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۱.

Short-Block Instruction Versus Long-Block Instruction: Impact on Reading Motivation and Reading Attitude

تعداد بازدید : ۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of 2 modes of instruction (Short-block versus Long-block) on Iranian EFL learners' reading motivation and reading attitude. For this study, 60 pre-intermediate level students who were studying in an English language institute in Ahvaz were selected. They took part in a homogeneity test (OQPT) to determine their homogeneity level. Then they were randomly divided into two groups, 30 learners each included, namely short-block instruction group and long-block instruction group. Then the two groups were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as the pre-test before treatment to determine the participants’ reading motivation and reading attitude. During the eleven-session treatment, the long-block group was taught the reading comprehension in an intensive 75-minute session, while the short-block group was taught in three short sessions (twenty-five- minute session). After the treatment sessions, the participants were given a reading motivation questionnaire and reading attitude survey as a posttest. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and one-samples t-tests and the findings showed a significant difference between the groups. The short-block group outperformed the other groups in both reading motivation and reading attitude post-test. Implications of this study could be a hint for both EFL teachers and learners that teaching through short-block instruction is more effective than long-block instruction in teaching reading comprehension.
۲.

A Survey Study of Factors Influencing Iranian EFL Learners’ English Pronunciation Learning

تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۷
English pronunciation is one of the most important and complicated parts of foreign language teaching and learning. Due to its complexity, pronunciation has been overlooked in English language teaching. Understandable pronunciation is an important part of communicative competence. Individuals who have acceptable pronunciation can easily improve their language skills better than those who have weak pronunciation. Thus, English pronunciation is very significant for successful communication. This study investigated the factors influenced Iranian EFL learners’ English pronunciation learning. To this end, fifty Iranian EFL learners participated voluntarily in this study. A quantitative method was used as the design of this study. The researchers used a survey questionnaire as the instrument of this study. The collected data were analyzed via using frequency and percentage. The findings of this research indicated that factors such as pronunciation instruction, attitude, motivation, and error correction respectively were the most important factors that had the greatest effects on Iranian learners’ pronunciation improvement. It was also concluded that when teaching pronunciation into their classes, EFL teachers and learners should be equipped with these factors that can considerably increase their success in the correct teaching and learning of English pronunciation.
۳.

The Impact of Cultural Familiarity on Vocabulary Learning through Reading among Iranian Upper-intermediate Male and Female EFL Learners

تعداد بازدید : ۳۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۲
This study attempted to investigate the effects of cultural background knowledge on vocabulary learning through reading culturally oriented texts. The study was conducted with 150 upper-intermediate male ( n = 75) and female ( n = 75) EFL students. The participants of each gender were randomly assigned into three equal groups: group A (Target Culture = TC), group B (Source Culture = SC) and group C (Culture-Free = CF). After homogenizing the participants through a researcher-made vocabulary pretest, three groups received the treatment which was reading comprehension materials reflecting a particular culture. During the treatment, some reading passages related to American and English cultures, Persian culture, and culture free materials were taught to group A, group B, and group C, respectively. At the end of the study, a researcher-made vocabulary posttest was administered. Results of one-way ANCOVA and paired samples t test revealed the significant effects of cultural familiarity whereby vocabulary gains were greater after participants read within the culturally oriented text. Moreover, the results showed that there was no significant difference in vocabulary knowledge posttest between male and female learners.
۴.

An Investigation of Interpersonal Metadiscourse Markers as Persuasive Strategies in Donald Trump’s 2016 Campaign Speeches

تعداد بازدید : ۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۵۸
Interpersonal metadiscourse is considered as a significant mean of smoothing communication between the speaker/writer and listener/reader. The present study intends to explore the concept and type of interpersonal metadiscourse markers employed by Donald Trump’s campaign speeches as a persuasive strategy. Descriptive qualitative research design is used in the present study. Dafouz’s (2008) classification of interpersonal metadiscourse markers was employed to analyze the gathered data. The results revealed that Trump made use of all categories of interpersonal metadiscourse markers namely hedges, certainty markers, attributors, attitude markers, and commentaries, in his campaign speeches. The frequency of attitude markers and commentaries was more than other types of metadiscourse markers in Trump’s campaign speech, which demonstrates that he attempted to persuade the public to vote for him through making an emotional link.
۵.

Investigating the Relationship between Iranian Undergraduate TEFL Learners’ Self-regulation and Self-efficacy

تعداد بازدید : ۴۱ تعداد دانلود : ۹۱
The present empirical study investigated the relationship between Iranian undergraduate TEFL learners’ self-regulation and their self-efficacy. For this end, there have been a total number of 120 college students learning English as a foreign language who volunteered to complete the two quantitative questionnaires of self-regulation and self-efficacy respectively. The participants were informed of the anonymous nature of the data collection process in advance. They were also told that their responses would certainly be kept confidential and that they had the right to quit at any part of the survey. It took around 15–20 minutes for each respondent to complete the survey. In the meanwhile, some of the participants (around ten) also willingly answered the qualitative descriptive semi-structured questions of the interview, until that the interview responses were saturated. After the process of data collection, the findings were measured through correlation analysis, indicating that self-regulation and self-efficacy were jointly linked and had a directly positive relationship. Accordingly, it was revealed that the employment of these two highly associated psychological constructs could systematically guide and help learners to enhance their learning capabilities and lead them to ultimate desired learning goals. Ultimately, it was concluded from the findings of the current study that the delicate association between self-regulation and self-efficacy was really helpful for learners to lead them successfully to their academic goals.
۶.

