احسان نمازیان دوست

احسان نمازیان دوست

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فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۱۹ مورد از کل ۱۹ مورد.
۱.

Implementing Peer-dynamic Assessment to Cultivate Iranian EFL Learners’ Inter-language Pragmatic Competence: A Mixed-methods Approach

کلید واژه ها: Zone of Proximal Development Interlanguage pragmatic competence Peer-dynamic assessment Microgenetic development approach EFL Learners

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Though dynamic assessment (DA) has gained strong theoretical and empirical support over the last decades, second language (L2) practitioners have blamed it for its applicability in large classes. To ameliorate this limitation, peer-dynamic assessment (peer-DA), rooted in the conceptualization of zone of proximal development (ZPD), can be introduced and practiced as an alternative approach. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of peer-DA on cultivating Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners’ interlanguage pragmatic (ILP) competence. Additionally, it was to disclose how peer-DA leads to improving the learners’ ILP competence. To achieve these aims, a sample of 84 upper-intermediate EFL learners, including females was selected through a convenience sampling method at Iran Language Institute in Borujerd City, Iran. Then, a total of 37 EFL learners whose scores fell around the mean score were selected and randomly assigned to two groups, namely an experimental (n = 19) and a control (n = 18). Then, they went through a pre-test, interventions (lasting 16 one-hour sessions held two times a week), and a post-test. The experimental group’s interactions were meticulously recorded. The collected data were analyzed through two independent samples t-tests, and the microgenetic development approach. Findings documented a statistically significant difference between the experimental group and control group concerning the gains of ILP competence on the post-test. Furthermore, the results of the microgenetic development analysis evidenced how the gradual, contingent prompts could lead to noticeable improvements in the learning of ILP features. These findings may have some pedagogical implications for different stakeholders.
۲.

Exploring the Effects of Dynamic Assessment on Improving Iranian Quran Learners’ Recitation Performance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۷۱
Although Dynamic Assessment (DA), rooted in Vygotsky’s (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) notion, has been extensively researched in teaching English as a foreign language, it has remained largely unexplored in teaching Arabic as a foreign language. To bridge this long-lasting gap, this study purports to investigate the effects of DA on improving Iranian Quran learners’ recitation performance. For this purpose, two intact grade 7 classes were selected at a public high school in Borujerd city, Iran, and were assigned randomly as DA group (n=21) and non-DA group (n=23). Later, they went through a pre-test, intervention (offered based on the principles and procedures of DA for the DA group and held in 15 sessions), immediate post-test, and delayed post-test. The collected data were analyzed through a one-way ANCOVA. Findings documented that the DA group outperformed the non-DA group on the immediate post-test. Additionally, the results evidenced that the DA group outweighed the control group on the delayed post-test. The study ends with proposing some implications in consistent with the tenets of Sociocultural theory.
۳.

Comparing the Effects of Mind-Mapping vs. Concept-Mapping Techniques on Iranian EFL Students’ Reading Motivation, Reading Comprehension, and Willingness to Communicate(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Concept-Mapping Technique Mind-Mapping Technique Reading Comprehension Reading Motivation Test WTC

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تعداد بازدید : ۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
As there have been few studies on the comparative effects of mind-mapping (MM) and concept-mapping (CM) techniques on learning English language skills and sub-skills, this survey pursued to scrutinize the impacts of these techniques on reading motivation, reading comprehension, and willingness to communicate (WTC) of Iranian EFL students. To fulfill these objectives, 78 intermediate EFL students were selected based on non-random sampling and accidentally assigned to two experimental groups (EGs) and one control group (CG). They were then pre-tested using a reading motivation test, a reading comprehension test, and a WTC test. Next, the intervention was conducted on the three groups. The MM technique was employed to teach 16 English reading texts to one EG and the CM technique was applied to teach the same texts to the other EG. None of these techniques were used to teach the texts to the CG. When the intervention ended, the post-tests of reading comprehension, reading motivation test, and WTC were given to the three groups. The outcomes of the One-Way ANOVA tests and the post-hoc Scheffe tests revealed that there was a substantial difference between the scores of the EGs and the CG on the three post-tests, with the results being in favor of the EGs. In effect, the findings indicated that the MM and CM techniques enhanced reading motivation, reading comprehension, and WTC of the experimental participants equally. Finally, the implications and conclusions of the research were explained.
۴.

