مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه
انگیختگی به معنی وجود سرنخی در صورت برای رسیدن به معناست؛ چیزی که ما را مستقیما از صورت به معنا رهنمون می شود و این بدان معناست که رابطه صورت و معنا، همواره یا تنها قراردادی نیست یا این که رابطه قراردادی در پاره ای مواقع به رابطه تصویرگونه مبدل می شود. یکی از انواع انگیختگی، انگیختگی معنایی است. واژه هایی انگیختگی معنایی دارند که رابطه معنایی بین اجزای تشکیل دهنده واژه و کل واژه وجود داشته باشد. در زمینه انگیختگی، عده ای بر این باورند که واژگان ابتدایی بشر انگیخته بوده اند و با گذشت زمان و به دلیل تغییرات آوایی و... درجه انگیختگی واژگان کاهش یافته است. در این پژوهش، نگاه عمیق تر و دقیق تری به این پدیده داشته ایم و برای بررسی این فرضیه، با انتخاب چهار متن سفرنامه از زمان حال و استخراج 2800 واژه محتوایی به بررسی انگیختگی معنایی در این متون پرداخته ایم و سپس آنها را با 2800 واژه استخراج شده از چهار متن در دویست سال پیش مقایسه نمودیم تا با بررسی ها و مقایسه های آماری دریابیم که از دویست سال پیش تاکنون، انگیختگی معنایی در بین واژگان زبان فارسی افزون گشته یا کاهش یافته است. مقایسه نتایج حاصل از بررسی این دو دوره نشان می دهد که افزایش معناداری در شمار واژگان دارای انگیختگی معنایی در زمان حال، نسبت به 200 سال پیش به چشم می خورد؛ بنابراین، شاید بتوان ادعا کرد از 200 سال گذشته تاکنون، انگیختگی معنایی در واژگان زبان فارسی افزایش یافته است و از این نقطه نظر، زبان فارسی به سمت شفافیت پیش رفته است و نه تیرگی.
Although Gardner and his associates’ work was most influential in the field of L2 motivation, from the early 1990s onwards, their work has been criticized for several reasons. Some researchers claimed that integrative and instrumental orientations were no longer able to convey the complexity of the L2 motivation construct. To examine this complexity, the present study attempted to investigate the discursive construction of four (two males and two females) Iranian EFL learners’ motivation at Shiraz University, Iran. Employing van Leeuwen’s (2008) legitimation construction framework, the study revealed that depending on their future selves, each participant employed certain discursive strategies unique to him/her to (de)legitimize his/her future self. Therefore, what was observed was the use of strategies which were idiosyncratic to that particular person, in that particular context, for a specific purpose, and for that particular moment. Additionally, given the unique political conditions of Iran in the world, it was found that integrative and instrumental orientations can be best replaced by ideal and ought-to selves in this context. The study has some implications. Motivation researchers need to broaden the unit of analysis beyond the individual learner to the interaction between the individual and the multitude of factors in diverse social settings.
EFL Learning, EFL Motivation Types, and National Identity: In Conflict or in Coalition فراگیری زبان انگلیسی، نوع انگیزه فراگیری زبان انگلیسی، و هویت ملی: در تعارض یا تعامل
The present study was aimed at examining concerns about the social effects of EFL learning, a challenging area of research which has not been discussed sufficiently. It tried to investigate the relationship between EFL learning and national identity. In addition, attempt was made to find a relationship between language motivation types and national identity. Furthermore, the role of two demographic variables, gender and age was examined. To this end, a sample consisting of 350 undergraduates studying at Allameh Tabataba'i University in Tehran took part in the study. A questionnaire on national identity and another one on language motivation types followed by an interview were the instruments used. The questionnaires had already been developed. However, there were some major modifications for the former which consisted of 30 items measuring national identity for all participants. The latter contained 42 items measuring language motivation types for only EFL learners. The Regression analysis, independent samples t-tests and a one-way ANOVA were run. The results revealed that claims over the harmful social effects of EFL learning were not arguably significant and it was found that among the eight language motivation types, going abroad and social responsibility were correlated with national identity. Furthermore, gender and age indicated significant differences among the participants' tendencies. The findings indicated that the social concerns about EFL learning are too pessimistic. So, materials developers, syllabus designers and teachers might consider the potentiality of some social elementsand demographic variables for the development of EFL learning.
