رجب اسفندیاری

رجب اسفندیاری

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۲۵ مورد.
۱.

Morphological Complexity Across Descriptive, Expository, and Narrative Text Types in Iranian Lower-Intermediate Language Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶
Morphological complexity is one of the dimensions of complexity that has been increasingly analyzed over the last few years. However, results from previous studies drawing on only a single text type are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of text types (descriptive, narrative, and expository) on the morphological complexity of essays written by Iranian English language learners. The participants included 87 lower-intermediate male and female L2 learners at six language institutes in Qazvin, Iran, who were selected from 127 language learners taking an Oxford Quick Placement test. The participants wrote on each text type in three consecutive weeks as a part of their classroom activity. The morphological complexity of verbs and nouns was separately calculated using the morphological complexity index. The data were analyzed using a series of Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests. The findings did not show any statistically significant differences across text types for nominal inflectional diversity; however, verbal inflectional diversity was statistically significant across text types, with narrative essays morphologically more complex than descriptive and expository essays. The findings may have theoretical and pedagogical implications for researchers and L2 teachers.
۲.

The Effect of Intensive Planned Focus on Form on the Implicit L2 Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۹۷
Attention to form in input now seems to have found its way into second language acquisition (SLA), and it is recommended that language learners’ consciousness be raised for language learning to occur and become intake. Input enhancement and output have received considerable attention in recent SLA as two attention-drawing devices. In the present study, we chose visual input enhancement to examine its effect on noticing and acquisition. To that end, two classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Both groups were exposed to ten different short stories for ten sessions for five weeks, but the type of exposure was different for each group. The English third person singular was highlighted for the experimental group through formatting techniques such as underlining, italicizing, and capitalising. Language learners in the experimental group were supposed to answer the questions following each short story and write a summary for it. Both groups were post tested one week after the treatment on both Noticing Test and a Written Production Test. The results of two independent t-tests showed the superiority of experimental group over the control group in noticing and learning the third person singular. Implications of the findings are discussed.
۳.

A Corpus-based Study on the Use and Syntactic Functions of Lexical Bundles in Applied Linguistics Research Articles in Two Contexts of Publications(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴
The present study investigated the use of lexical bundles (LBs) in research articles authored by English L1 and Persian L1 academic writers, with a special focus on the syntactic roles of LBs in a larger context of sentence level. Four-word bundles were retrieved and classified structurally. The use of identified LBs was compared in two writer groups. The syntactic roles and relative complexity of the bundles’ structures were analyzed in relation to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon’s (2011) hypothesized stages of writing development. The results indicated different patterns of reliance on LBs, with Persian writers making greater use of LBs at higher frequency. In addition, Persian academic writers tended to use high frequency bundles differently from native-speaker academic writers. The results of the syntactic analysis of LBs reflected more frequent use of LBs functioning as compressing lexico-grammatical structures in a native English-speaker corpus, which is indicative of a more complex academic register compared to that of a Persian L1 corpus. The pedagogical implications of the findings for the explicit instruction of syntactically complex corpus-driven LBs for discipline-specific genre writing and suggestions for future research are discussed.
۴.

The Effect of Choice of Prompts on Syntactic Complexity, Grammatical Accuracy, and Lexical Diversity in L2 Argumentative Writing Essays(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲
Previous research has shown the differential effects of task-related prompts on syntactic complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical diversity when L2 learners use writing prompts to produce a piece of writing. However, the extent to which the freedom in the selection of prompts affects these linguistic facets in L2 argumentative essays is still unknown. The present study, therefore, was designed to investigate differences between syntactic complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical diversity in argumentative essays. Seventy-one upper-intermediate male and female Iranian English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) learners from Imam Khomeini International University in Qazvin and Safir Plus institute in Tehran participated in this study. Five-paragraph essays were used to collect data, and SPSS (version 25) was used to analyze the data. Results of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed statistically significant differences between syntactic complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical diversity. Results from post-hoc analyses revealed statistically significant differences between lexical diversity and grammatical accuracy as well as lexical diversity and syntactic complexity, but no statistically significant differences were found between grammatical accuracy and syntactic complexity in argumentative essays.
۵.