Is Iranian University Students’ Computer Self-efficacy a Strong Contributor to Learning Anxiety? A Mixed-methods Investigation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Computer Self-efficacy learning anxiety Iranian University students A mixed methods investigation

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۱
The contributions of computer self-efficacy (CSE) to university students’ learning anxiety (LA) in online classes (OCs) has largely remained unexplored in the higher education context of Iran. Thus, this mixed-methods study aims to inspect the correlation between Iranian university students’ CSE and LA from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. For this purpose, a total of 290 undergraduate students, including male students (n = 64) and female students (n = 226) for the quantitative part and a sample of 18 undergraduate students, consisting of male students (n = 7) and female students (n = 11) for the qualitative part were chosen through a random sampling method at Ayatollah Borujerdi University, Iran. The participants were asked to fill out a Computer Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, an Anxiety in Online Classes Questionnaire, and a reflective written statement. The collected data were analyzed using a Pearson correlation coefficient test, a multiple regression analysis test, and a thematic coding approach. Findings documented that the participants’ CSE and LA were negatively correlated in OCs. Additionally, the results indicated that the participants’ LA was mainly affected by advanced and beginning factors of CSE. Furthermore, the qualitative findings yielded five overarching themes, including ‘high CSE leads to more risk-taking’, ‘high CSE leads to increased motivation’, ‘high CSE leads to useful experiences’, ‘high CSE leads to accessing additional knowledge sources’, and ‘high CSE leads to increased self-regulation’. The study concludes by offering some implications for pertinent stakeholders.
۵.

Two Sides of the Same Coin? Exploring Persuasive Discursive Practices in Academic and Popularized Texts in Psychology(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Academic research articles Popularized Science Articles Science popularization the Appraisal Theory Attitude resources

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Circulation of scientific discoveries occurs in various discourse communities. Adopting an audience-oriented view of writing (Hyland, 2010) and drawing on the appraisal theory (Martin & White, 2005), the current study aimed to explore the evaluative strategies psychologists would use to share their specialist knowledge with scholarly and non-scholarly readers. To this end, a corpus of 38 academic research articles and 38 popularized science articles from the archive of an English international refereed journal, Current Psychology , and two English popularized magazines, Newsweek and New Scientist , were analyzed in terms of attitude resources of appraisal, namely appreciation, affect, and judgment . The results of the study revealed that palpable degrees of persuasion were achieved through including certain attitude elements in both corpora despite no statistically significant difference. The results debunked the myth of objectivity in academic discourse and disclosed the psychology experts’ appealing to persuasive tools for convincing the specialist and non-specialists of the truth value of their research outcomes. The findings carry pedagogical implications for English for the students of psychology courses. Indeed, future psychologists need to get familiar with the common discursive strategies to address their intended audience in academic and non-academic settings.
۶.

Developmental Potential of Self-Assessment Reports for High School Students' Writing Skills: A Qualitative Study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Microgenetic Development Analysis Self-assessment Report Thematic Coding Analysis Writing skills

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۳
Though many studies have been conducted on the effects of self-assessment on L2 learning over the last decade, none has investigated how self-assessment reports lead to improving L2 learning. Thus, this study aims to disclose how self-assessment reports improve Iranian high school students' writing skills and their perceptions of the effectiveness of self-assessment reports in cultivating writing skills. For this purpose, the researchers selected o ne intact grade 11 class (n = 21) at Shahed public high school in Borujerd, Iran. During the instruction lasting 15 sessions held twice a week, a self-assessment report was designed based on Nunan's (2004) template and given to the students to assess their writings weekly. Then, a focus group interview was run with six students. Findings documented a significant improvement in the students' writing skills in terms of content, language, organization, and task requirements. Additionally, the focus group interview results yielded four themes: raising students' awareness of evaluation criteria, making students more self-regulated, letting students have a voice in their academic destiny, and increasing students' motivation to write. In light of the findings, a number of conclusions are drawn, and several implications are put forward.
۷.