This study overviews current research on the role of motivation in second or foreign language learning. Motivation is an important factor for explaining the success or failure of any complex task. In this paper, the researcher defines the term motivation, explains different types of motivation, reviews previous studies about the role of motivation in language learning, mentions conditions of motivation, and finally states key factors of motivation. The review of literature indicated that motivation has a very important role in learning English as a foreign or second language successfully.
This study aimed to explore the relationships between foreign language learners’ self-identity changes, motivation types, and Foreign Language proficiency associated with learning English in private language schools in Iranian context. Based on a stratified sampling, 204 English as a foreign language learners from three language schools in Tehran were selected to participate in the study. The instruments were a 30-item Likert-scale questionnaire on motivation types in seven categories: intrinsic interest, immediate achievement, learning situation, going aboard, social responsibility, individual development, and information medium; a 24-item Likert-scale questionnaire on self-identity changes in six categories: self-confidence change, additive change, subtractive change, productive change, split change, and zero change. Results revealed that self-confidence change was the prominent change common among foreign language learners. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that motivation types and self-identity changes were related through three pairs of canonical variables: intrinsic orientations related with personal identity changes, instrumental orientations related with cultural changes, and instrumental orientations related learners’ self-confidence change. Theoretical and pedagogical implications for foreign language learning and teaching are also discussed.
Does Learner Motivation Impact Pronunciation Gains in the Light of Teacher and Peer Oral Corrective Feedback?
Almost in every stage of their language learning process, the learners have motivation for what they do and receive a negative or positive feedback for it. The current study was after finding the would-be effect of motivation on 58 elementary EFL learners’ pronunciation gains successive to teacher and peer oral corrective feedback. To this aim, two intact groups at elementary level of proficiency were employed as the study participants, each of which was exposed to treatment through one type of oral corrective feedback (either teacher or peer feedback type) following the initial administration of a tailor-made recognition test of pronunciation. Thus, following pretest, an adopted motivation questionnaire was assigned to participants in both groups to gauge their motivation type (intrinsic or extrinsic) in learning a foreign language. Subsequent to the treatment applied via teacher and peer corrective feedback methods, the posttest was administered to all the study participants. The oral corrective feedback was utilized to provide implicit instruction to the EFL learners regarding their pronunciation at the segmental level. The results revealed that no statistically significant difference existed between the two groups regarding their pronunciation enhancement. Thus, it was indicated throughout the research that neither learners’ motivation type nor the corrective feedback type offered by the study played a significant role in ameliorating learners’ performance on pronunciation posttest. The issue problematized in the current study may help teachers rethink the way they provide corrective feedback in their classes, and be more vigilant of and sensitive to the preferred ways of feedback provision on the part of learners in the light of motivational and attitudinal factors. Keywords: motivation; second language pronunciation; oral corrective feedback جستاری درباره تاثیر انگیزه یادگیرندگان بر بهبود تلفظشان در سایه دریافت بازخورد اصلاحی از معلمان و همکلاسان یادگیرندگان زبان در هر مرحله از فرایند یادگیری از انگیزه برای آنچه انجام می دهند برخوردار بوده و بازخورد مثبت یا منفی در قبال آن دریافت می کنند. هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیر انگیزه زبان آموزان سطح مقدماتی بر بهبود تلفظشان بدنبال اجرای جلسات بازخورد اصلاحی شفاهی بود. بدین منظور در ابتدای کار دو گروه از زبان آموزان سطح مقدماتی انتخاب گردیده و پس از اجرای پیش آزمون تلفظ، هر کدام به یکی از دو شیوه بازخورد اصلاحی (از طریق معلم و یا همکلاسان) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. همچنین جهت تعیین نوع غالب انگیزش زبان آموزان (درونی یا بیرونی)، پرسشنامه انگیزش توسط محققان ارائه گردید، و در انتهای کار پس آزمون تلفظ از فراگیران به عمل آمد. گفتنی است بازخورد اصلاحی شفاهی با هدف اجرای آموزش غیر مستقیم تلفظ به زبان آموزان صورت گرفت. بر پایه نتایج حاصله، هیچ تفاوت معناداری در میزان پیشرفت زبان آموزان دو گروه در پس آزمون مشاهده نگردید. بنابراین محققان از یافته های تحقیق حاضر اینگونه استنباط نمودند که نه نوع بازخورد اصلاحی ارائه شده و نه نوع انگیزش زبان آموزان هیچکدام تاثیر عمده ای در ایجاد تفاوت معنادار بین عملکرد دو گروه در پس آزمون تلفظ نداشتند. در نهایت چنین به نظر می رسد که نتایج پژوهش حاضر می تواند به معلمان کمک کند تا در نحوه ارائه بازخورد اصلاحی در کلاس تجدید نظر نموده و نسبت به ترجیحات زبان آموزان در این خصوص با توجه به انگیزه و نگرش های آنان آگاهانه تر و دقیق تر عمل نمایند. کلید واژگان:انگیزش، تلفظ در زبان دوم، بازخورد اصلاحی شفاهی