نقد و بررسی کتاب Quantitative data Analysis for language assessment (Fundamental techniques and advanced methods) (تحلیل داده های کمی در سنجش زبان (تکنیک های بنیادین و روش های پیشرفته))(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۰
باتوجه به اهمیّت و نقش داده های کمی در سنجش زبان، چاپ کتابی که بتواند روش های تحلیل داده ها را معرفی کند حیاتی بنظر می رسد. کتاب دوجلدی تحلیل داده های کمی در سنجش زبان (تکنیک های بنیادین و روش های پیشرفته) به منظور پرکردن این خلاء توسط وحید آریادوست ((Vahid Aryadoust و میشل راکوئل (Michelle Raquel) گردآوری شده است و انتشارات راتلج (Routledge) آن را منتشر کرده است. جلد اول آن با عنوان تحلیل داده های کمی در سنجش زبان: تکنیک های بنیادین در سال 2019 چاپ شد، و جلد دوم آن تحت عنوان تحلیل داده های کمی در سنجش زبان: روش های پیشرفته در سال 2020 منتشر شد. در این نوشتار، نویسنده ضمن معرفی کتاب، آن را مورد نقد هم قرار می دهد. مطالعه حاضر از نظر هدف انتقادی، به لحاظ رویکرد کیفی، و از حیث تحلیل محتوایی است. کتاب امتیازات بسیار زیادی دارد از جمله کامل بودن فصل ها از نظر ساختاری و محتوایی، انسجام و پیوستگی مطالب، و تنوع روش های تحلیل داد ه های کمی، اگرچه کاستی هایی هم دارد که می توان به عدم شفافیت در انتخاب روش ها اشاره کرد. کتاب حاضر می تواند منشاء تولید پژوهش های سودمند در این حوزه باشد، به گسترش آن کمک شایانی بکند، و منجر به تولید علم در سنجش زبان بشود. لذا مطالعه آن به جامعه آزمون سازی و سنجش زبان موکدا توصیه می شود.
۶.

Correspondence between EFL Teachers’ Cognitive and Behavioral Manifestations of Pedagogical Beliefs: The Moderating Role of Teacher Grit(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸
Previous evidence suggests that teachers’ practices are invariably inconsistent with their beliefs. Different factors have been cited as responsible for such a lack of correspondence. To advance the accumulated scholarship, the current study examined the correspondence/non-correspondence between English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ cognitive and behavioral manifestations of pedagogical beliefs and the extent that teacher grit, as a personal variable, impacts the connection between these two manifestations. An initial group of 70 EFL teachers responded to L2 Teacher Grit Scale and Pedagogical Beliefs Questionnaire. Based on their performance on the Grit Scale, two sub-groups of fifteen teachers (with high and low levels of teacher grit) were selected to examine the alignment/non-alignment of their pedagogical beliefs and practices. Two instructional sessions per teacher were observed by means of an observation checklist designed based on the Pedagogical Beliefs Questionnaire. Comparisons across the teachers showed that whereas the two groups valued pedagogical beliefs roughly equally, only the teachers with high grit levels showed strong evidence of correspondence between their beliefs and actual instructional practices. Based on the findings, it can be implied that teacher grit can serve a prominent role in the correlation between EFL teachers' self-reported pedagogical beliefs and their actual practices.
۷.

پایه دانش آموزشی معلمان زبان دوم: تفاوت های آنها بر اساس اشتیاق سازگار در مقابل جبری