Active Learning as an Approach to Fostering EFL Learners’ Speaking Skills and Willingness to Communicate: A Mixed-methods Inquiry(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Active Learning speaking skills willingness to communicate a thematic coding analysis EFL Learners

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تعداد بازدید : ۷۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۰
Emerging as a novel instructional approach, Active Learning (AL) is predicated on paving the way for students to actively explore knowledge and reflect on the learning processes. Despite its robust theoretical foundations, AL has rarely been implemented by English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in the Iranian context. A lion’s share of this hesitation may be ascribed to the lack of strong empirical findings to underscore its advantages and disadvantages. To fill in this lacuna, this mixed-methods study inspected the effects of AL on fostering EFL learners’ speaking skills (SSs) and willingness to communicate (WTC) in the Iranian context. For this purpose, a total of 87 intermediate EFL learners, were selected using a convenience sampling method. They were homogenized through a Key English Test (KET) and randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 26) and a control group (n = 25). Afterward, a pre-test, interventions (lasting 18 75-miniute sessions held twice a week), and a post-test were administered. Then, eight participants who actively participated in the interventions were invited to a focus group interview to express their perceptions of and experiences with AL. The results of the independent samples t-tests documented that AL substantially contributed to fostering the participants’ SSs and WTC on the post-test. Additionally, the qualitative findings of a thematic coding analysis yielded four overarching themes; facilitating knowledge construction, developing metacognitive awareness, promoting self-regulated learning, and fostering motivation. The findings provide a number of implications for pertinent stakeholders.
۸.

Language Teacher Professional Identity: The Mediator Role of L2 Grit, Critical Thinking, Resilience, and Self-efficacy Beliefs(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Teacher Professional Identity L2 teacher grit Critical thinking teacher resilience teacher self-efficacy beliefs EFL Teachers

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تعداد بازدید : ۸۸ تعداد دانلود : ۷۴
The teacher’s professional identity (TPI) defines their perception of how to behave in their teaching profession, and it may have a significant role in determining their place in educational advancement. Yet, the moderator influence of L2 Teacher Grit (L2TG) , Critical Thinking (CT), Teacher Resilience (TR), and Teacher Self-efficacy Beliefs (TS-EB) on TPI has not been extensively documented in the literature. To fill this lacuna, this study developed a model to show the interplay between TPI, L2TG , CT, TR, and TS-EB. The Teacher’s Professional Identity Scale (TPIS), the L2-teacher Grit Scale (L2TGS), the Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Form (WGCTAF), the Teacher Resilience Scale (TRS), and the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TS-ES) were given to 437 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers for the intention of collecting this data. Following the findings of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), L2TG , CT, TR, and TS-EB can enhance TPI among EFL teachers. Finally, the implications and future direction were offered to enthusiastic educators and researchers which may enhance their awareness of the link between TPI, L2TG , CT, TR, and TS-EB and the way it can generate great results for the educational system.
۹.

EFL Learners’ Perception of Task Experience Through Flow Outlook: Task Complexity and Modality in Focus(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: task complexity task modality task difficulty flow outlook task experience

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۸
Regardless of the appreciation of language learners’ achievement in task-based language teaching, not much has been hinged upon learners’ perception and reception of various elements. This study examined task complexity and modality effects on Iranian EFL learners’ comprehension of task difficulty, competencies, and difficulty-skill balance as well as the learners’ task experience. The Flow Outlook features were also applied to investigate how difficulty-skill balance anticipated flow experience. Via a repeated-measures design, and with a focus on task complexity (simple vs. complex) and task modality (written vs. spoken), 49 EFL learners carried out four argumentative tasks (two simple written and spoken vs. two complex written and spoken tasks); then, they ticked the flow questionnaire to gauge their perception of task difficulty, competence, and task experience. Repeated-measures MANOVA revealed although task complexity influenced task difficulty and difficulty-skill balance significantly, the skill was not affected significantly; task modality influenced task difficulty and skill significantly while difficulty-skill balance received no significant effect. The follow-up post hoc test indicated that complexity and modality significantly influenced flow, attention, and control, but not interest. Linear regression revealed difficulty-skill balance was a predictor for learners’ flow experience for both writing tasks and simple speaking task but not for complex speaking tasks. Pedagogically, the findings of this research may have some implications for English language teachers, learners, and materials developers.
۱۰.

