Nafsat ol-Masdoor is one of the outstanding artificial and technical texts in prose that remained from the Mongol era. This text has not only been mainly written to record historical events, but also, the writer has been intended to explain his biography and problems. The writer uses various literary arts to affect the addressee and one of these components is poetic affection. Affection or sensation as the spiritual background of every artistic work is inner and the most fundamental element in the formation and integration of text. So, studying it seems necessary more than any other element in literary texts. The paper has been aimed at analyzing affection elements in the historical prose of Nafsat ol-Masdoor and studying the poetic nature of the work, in terms of affection presented by it. In the paper, all affectionate approaches have been primarily been studied; then, after a short look at the poetic nature of the historical prose of Nafsat ol-Masdoor , affection element and poetic polishment of it would be studied, in the work. Continuous affection and its high level of coordination in Nafsat ol-Masdoor have made the book exempted from what is considered as pure historical aspect and has created prose poetry so that image element would be completely served in it. The research results have been obtained through library method and based on content analysis.
George James Frazer (1854-1941), the spiritual father of myth-ritual school, was bred up in the British tradition of empiricism. Believing in the evolutionary process of culture, Frazer mainly focused his attention on explaining such epistemic forms of thought as magic, religion and science. Accordingly, while interpreting the processes through which magic leads to religion and finally evolves into science, Frazer noticed the importance of myth and ritual and their position in this process. However, most researchers regard his reasoning in this regard as incoherent and variable. Thus, in this article, the author tries to reconsider the methodology and axioms on which Frazer relies as well as to make clear the position of myth in his anthropological system. The author believes that Frazer’s dual viewpoint about myth’s position results in no way from the attributed incoherency of his thoughts, but in fact his contemplations on intermediate levels, which make possible going from one stage to the other, provides him with an adequate explanation of the position of myth and its relation to ritual. In the end, it is revealed that Frazer thinks of myth as posterior to ritual in the first intermediate level, while prior to ritual in the second intermediate level. Accordingly, analyzing the validity of Frazer’s reasoning as well as his methodological and epistemic viewpoints, the author has put forth a couple of critical suggestion
The purpose of this study is to find out how the two patterns of textual structure act in stylistics, and which one is a more suitable choice for this type of research. The textual structure is a pattern for analysis of the story structure, which is presented as a component of narrative stylistics in the book Stylistics (Simpson, 2004). This research is conducted on an anecdote from Manteq ot-Tayr and an anecdote from Masnavi with Bayazid Bastami as the main character. The research methodology includes reviewing 6 stages of Labov's model and reviewing 31 functions and 7 characters of Prop's model on different parts of both anecdotes. The results of the study show that although both mentioned patterns are introduced for reviewing the textual structure of a story, though Labov's pattern for the textual structure is more suitable for analysis of mystical poems, and through its review, various aspects of the context of narrative discourse in an anecdote can be understood, Prop's model is more suitable for analysis of folk tales, and matches more with the structure of those tales. In folk tales, as prop believes, the story starts with wickedness (A), shortcoming or a need (a), and through some actions of the intermediary, it leads to marriage (w) or some other actions that are considered as the ending to the story, which we are not encountered in mystical poems. Hence, the application of the above models, which demonstrates the structure of the story, could be useful in narrative stylistics and Labov’s model is more efficient for mystical poetic anecdotes.
In the novel Cold Suran , a causal link between events is established by time. The disruption of the conventional sequence of time gives the novel a beginning from the end. Every incident in the novel is like a circle starting at one point, and returning to the same starting point after the story is narrated. Frequent travels in the memories of Sohrab (one of the main characters) have created a non-linear time in the novel. This study aims to analyze the novel Cold Suran based on the "temporality structure" view. This research was conducted using the qualitative content analysis method. After analyzing the novel based on the "temporality structure" approach and using various resources, it was concluded that Cold Suran corresponds to the "temporality structure" showing how Afhami uses nonlinear time. Sohrab's mindset and his confusion show his character. Afhami also gives individuality to characters embodying important elements such as family name, special time, material environment, the narrator's ego, and language.
The subject of the present study is the metaphorical chain, a lesser-known characteristic of metaphorization in Khaghani's poetry. The purpose of this study is to better understand the ability of Khaghani odes, his specific techniques in metaphorization, the rhetorical capacities of the Persian language, and the elegance of Khaghani’s poetry. The statistical population was selected according to the version of Khaghani's odes emented by Mirjad al-Din al-Kaza'i, which contains 130 odes. The sample size was based on Cochran's formula and 97 odes were selected by simple random sampling using a random number table. The research method employed was descriptive-analytical. Data were obtained through the library and document analysis method and analyzed based on the content analysis technique. According to the research findings, in metaphorization, Khaghani used strange and far-fetched metaphors, hybrid metaphors, and metaphorical chains. The metaphorical chain is one of the lesser-known features of Persian literature and a stylistic feature of Khaghani’s poetry that distinguishes him from Iranian and Arab poets. Choosing the present tense with the transitive verb provided the poet with a metaphorical chain as exemplified in an 88-verse poem with the two motifs of the Prophet Mohamed's (p.b.u.h.) grave soil and praise of his poetry. In this poem, he succeeds in creating 44 metaphors for the grave of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and 14 metaphors in praising his poetry as a paradigmatic axis.