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۸
بررسی پایه دانش آموزشی معلم(PKB)، از مهم ترین مفاهیمی است که در پژوهش های مرتبط با شناخت معلم مطرح شده است. یکی از مباحث مرتبط با مفهومPKB، تفاوت معلم ها از لحاظ فرآیندهای اندیشگانی است که خود ریشه در تمایزات فردی معلمان دارند. از این رو، در مقاله حاضر، به بررسی پایه دانش معلم و تأثیر اشتیاق معلم بر آن را پرداخته شده است. در این تحقیق، تمرکز بر تحلیل فراوانی و بسامد اندیشه ها و مقوله های شناختی معلمان به روش تحلیلی از نوع همبستگی می باشد در این راستا، از هشت معلم EFL ایرانی (چهار نفر دارای اشتیاق سازگار و چهار نفر اشتیاق جبری) به عنوان شرکت-کننده پژوهش استفاده شد. از روش مصاحبه بازسازی شده، برای یافتن واحدهای اندیشگانی آموزشی بهره گرفته شد. سپس، واحدهای اندیشگانی هر دو گروه دسته بندی، کدگذاری و مقوله بندی شدند. نتایج حاکی از آن بود که تفاوت های قابل توجهی میان دو گروه از معلمان شرکت کننده وجود دارد. بر این اساس، مقوله های غالب اندیشگانی آموزشی(PTC) در معلمان دارای اشتیاق سازگار شامل مدیریت زبان، بررسی پیشرفت، بررسی روند تدریس، پیوند عاطفی، بررسی مشکلات، خودارزیابی، باورهای آموزشی، شناخت دانش آموزان، درک پذیری و تصمیم گیری بود و در مقابل، مقوله های غالب اندیشگانی آموزشی معلم های دارای اشتیاق جبری شامل مدیریت زبان، بررسی روند تدریس، بررسی پیشرفت، بررسی مشکلات، درک پذیری، باورهای آموزشی، شناخت دانش آموزان، خودارزیابی، پیوند عاطفی و برنامه ریزی. نتایج نشان داد که پایه دانش آموزشی(PKB) با اشتیاق ارتباط دارد. با این که هر دو گروه در بعضی مقوله های اندیشگانی اشتراک داشتند، اما معلم های گروه HP در مقایسه با معلم های OP تعداد بیشتری واحدهای اندیشگانی آموزشی(PTU) تولید کردند.
۸.

A pragmatic Analysis of Personal Metadiscourse and Politeness Principle across Genres: From Relevance to Adaptation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۹۶
This study investigated personal metadiscourse units across genres. Based on Ädel’s (2006) taxonomy of the discourse functions of personal metadiscourse and Leech’s (2014) grand strategy of politeness, three spoken genres were compared in terms of the use of personal metadiscourse functions and politeness maxims. To that end, a 3,034,025-word corpus consisting of Panel discussion in politics, Interviews with actors, and Comedies genres, which included 30 audio and video transcriptions, was developed. Explicitness, world of discourse, current discourse, speaker qua speaker and listener qua listener were used to identify metadiscourse units. We examined the total frequencies of all personal metadiscourse units used in the corpus. The results of corpus analysis showed that 19.6% of metadiscourse units occurred in comedies, which was the highest among the three genres. The most commonly used metadiscourse units appeared in speaker-oriented metadiscourse with 10.2% in interviews. The results also revealed that in panel discussion the speakers focused more on their own ideas than the listeners or participants. Results of chi-square analysis showed that English speakers used speaker-oriented, participant-oriented, and listener-oriented metadiscourse types statistically significantly differently. A statistically significant difference between speaker-, participant-, and listener-oriented units was found. Results also revealed that speakers in different genres are willing to use such maxims as opinion reticence and modesty more frequently than other maxims. The paper concludes with proposing a new model for analyzing metadiscourse.
۹.

رابطه بین اعتقادات فرهنگی و مذهبی و برداشت از جدیت و شدت سرقت علمی بین دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی رشته زبان انگلیسی در ایران(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۵
این پژوهش میزان آشنایی و برداشت دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی رشته های زبان انگلیسی در ایران را از مصادیق سرقت علمی و رابطه آن با اعتقادات فرهنگی و مذهبی را بررسی کرده است. با وجود مطالعاتی چند در سایر کشورها، فقدان پژوهش های مربوط به ارتباط فرهنگ و مذهب با سرقت علمی در ایران، انجام پژوهش حاضر را توجیه پذیر می کند. شرکت کنندگان 173 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری رشته های آموزش زبان انگلیسی، ادبیات انگلیسی و مترجمی زبان انگلیسی بودند که به روش نمونه گیری مبتنی بر دسترسی به پرسش نامه محقق ساخته که پایایی و روایی آن شده بود، پاسخ دادند. یافته ها نشان داد که میزان آشنایی با مصادیق گوناگون سرقت علمی در بین دانشجویان بالاست. تحلیل واریانس دوسویه نشان داد که اعتقادات فرهنگی و مذهبی در میزان درک و آشنایی از جدیت و شدت مصادیق گوناگون سرقت علمی دانشجویان مرد و زن تفاوت معناداری ایجاد نمی کند. علاوه بر این، تأثیر اعتقادات فرهنگی و مذهبی در درک و آشنایی از سرقت علمی در دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری قابل توجه نبود. این یافته ها می تواند برای پژوهشگران و دانش آموختگان رشته زبان انگلیسی، کاربردهای نظری و عملی داشته باشد.
۱۰.