EFL Learners’ Motivation and Attitude toward EIL in the Increasingly Globalized Local Context of Iran: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach
The present study probed 409 Iranian English as foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation and attitude toward English as an International Language (EIL) by investigating the causal relationships of their facets via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). To do so, the Persian version of the ‘attitudes toward EIL’ scale was designed and validated. It measures five constructs of: cultural realism, linguistic cultural disposition (negative), (dis)ownership of English, EIL posture, and localization. Then, the researchers utilized the validated scale along with the adapted Persian version of motivation scale designed by Taguchi et al. (2009) to explore the causal relationship among their facets. The latter scale measures seven dimensions of instrumentality prevention, instrumentality promotion, ideal L2 self, ought-to l2 self, learning experience, motivational intensity, and integrativeness. The findings of the study revealed that students' motivational intensity positively predicted by other motivational and attitudinal factors with 'ideal self' and 'instrumentality promotion' having the highest influence. It was also found that ‘cultural realism’ was a significant predicator of ‘localisation’, and ‘localisation’ was a significant positive predictor of ‘disownership of English’. ‘EIL posture’ was also in a positive direct relationship with ‘cultural realism’, whereas ‘linguistic cultural disposition’ (negative) was found to negatively influence other aspects including ‘motivational intensity’. This study has some implications for ELT professionals to revisit EFL motivation in light of attitudes toward EIL in expanding circle.
Self-regulation of learning has been extensively investigated in second language (L2) learning. Many studies have focused on the strategies that language learners employ to regulate their own learning processes. However, motivational self-regulation is considerably less explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between motivational self-regulatory strategies (MSRSs) and academic achievement. A motivational self-regulation questionnaire was administered to 64 male and female adult Iranian EFL learners to measure their choice of various strategies. The quantitative data was analyzed by applying correlational and multivariate analyses. The results demonstrated that there was a strong relationship between motivational self-regulatory strategy use and academic achievement. However, no difference was found between male and female learners in their use of the strategies. Further examination revealed that higher-achieving students differed from lower-achieving participants in their preference for strategies. The article concludes that while all learners use extrinsic rewards to self-regulate their motivation, more successful learners tend to manipulate learning tasks to make the tasks intrinsically interesting and pleasant. Also, more successful learners set both long-term and short-term goals to motivate themselves. The results underscore the importance of students’ personal interests, needs and goals, and suggest that teachers foster learners’ command of the strategies through instruction and cooperative activities.
Motivation is one of the neglected parts of English language teaching. Teachers often forget that motivation is the basic part of learners’ English language learning activities. In this sense, learners control the flow of the classroom. Without learners’ motivation, there is no pulse and no life in the class. When learners learn to incorporate direct approaches to generate motivation in their learning, they will become happier and more successful learners. This paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of motivation on learners’ reading comprehension. It reviews the terms motivation, different types of motivation, reading comprehension, and different models of reading comprehension. The review of the literature indicated that motivation has an influential role in learners’ reading comprehension.