Exploring the Relationship between Listening Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Senior High School Students and Their Listening Comprehension Problems

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۵
The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Iranian EFL senior high school students (N = 60). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use and listening comprehension problems. In this study, listening problems included input, context, listener, process, affect, and task problems while the listening strategies comprised of cognitive, meta-cognitive, and socio-affective strategies. To collect the needed data, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants. After collecting the data and analyzing them through SPSS software, the results revealed that ‘input’ and ‘affect’ were two main listening comprehension problems the learners suffered from. Results also indicated that the main listening strategy used by learners was meta-cognitive strategy. The relationship between listening problems and strategy used among the learners was statistically significant and negative. Outcomes propose that it is crucial for second language teachers to be aware of the different listening problems so as to enable listeners to utilize the appropriate strategies.
۷.

The Relationship between Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners’ Contrastive Lexical Competence and Their Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵۱
Regarding the vital role of lexical competence as an important requisite for the attainment of full mastery of the four language skills, this study tried to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ contrastive lexical competence and their use of vocabulary learning strategies. To fulfil this objective, 60 Iranian upper-intermediate male and female language learners were selected based on the results of an Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT). Afterwards, the researcher administered the Contrastive Lexical Competence Test (Ziafar, 2017). After carrying out the CLC test, the participants answered the Questionnaire of Vocabulary Learning Strategies. The questionnaire adapted from the taxonomy of vocabulary learning strategies (VLS) developed by Schmitt (1997). After analyzing the data, it was revealed that determination strategies were the most frequently-used strategies of the five vocabulary learning strategies, followed by cognitive strategies. Moreover, the result indicated that the relationship between CLC and vocabulary learning strategies was a strong positive one and this relationship was of statistical significance. The implications of this study can make teachers aware of the importance of choosing an appropriate strategy of vocabulary learning for language learners to pave the way of improving lexical knowledge for them.
۸.

Pedagogical Efficacy of Experience-Based Learning (EBL) Strategies for Improving the Speaking Fluency of Upper-intermediate Male and Female Iranian EFL Students

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۶
Learning from experience is a central physiological and theoretical idea in adult language learning which has become increasingly important in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) and is closely connected to task-based language teaching (TBLT). Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate the role of experience-based learning strategies in developing male and female intermediate EFL learners’ speaking fluency. To this end, from the target population of 300 language learners attending evening English classes at a language institute, a sample of 50 intermediate participants were randomly chosen by administering an Oxford placement Test (OPT). The average age of the selected students ranged between 17 and 25. An interview was utilized as a pretest to determine participants’ speaking fluency entry behavior. Subsequently, they were divided into two groups labeled as experimental and control groups. While the control group students received instruction through a traditional method without any focus on experience-based activities and strategies, those in the experimental group were exposed to interactive solutions verbally participating in class discussions during task-based classroom sessions in which they discussed their experiences in performing carefully prepared two-way tasks. The analysis of the data obtained from the posttest interview indicated that the participants in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group. Moreover, the results reflected that experience-based tasks considerably improved language the learners’ speaking fluency. Notably, the findings of the present study may have certain insightful pedagogical implications for language instructors and material developers.
۹.

Gender Differences in the Use of Lexical Hedges in Academic Spoken Language among Iranian EFL Learners: A Comparative Study

تعداد بازدید : ۱۷۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۲
This study tried to compare the possible differences between female and male EFL students with respect to the use of lexical hedges in their academic spoken language. To fulfil this objective, 40 Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners majoring in TEFL were chosen from Islamic Azad University of Abadan, Iran. The selected participants were assigned into two equal groups namely male group (n=20) and female group (n=20). Then, five discussion sessions in a single gendered context were separately recorded for male and female participants. Frequency counts and chi-square were used to analyze the obtained data. By utilizing the framework of hedges, it is deduced that that there are differences among female and male respondents’ propensity in selecting word of lexical hedges. Female responders tend to utilize more lexical hedges than male responders. In such manner, most frequently lexical hedges of fillers such as; hmm, uhh, you know, yeah were used most frequently by female respondents in their utterances; while male respondents most repeatedly utilized lexical hedges of fillers like; I think, uhh, yeah in their utterances. Female respondents had broad range variegation in picking words of lexical hedges while male respondents were not sufficiently productive in selecting the words of lexical hedges. It was demonstrated by the number of lexical hedges applied in giving viewpoints in debate and discussion context.

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