مرور نظام مند و فراتحلیل کیفی پژوهش های آینده نگاری در حوزه علم، فناوری و نوآوری

تعداد بازدید : ۱۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۲
   پژوهش حاضر با هدف مرور نظام مند و فراتحلیل کیفی پژوهش های آینده نگاری در حوزه علم، فناوری و نوآوری در ایران و دیگر کشور ها انجام شده است. در این فراتحلیل کیفی، جامعه پژوهش شامل تمامی مقاله ها، پایان نامه ها و کتاب های مرتبط به کلیدواژه ها و درراستای اهدف پژوهش بود. جهت تحقق اهداف پژوهش حاضر ابتدا با استفاده از کلیدواژه های موردنظر با اهداف تعیین شده در منابع اطلاعاتی داخلی و خارجی بین سال های 2000 تا 2019 با کلیدواژه های آینده نگاری، علم و فناوری و همچنین جستجو براساس میزان استنادات مقالات پژوهشگران بنام این حوزه به جستجو پرداخته شد. در مرحله دوم با استفاده از ملاک های ورود و خروج در پژوهش حاضر به غربالگری و انتخاب پژوهش های موردنظر درراستای اهداف تعیین شده پرداخته شد. در مرحله آخر، بعد از غربالگری و انتخاب مقاله های موردنظر با استفاده از فراتحلیل کیفی و درجهت پاسخگویی به پرسش های مطرح شده به واکاوی و تجزیه و تحلیل یافته ها پرداخته شد. در مطالعه حاضر درمجموع 33 پژوهش مورد واکاوی و ارزیابی قرار گرفتند بود که دراین بین، 84/84 درصد مقاله علمی پژوهشی، 06/6 درصد مقاله همایشی، 06/6 درصد طرح پژوهشی و 03/3 نیز پایان نامه بودند. همچنین بیشترین مطالعه انجام شده  45/45 درصد در بازه زمانی 2019- 2015 انجام شده بود. افزون براین، درمجموع 80 پژوهشگر76/80 مرد و 23/19 درصد زن در پژوهش های مورد بررسی نقش آفرینی کرده بودند که 25/71 درصد آنها نیز اعضای هیئت علمی بودند. همچنین از پژوهش های موردبررسی 33/33 درصد از روش کمی، 60/60 درصد روش کیفی و 09/9 درصد نیز از روش آمیخته استفاده کرده بودند.
۱۱.

Learning L2 Idioms through Visual Mnemonics(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۹۲ تعداد دانلود : ۹۱
Due to the importance of idioms, many researchers and teachers have long sought to find ways of making idiom teaching and learning more effective. This study compared three visual mnemonic devices (pictures, mental imagery, and movie clips) in terms of their effect on EFL learners’ recognition and recall of English idioms. Ninety intermediate level EFL learners who were preparing themselves for IELTS participated in this study. They were in three groups of thirty members each. Each group was taught idioms using one of the afore-mentioned visual mnemonic devices. Receptive and productive tests of idioms were administered to all groups after the treatment. The one-way ANOVA procedure was used to analyze the collected data. The results revealed statistically significant differences among these devices, with pictures method being the most effective on both recognition and recall of idioms. The findings of the study can have significant theoretical as well as pedagogical implications for language researchers, textbook designers, curriculum developers, teachers, and language learners. 
۱۲.

The Effects of Task Orientation and Involvement Load on Learning Collocations(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۵
This study examined the effects of input-oriented and output-oriented tasks with different involvement load indices on Iranian EFL learners' comprehension and production of lexical collocations. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 180 intermediate-level EFL learners (both male and female) participated in the study. The participants were in six experimental groups. Each of the groups was randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions, namely input-oriented tasks with involvement load 1 (True-false), 2 (Matching), 3 (Multiple-choice), and output-oriented tasks with involvement load 1 (Short response), 2 (Fill in the blanks), and 3 (Sentence formation). At the end of the treatment period, the researchers administered a 40-item test in multiple-choice format and a 40-item test in fill-in-the-blanks format to assess the participants' comprehension and production of collocations. The collected data were analyzed using two different two-way ANOVAs and a series of independent-samples t-tests. The results showed that the tasks with higher involvement load indices were more effective on both receptive and productive knowledge of lexical collocations. The results also revealed that output-oriented tasks were more beneficial than input-oriented tasks at all three indices of involvement load. These findings can have theoretical and pedagogical implications for language teachers, researchers, and learners.
۱۳.