How to Reproduce Farming: A Description of the Strategies for Survival of Plum Gardens in Mountainous Rural Areas of Neyshabur County
Purpose: we investigate the strategies for survival of small orchards in present paper through considering this question that why orchards have kept their productive function despite of renovation pressure and universal market and totally not to be economical. Design/methodology/approach: grounded theory method of qualitative research, especially in this article is based on a case study should be placed on the agenda; in total, 60 semi-structured interviews and in-depth (Purposive sampling: Stratified, questionnaire) those involved in this field was Finding: The results showed domestic garden maintenance in Neyshabur when a part of strategy Employment-oriented and income from non-agricultural business backing for investment and economic mobility has become a garden. Of course, it also organized social factors in the context of traditional interactive and strong local relationships and kinship rather broad and external basis for the stability of the production process in the region; That is to say, it is also the main cause of underdevelopment. Individual motivation and personal preferences (values and beliefs) also has a fundamental role in the continuing rebel activities. Practical implications: developers don't have more than two ways in order to participations programming in future in condition of peasant's economy conquest to rural society. The first one knows internal mechanisms and satisfaction of present production way which it guaranties the minimum of village persistence. The Second one is removing the existing obstacles in destructing the traditional interactions and extending social networks among orchardists and communicating with others in production field. Originality/value: relational and territorial approaches in the concept of embeddedness, the main axis domestic garden maintenance strategies in the study does not explain in purely economic and rational action.
The Relationship between Iranian Male and Female EFL Learners’ Motivation and their Identity: Perfectionism and Hardiness
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۰, No.۲۰, Spring & Summer ۲۰۱۷ 187 - 207
The learners’ identity is one of the most important key elements of learning to motivate learners to learn English. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the male and female EFL learners’ motivation and their identity with a focus on gender. The study had a descriptive correlational design. The participants of this study were 50 Iranian male and 50 female postgraduate English majors, aged between 23 and 41, who were selected through convenient sampling. Three questionnaires of motivation, hardiness, and perfectionism were distributed among the participants. The results of Pearson correlation analyses demonstrated that there was not a significant relationship between EFL learners’ motivation and their hardiness in both genders. Also, the results showed no significant relationship between EFL learners’ motivation and their perfectionism in the two groups. Moreover, the results of independent-sample t-tests failed to find any significant difference between male and female students’ motivation and their hardiness and perfectionism.
Technology Mediated Instruction and its Effect on Cognitive Scaffolding, motivation and Academic Performance in EFL Context
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۰, No.۲۱, Fall & Winter ۲۰۱۷ 72 - 96
Technology mediated learning brings together the users with shared interests. This method makes learners informally engaged in language learning. This study intended to investigate the effect of technology mediated instruction on cognitive scaffolding, academic performance and motivation. Employing a quasi-experimental research, 80 learners from two intact classes at Islamic Azad University, Osku Branch were selected as the experimental and control groups. Telegram as a tool was used in the experimental group, while the control group received traditional way of instruction. Critical ethnography approach was implemented to consider the amount of cognitive scaffolding. To measure the students’ motivational level in both groups, Course Interest Survey (CIS) was administered at the end of the semester. The total average score for each group was calculated. To compare students’ academic achievement, their average scores in the final academic test were considered. An Independent samples t-test in was used to compare the mean scores. The results indicated that technology mediated learning brought about cognitive scaffolding and the students in the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of motivation and academic achievement. The results of the study suggest that to bring about academically successful students, practitioners should use technology mediated instruction.