Discovering Iranian EFL Teachers’ Metalinguistic Knowledge: The Role of Academic Degree and Teaching Experience in Focus(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Teacher language awareness Metalinguistic Knowledge Teacher Cognition teaching experience

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۹
The relevance of metalinguistic knowledge in effective teaching of the four language skills is evident. As such, the present study sought to determine the degree of Iranian EFL teachers’ metalinguistic knowledge by focusing on the role of academic degree in English Language Teaching (ELT) and teaching experience. The study drew on a mixed-methods research design, and the data were collected through a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, exploring teachers' perceptions and evaluations of metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, in order to evaluate the declarative knowledge of teachers regarding their grammatical awareness, a test of English Grammar Knowledge was administered among 94 novice and experienced EFL teachers with and without an academic degree in ELT teaching in private language institutes. The results of the questionnaire and interview indicated that while the importance of having grammatical knowledge was evident for participants, experienced teachers displayed more positive views toward grammar awareness. Furthermore, the teachers' performance on the grammar test showed that while formal education helps teachers improve their knowledge, it is not the only determining factor for high levels of declarative knowledge of language. On the contrary, teachers' background knowledge was found to result in high levels of metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, the results revealed that years of teaching experience does not determine the levels of teachers’ metalinguistic knowledge. The study provides implications for EFL teachers and teacher trainers.
۱۱.

Short-Block Instruction Versus Long-Block Instruction: Impact on Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Short-block instruction Long-block instruction Reading Comprehension reading motivation reading attitude

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۰
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of 2 modes of instruction (Short-block versus Long-block) on Iranian EFL learners' reading motivation and reading attitude. For this study, 60 pre-intermediate level students who were studying in an English language institute in Ahvaz were selected. They took part in a homogeneity test (OQPT) to determine their homogeneity level. Then they were randomly divided into two groups, 30 learners each included, namely short-block instruction group and long-block instruction group. Then the two groups were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as the pre-test before treatment to determine the participants’ reading motivation and reading attitude. During the eleven-session treatment, the long-block group was taught the reading comprehension in an intensive 75-minute session, while the short-block group was taught in three short sessions (twenty-five- minute session). After the treatment sessions, the participants were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as a posttest. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and one-samples t-tests and the findings showed a significant difference between the groups. The short-block group outperformed the other groups in both reading motivation and reading attitude post-test. Implications of this study could be a hint for both EFL teachers and learners that teaching through short-block instruction is more effective than long-block instruction in teaching reading comprehension.
۱۲.

A Survey Study of Factors Influencing Iranian EFL Learners’ English Pronunciation Learning

کلید واژه ها: pronunciation pronunciation learning factors EFL

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۲۹
English pronunciation is one of the most important and complicated parts of foreign language teaching and learning. Due to its complexity, pronunciation has been overlooked in English language teaching. Understandable pronunciation is an important part of communicative competence. Individuals who have acceptable pronunciation can easily improve their language skills better than those who have weak pronunciation. Thus, English pronunciation is very significant for successful communication. This study investigated the factors influenced Iranian EFL learners’ English pronunciation learning. To this end, fifty Iranian EFL learners participated voluntarily in this study. A quantitative method was used as the design of this study. The researchers used a survey questionnaire as the instrument of this study. The collected data were analyzed via using frequency and percentage. The findings of this research indicated that factors such as pronunciation instruction, attitude, motivation, and error correction respectively were the most important factors that had the greatest effects on Iranian learners’ pronunciation improvement. It was also concluded that when teaching pronunciation into their classes, EFL teachers and learners should be equipped with these factors that can considerably increase their success in the correct teaching and learning of English pronunciation.
۱۳.