The certain components of rhythmic and musical features in poetry are on the focus of this study. Nizami Ganjavi (died 608 AH/1387AD) is the author of the melodic romantic and lyrical poems in Khosrow and Shirin poem collection in Persian Literature. To create this distinctive and prominent work, he masterfully and carefully used all the elements and techniques of poetical music. Many of the poems in this collection owe their unique harmony and attraction to this quality. In the present study, an inductive approach is adopted to analyze each of the musical components of poetry and the related components including the side music (including rhyme, refrain, and repetition), exterior music (metrics and prosody), spiritual music (the taxis and contradiction literary devices), and interior music (alliteration and repetition of consonants and vowels) to study the quality of these components in Khosrow and Shirin poem collection. For each component in the poetical music category, the related definitions and descriptions are presented based on the ancient and classical books of traditional rhetoric in Persian literature and the general knowledge of phonology. In this research, I have transcribed the verses in using the international phonetic alphabet to make it easier for foreigners to read the verses for obtaining the specific findings of this study.
Trends that have emerged in the epistemological field (of divine and non-divine origin) have commonalities due to the focus on the spiritual dimension of human existence, like the eye of the heart in Islamic Sufism that has similarities with the third eye on Yoga. The most important similarities are the effect of Zikr in the opening of the eye of the heart and the third eye, the need to get Zikr from Sheikh/Guru, solitude, the necessity of observing certain conditions before and during Zikr, steps of Zikr, and the manifestation of the unseen after the opening of the eye of the heart and the third eye. However, there are some differences, too. In Yoga, the physical location of the third eye is determined in the body, but in Islamic Sufism, the eye of the heart is a non-physical concept. In Islamic Sufism, the extent of manifestation of truths that one sees with the eye of the heart is fully described and symbolized, but in Yoga, a brief description is given.
In this article, the story of Sin , by Jalal Al-e Ahmad, is analytically criticized in a two-sided comprehensive view. Literature is a link between art and thought, and an important part of the ideas visualized in literary texts are social. The story, and especially the short story, is an appropriate genre for expressing the writers' thoughts and thus it is a distinguished context for sociological-literary interdisciplinary research. Generally, the criticism of these works is one-dimensional and one-sided, and usually either literary is examined regardless of the social context, or the former is overlooked at the cost of the latter. Jalal Al-e Ahmad on the one hand, due to his excellent writing and literary skills, and on the other hand, because of the precision, sensitivity, and specificity to social issues, has a special place among the short story writers. In the Sin story of the Se Tar collection, describing the narrator-hero inner characteristics, he has depicted the social conflict and, consequently, the anti-normalization. Gender discrimination, misbeliefs, ignorance of the truth of religion, and, as a result, hypocrisy, and weakness of religiousness, routine life, and stagnation of society are other features depicted in this story.
Sohrab Sepehri's poetry is a rich source of novel metaphors. As a poet deeply preoccupied with convincing us to see things differently, Sepehri redefines such key concepts as life and death in his poems. To give us a new understanding of these concepts, he creates numerous metaphors. Probing into his metaphors through a Cognitive Poetic approach helps find out how he constructs them. Cognitive Poetics is a new literary discipline which, among other things, tries to find the relationship between literary works and everyday language. This paper aims to disclose the underlying cognitive structure of Sepehri's metaphors of life and death in his "Water's Footsteps." Such an analysis reveals how the poet rejects the common way of comprehending the concepts of life and death to give them new meanings. The authors argue that the poet resorts to a kind of cognitive defamiliarization by refusing to employ the common Conceptual Metaphors for death and life. Instead, he constructs the metaphor of DEATH IS LIFE. Also discussed is wherein the poem the poet comes round to the common conceptual metaphors of death. Keywords : Sohrab Sepehri, Conceptual Metaphor, cognitive poetics, death, life
The relation between geographic knowledge (particularly geographic names) and Persian poetry is one of the important literary categories which is studied in this article. This category has been talked about less up to now and has been rarely under research and evaluation. There is no doubt that a noticeable part of the poetry themes and Persian poets' witticism is about the names which are mentioned. The familiar appendices which are regulated and published under the title of "list of places" on the final pages of most of the Persian poetry Diwans are briefly clear confirmation of this claim. In this article, there will be an endeavor to familiarize and introduce different forms of reflection of "geographic names" in Persian poetry including a various spectrum of poetic themes, figurative speech, inspiring symbolic and mystical meanings, melodious compounds, proverbial quotations, and wisdom, description, praise, expressing erudition, and developing geographic knowledge. Keywords: Persian poetry, geographical names, poetic theme, literary geography, collocation