Autonomy-Supportive Teaching, Willingness to Communicate in English, Motivation, and English Speaking Self-Efficacy among EFL Learners: A Structural Equation Modelling Study
This study examines the potential connections among learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in English, their perceptions of autonomy-supportive teaching and two individual difference variables, i.e. motivation and English speaking self-efficacy. Two hundred and five Iranian EFL learners responded to four questionnaires. The data obtained from the collected instruments were subjected to structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings revealed significant positive paths from autonomy-supportive teaching to motivation, WTC in English, and English speaking self-efficacy. Further significant paths were found leading from motivation to WTC and from English speaking self-efficacy to motivation. The findings also indicated that autonomy-supportive teaching style and English speaking self-efficacy could indirectly affect learners’ WTC through the mediation of motivation. Furthermore, autonomy-supportive teaching was found to indirectly predict learners’ motivation through the mediating role of self-efficacy. The implications of the study for teachers and teacher educators are discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using motivation strategies on EFL teachers’ motivation and reflective teaching. In order to do this, 30 Iranian female EFL teachers who were the researcher’s colleagues and expressed their willingness to participate in this study were selected. The group filled out a reflective teaching questionnaire by Akbari, Behzadpour, and Dadvand (2010) and motivation strategies questionnairre by Chastain (1988) as the pretest at the outset of the study and subsequently sat for a workshop where the researcher introduced motivation strategies and techniques to them. Following the end of the workshop, the teachers went back to their routine teaching program for 15 sessions and the researcher administered the reflectivity questionnaire and motivation strategies questionnaire as the posttest to the 30 teachers after those 15 sessions. In order to test the null hypotheses, that is to check any significant difference in the degree of the reflective teaching and motivation of the group prior to and after the treatment, a paired samples t-test was conducted in this research. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the participants’ scores on the motivation pretest and posttest; favoring the posttest. Also,there was a significant difference between the participants’ scores on the reflective teaching pretest and posttest, favoring the posttest. Therefore, the results showed that motivation strategies significantly affect the teachers’ motivation and reflective teaching.
منبع: Journal of System Management, Volume ۵, Issue ۱, Winter ۲۰۱۹ 115 - 138
This study aimed to test the conceptual model on the causal relationship of motivation and consumption intention. To this end, 390 spectators who were present at the stadium, were randomly selected using stratified random sampling. They voluntarily completed Funk’s Motivation Scale and spectators’ consumption intention questionnaire. Structural Equation findings indicted a significantly positive relationship between the motivation and the consumption intentions among the spectators of Iran’s Premier Football League. There is a positive relationship between motivation and the components of consumption intention, including re-attendance, recommendation to others, purchase of team goods, and media consumption. The indices confirmed the optimal fit of the model. According to the results of the study, the authorities holding the Premier League matches as well as the clubs are recommended to have a detailed planning to enhance the motivation of the spectators as it had the greatest impact on re-attendance.
The relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Intrinsic Motivation with Environmental Behavior of Tehran Students (District 2)
منبع: آموزش محیط زیست و توسعه پایدار سال هفتم تابستان ۱۳۹۸ شماره ۴ 103 - 116
Today the importance of the environment is a global issue. Therefore, this research was conducted with the aim of identifying the relationship between psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation with environmental behavior through descriptive-survey. The statistical population consisted of first-grade high school students in district 2 of Tehran, among which 380 were randomly selected. Three questionnaires were used to collect data: Spreitzer psychological empowerment (1995), Patrick & Leone intrinsic motivation (2009) and Erzengin & Teke environmental behavior (2013). The results of Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression showed that among the components of psychological empowerment there was a significant relationship between the components of sense of meaning, sense of competence and sense of efficacy with environmental behavior but the component of the sense of choice was not significant. The overall relation between two variables (psychological empowerment and environmental behavior) was also significant. Among components of intrinsic motivation, interest and pleasures components, sense of effort, sense of powerfulness and utilization also had a significant relationship with environmental behavior, but there was no significant relationship between the sensitization components. The overall relation between two variables (intrinsic motivation and environmental behavior) was also significant
This study aimed at investigating learners’ and teachers’ perception of language learning demotivation and their suggested strategies for preventing it. Participants of the study included 36 female and 24 male EFL learners in the 15-18 age range and 19 female and 11 male EFL teachers in the 25-50 age range. Their anti-demotivation strategies were sought by using a 40- item Likert type questionnaire in learners’ and teacher’ versions, with Cronbach’s alphas of .949 and .913, respectively. The results were analyzed and inferences were made. They indicated that both teachers and learners believed that “creating relaxing and stress free environment” and “setting goals” are the most effective ways to prevent demotivation. “Showing enthusiasm for teaching” was also regarded as effective as the above mentioned strategies. Although teachers and students had similar suggestions regarding the most effective strategies to fight demotivation, statistical analysis indicated that they were significantly different from each other when all their preferred strategies were juxtaposed and compared in one bulk. Taking the results of this study into account can help teachers be as closely aligned with learners as their practical wisdom guides them or favors their own preferences as their discretion and tact allow.