Cloze-Elide Test as an Alternative Test Method: Linking Personality Types to Test Method Performance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۹ تعداد دانلود : ۵۴
More innovative test methods may measure language learners’ test performance more accurately, contributing to much fairer decisions. This study examined Iranian language learners’ performance on cloze-elide test as an innovative, integrative test method. It specifically focused on investigating whether personality types correlated with their performance and whether personality types could predict their test performance. Data were collected from 283 Iranian language learners at six Iranian language institutes, who took the cloze-elide test, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI-M) Personality Type Inventory. The data were quantitatively analysed using SPSS (version 22). The results of Pearson correlation showed a positive correlation between thinking and performance on cloze-elide test; by contrast, extroversion and feeling negatively correlated with language learners’ performance on cloze-elide test. Furthermore, the results from the standard multiple regression showed that the strongest personality type for predicting language learners’ performance on the test was introversion. The findings suggest the interaction between personality types and test methods may better explain test results. The article concludes with some implications for curriculum development.
۱۴.

Psychometric Properties of 3-, 4-, and 5-Option Item Tests: Do Test Takers’ Personality Traits Make a Difference?(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۹
Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding what contributes psychometrically sound multiple-choice (MC) items. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, twofold: (a) to compare 3-, 4-, and 5-option multiple-choice (MC) tests in terms of psychometric characteristics, and (b) to investigate the relationships between three MC tests and five personality traits. To that end, 150 students were asked to answer three stem equivalent MC item tests. A Big Five Inventory was used to find students’ personality traits. Moreover, an attitude questionnaire was utilized to seek students’ opinions of these three MC tests. The results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences for item difficulty, while no statistically significant differences were found for item discrimination and reliability across three MC tests. The results of the Pearson correlation showed no correlation between personality traits and three different versions of MC tests. The results of the attitude questionnaire indicated mixed views towards MC tests. The findings of this study suggest that test developers consider statistical, affective, and contextual factors in order to develop different formats of MC tests.
۱۵.

Definitional Clarifications in the Introductions of PhD theses: A Genre-Based Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۴
PhD thesis introductions help student writers to discuss the significance of their study and establish how their study relates to and draws on previous research. The present study used a genre-based approach to examine one subsection in introductions of applied linguistics PhD theses. To that end, Iranian PhD thesis introductions were textually analysed. A researcher-made questionnaire, grounded on the responses from a semi-structured interview, was administered to Iranian applied linguists and PhD students to seek their opinions regarding how the subsection should be written. Frequency counts and statistical tests were used to analyse the data using SPSS (version 22). Results of genre analysis showed varying lengths, non-alphabetic ordering of the terms, and frequent uses of indirect quotations to organise the subsection. Results of textual analysis also revealed significant overlap between the terms in introductions and keywords in abstracts. The terms primarily derived from research questions. Results of questionnaire response analyses showed no statistically significant differences between the attitudes of applied linguists and PhD students. Implications of the study for PhD introduction thesis writing are discussed.
۱۶.