The Impact of Cultural Familiarity on Vocabulary Learning through Reading among Iranian Upper-intermediate Male and Female EFL Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Cultural Materials Reading Comprehension Source culture Target Culture Vocabulary Learning

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۱
This study attempted to investigate the effects of cultural background knowledge on vocabulary learning through reading culturally oriented texts. The study was conducted with 150 upper-intermediate male ( n = 75) and female ( n = 75) EFL students. The participants of each gender were randomly assigned into three equal groups: group A (Target Culture = TC), group B (Source Culture = SC) and group C (Culture-Free = CF). After homogenizing the participants through a researcher-made vocabulary pretest, three groups received the treatment which was reading comprehension materials reflecting a particular culture. During the treatment, some reading passages related to American and English cultures, Persian culture, and culture free materials were taught to group A, group B, and group C, respectively. At the end of the study, a researcher-made vocabulary posttest was administered. Results of one-way ANCOVA and paired samples t test revealed the significant effects of cultural familiarity whereby vocabulary gains were greater after participants read within the culturally oriented text. Moreover, the results showed that there was no significant difference in vocabulary knowledge posttest between male and female learners.
۱۴.

Investigating the Relationship between Iranian Undergraduate TEFL Learners’ Self-regulation and Self-efficacy

کلید واژه ها: academic goals psychological constructs self-regulation Self-Efficacy quantitative questionnaire

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۳۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۷
The present empirical study investigated the relationship between Iranian undergraduate TEFL learners’ self-regulation and their self-efficacy. For this end, there have been a total number of 120 college students learning English as a foreign language who volunteered to complete the two quantitative questionnaires of self-regulation and self-efficacy respectively. The participants were informed of the anonymous nature of the data collection process in advance. They were also told that their responses would certainly be kept confidential and that they had the right to quit at any part of the survey. It took around 15–20 minutes for each respondent to complete the survey. In the meanwhile, some of the participants (around ten) also willingly answered the qualitative descriptive semi-structured questions of the interview, until that the interview responses were saturated. After the process of data collection, the findings were measured through correlation analysis, indicating that self-regulation and self-efficacy were jointly linked and had a directly positive relationship. Accordingly, it was revealed that the employment of these two highly associated psychological constructs could systematically guide and help learners to enhance their learning capabilities and lead them to ultimate desired learning goals. Ultimately, it was concluded from the findings of the current study that the delicate association between self-regulation and self-efficacy was really helpful for learners to lead them successfully to their academic goals.
۱۵.

An Investigation of Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers as Persuasive Strategies in Donald Trump’s 2016 Campaign Speeches(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Interpersonal metadiscourse markers Donald Trump Political speech Campaign speeches Persuasive strategy

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Interpersonal metadiscourse is considered as a significant mean of smoothing communication between the speaker/writer and listener/reader. The present study intends to explore the concept and type of interpersonal metadiscourse markers employed by Donald Trump’s campaign speeches as a persuasive strategy. Descriptive qualitative research design is used in the present study. Dafouz’s (2008) classification of interpersonal metadiscourse markers was employed to analyze the gathered data. The results revealed that Trump made use of all categories of interpersonal metadiscourse markers namely hedges, certainty markers, attributors, attitude markers, and commentaries, in his campaign speeches. The frequency of attitude markers and commentaries was more than other types of metadiscourse markers in Trump’s campaign speech, which demonstrates that he attempted to persuade the public to vote for him through making an emotional link.
۱۶.

Exploring the Relationship between Listening Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Senior High School Students and Their Listening Comprehension Problems

کلید واژه ها: Listening Comprehension problems listening strategies Cognitive strategies Meta - cognitive strategies Socio - affective strategies

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱۸
The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Iranian EFL senior high school students (N = 60). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use and listening comprehension problems. In this study, listening problems included input, context, listener, process, affect, and task problems while the listening strategies comprised of cognitive, meta-cognitive, and socio-affective strategies. To collect the needed data, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants. After collecting the data and analyzing them through SPSS software, the results revealed that ‘input’ and ‘affect’ were two main listening comprehension problems the learners suffered from. Results also indicated that the main listening strategy used by learners was meta-cognitive strategy. The relationship between listening problems and strategy used among the learners was statistically significant and negative. Outcomes propose that it is crucial for second language teachers to be aware of the different listening problems so as to enable listeners to utilize the appropriate strategies.
۱۷.