Imagination, Senses and Motivation: How are Sensory Styles, Imagery Capacity and Gender Related to Motivational Attributes of Iranian EFL Learners?
منبع: Issues in Language Teaching (ILT), Vol. ۸, No. ۲, ِDecember ۲۰۱۹ 275 - 303
Recent research on second language (L2) motivation emphasizes the significant role of personal vision and future-oriented self images on L2 learners’ motivation. This role is even more important in EFL contexts where learners have scarce access to authentic communicative situations. Therefore, EFL learners’ capacity to form vivid images can have an essential role in enhancing their motivation to learn. This article reports on a research study that investigated the potential links among Iranian EFL learners’ imagery capacity, sensory styles, gender and future L2 self-guides (ideal L2 self and ought-to L2 self). A total of 311 adult Iranian EFL learners responded to a self-report questionnaire. Several correlation, multiple regression and t-tests were performed to analyze the data. The results revealed a significant association between EFL learners’ imagery capacity and their future L2 self-guides. The findings show that higher ability at generating mental images is strongly related to improved future L2 self-guides and increased motivation. Also, the results demonstrate that both visual and auditory sensory styles are involved in forming imagery and vision, and are both positively associated with EFL learners’ capability for imagining their future L2 self-guides. However, the analyses failed to find any significant connection between kinesthetic style and imagery capacity or L2 self-guides. Additionally, it was shown that self-guides, sensory styles and imagery capacity are not affected by gender. The results indicate the multisensory nature of vision and imply the potential benefits of visualization and imagery training in the language classroom.
On the Effect of Flipped Classroom on Learners’ Achievement, Autonomy, Motivation and WTC: Investigating Learning and Learner Variables
Pitfalls inherent in traditional approaches, movement into post-method frameworks and necessity of reaping benefits of technological advancements gave birth to flipped instruction as a newly emerged practice of teaching. A robust literature has submitted proofs on the merits of this practice in language learning. Adopting an innovatory perspective, the current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of this practice on a number of learning and learner related variables among Iranian intermediate language learners. To this aim 39 learners were selected through convenience sampling, and after removing outliers, 29 learners were randomly assigned to control (N=14) and experimental (N=15) groups. For each variable, a valid instrument was selected or adopted from the literature and modified for the purpose of the study. Then, employing a post-test-only control-group design, their performance on the post-test was measured and analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The outputs reveled a statistically significant difference between groups in achievement (F (1, 27) = 9.627, p = .004) and autonomy (F (1, 27) = 8.308, p = .008) while indicating no significant effect on motivation and willingness to communicate. Some of these findings are in line with major currents of research in the literature but others stand in sharp contrast. Further investigation is required to examine into the nature of these findings through qualitative perspectives, interviews and open-ended questionnaires. These findings have implication for educational researchers, language teachers, language learners and applied linguists.
Auditors play a critical role in any company. The managers of such departments should manage subordinates so well in order to obtain good results. For this condition to happen, at first the managers’ motivations should be recognized and be satisfied, otherwise neither managers, nor subordinates practice auditing in prefect condition. The results of this study show some high rating areas of internal audit department managers’ motivation that have a strong effect on the clients. Furthermore, the results of this study reveal some motivational weakness in internal audit departments in Iran. The authors believe that from any aspect, internal audit departments should satisfy different motivation