimensions of man. On the one hand, empirical psychiatry considers the dream of the unseen world to be connected with the bodily interactions of the brain, and on the other, the philosophical attitude of rationalists and imaginative philosophers signifies a different category. The essence of a dream can be explored and researched. The importance of the subject emerges when it deals with the type of dreams that are constructed in the human mind. The main issue is the development of dreams that a person goes through in the dream world and gives it carnal aspects. Is it a dream to depict everything that is seen in the material world? Is it possible to see non-sensations in the dream world? This article, which is written in an analytical-descriptive manner in addition to field research in the field of psychology, has been documented in addition to a questionnaire. The positive hopeful result is that the dream is nothing but the manifestation of external sensations in the dream world.