The Relationship between Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners’ Contrastive Lexical Competence and Their Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

کلید واژه ها: Contrastive lexical competence vocabulary learning strategies Vocabulary Learning

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۸
Regarding the vital role of lexical competence as an important requisite for the attainment of full mastery of the four language skills, this study tried to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ contrastive lexical competence and their use of vocabulary learning strategies. To fulfil this objective, 60 Iranian upper-intermediate male and female language learners were selected based on the results of an Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT). Afterwards, the researcher administered the Contrastive Lexical Competence Test (Ziafar, 2017). After carrying out the CLC test, the participants answered the Questionnaire of Vocabulary Learning Strategies. The questionnaire adapted from the taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) developed by Schmitt (1997). After analyzing the data, it was revealed that determination strategies were the most frequently-used strategies of the five vocabulary learning strategies, followed by cognitive strategies. Moreover, the result indicated that the relationship between CLC and vocabulary learning strategies was a strong positive one and this relationship was of statistical significance. The implications of this study can make teachers aware of the importance of choosing an appropriate strategy of vocabulary learning for language learners to pave the way of improving lexical knowledge for them.
۱۸.

Pedagogical Efficacy of Experience-Based Learning (EBL) Strategies for Improving the Speaking Fluency of Upper-intermediate Male and Female Iranian EFL Students

کلید واژه ها: experience-based learning speaking fluency task-based instruction two-way tasks

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Learning from experience is a central physiological and theoretical idea in adult language learning which has become increasingly important in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) and is closely connected to task-based language teaching (TBLT). Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate the role of experience-based learning strategies in developing male and female intermediate EFL learners’ speaking fluency. To this end, from the target population of 300 language learners attending evening English classes at a language institute, a sample of 50 intermediate participants were randomly chosen by administering an Oxford placement Test (OPT). The average age of the selected students ranged between 17 and 25. An interview was utilized as a pretest to determine participants’ speaking fluency entry behavior. Subsequently, they were divided into two groups labeled as experimental and control groups. While the control group students received instruction through a traditional method without any focus on experience-based activities and strategies, those in the experimental group were exposed to interactive solutions verbally participating in class discussions during task-based classroom sessions in which they discussed their experiences in performing carefully prepared two-way tasks. The analysis of the data obtained from the posttest interview indicated that the participants in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group. Moreover, the results reflected that experience-based tasks considerably improved language the learners’ speaking fluency. Notably, the findings of the present study may have certain insightful pedagogical implications for language instructors and material developers.
۱۹.

Gender Differences in the Use of Lexical Hedges in Academic Spoken Language among Iranian EFL Learners: A Comparative Study

کلید واژه ها: academic spoken language discussion gender differences lexical hedges

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This study tried to compare the possible differences between female and male EFL students with respect to the use of lexical hedges in their academic spoken language. To fulfil this objective, 40 Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners majoring in TEFL were chosen from Islamic Azad University of Abadan, Iran. The selected participants were assigned into two equal groups namely male group (n=20) and female group (n=20). Then, five discussion sessions in a single gendered context were separately recorded for male and female participants. Frequency counts and chi-square were used to analyze the obtained data. By utilizing the framework of hedges, it is deduced that that there are differences among female and male respondents’ propensity in selecting word of lexical hedges. Female responders tend to utilize more lexical hedges than male responders. In such manner, most frequently lexical hedges of fillers such as; hmm, uhh, you know, yeah were used most frequently by female respondents in their utterances; while male respondents most repeatedly utilized lexical hedges of fillers like; I think, uhh, yeah in their utterances. Female respondents had broad range variegation in picking words of lexical hedges while male respondents were not sufficiently productive in selecting the words of lexical hedges. It was demonstrated by the number of lexical hedges applied in giving viewpoints in debate and discussion context.

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