سواد دیجیتالی معلمان زبان انگلیسی در محیط های آموزشی ایران: ضرورت حرفه ای سازی معلمان در دنیای دیجیتال(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۲
تکنولوژی دیجیتالی تاثیر بسیار مهمی در آموزش زبان داشته است؛ به نحوی که می تواند معلمان زبان انگلیسی را در انتقال دانش به زبان آموزان کمک شایانی بکند و کیفیت آموزش معلمان را نیز بهبود بخشد. هدف اصلی تحقیق حاضر، از طرفی، ارزیابی سواد دیجیتالی معلمان زبان انگلیسی ایران و از طرف دیگر، تاثیر عوامل جنسیت، تجربه تدریس و سطح تحصیلات بر این سواد می باشد. به همین منظور، 239 معلم زبان انگلیسی از شهرهای مختلف ایران نسخه ای تطبیقی از مدل سواد دیجیتالی اینجی (2012) را تکمیل نمودند. برای تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزار تحلیل آماری SPSS (نسخه 21) استفاده گردید. نتایج تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که معلمان زبان انگلیسی ازسطح متوسط سواد دیجیتالی برخوردار هستند. تفاوت معنی داری بین معلمان خانم و آقا از لحاظ سطح سواد دیجیتالی، جنسیت و تجربه تدریس وجود نداشت، اما تفاوت معنی داری بین معلمان آقا و خانم از لحاظ سطح و سواد دیجیتالی یافت شد. ضرورت این تحقیق در توسعه حرفه ای معلمان مورد بحث قرار می گیرد.
۱۷.

Impact of Direct Corrective Feedback (DCF) Through Electronic Portfolio (EP) Platform on the components of Iranian EFL Learners’ Writing across Levels of Language Proficiency(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۲۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۰
While some researchers have questioned the efficacy of corrective feedback (CF), other researchers believe that CF can be effective if implemented through new technology types, including e-portfolio (EP). However, whether EP can be used as a medium of providing CF for language learners at different levels of language proficiency is still unknown. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was twofold: (a) to examine the writing performance of EFL learners across three levels of language proficiency receiving direct corrective feedback (DCF) via EP, and (b) to investigate which language proficiency group benefits more from DCF provided via EP. For the purposes of the present study, sixty (60) Iranian EFL learners who were divided into three levels of language proficiency at Sharif language center in Tehran, Iran participated in this study. The results of data analysis showed statistically significant differences for two components of writing—content, and mechanics—between beginning and intermediate, and beginning and advanced language learners. The results also showed that the higher the language proficiency level of language learners, the more they benefit from the provision of DCF through EP. These findings suggest that EP may be a viable option to supply Iranian EFL learners across levels of language proficiency with DCF. The article concludes with a call for testing the threshold-level hypothesis that may exist for language learners to use EP.
۱۸.

The effect of three vocabulary techniques on the Iranian ESP learners’ vocabulary production(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۵
The present study aimed to examine the effect of three vocabulary techniques (dictionary use, etymological analysis, and glossing) on the Iranian ESP learners' vocabulary production. Forty-five university students majoring in architecture at Azad University, Anzali branch,  participated in this study. They were divided into three groups, and each group was randomly assigned to one kind of treatment condition (dictionary use group, etymology group, and glossing group). The Michigan proficiency test was used to ensure the homogeneity of the  ESP learners. The three experimental groups received instruction for three weeks. ESP learners took a vocabulary production test (VPT). A one-way between groups ANOVA was conducted to analyse the data. The results showed that dictionary use improved ESP learners' vocabulary production, and dictioary use group outperformed the other two groups. The study concludes that dictionary use faciliates vocabulary production.
۱۹.

On the Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Teacher Burnout, and Teacher Autonomy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Job satisfaction Teacher burnout and Teacher Autonomy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱۱
In order to be autonomous, teachers should enjoy teaching and be satisfied with their teaching. Teacher autonomy, therefore, may be related to teacher burnout and job satisfaction. The present study investigated the relationship between job satisfaction, teacher burnout, and teacher autonomy. Two hundred and seven language teachers at language institutes in Karaj and Tehran were given three questionnaires to complete. Convenience sampling was used to select language teachers in this study, and IBM SPSS (version 22) was used to analyze the data. Three non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the collected data. According to the findings of this study, job satisfaction had a weak negative relationship with teacher burnout, and teacher autonomy correlated negatively with job satisfaction. Moreover, no relationship between teacher autonomy and teacher burnout was found. Although the findings should be interpreted with care because of sample size, the paper ends with implications for language teachers and policy makers.
۲۰.

A Mixed-methods, Cross-sectional Study of Assessment Literacy of Iranian University Instructors: Implications for Teachers' Professional Development(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Content instructors Assessment literacy English language instructors Professionalism

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۲
Professionalism requires that language teachers be assessment literate so as to assess students’ performance more effectively. However, assessment literacy (AL) has remained a relatively unexplored area. Given the centrality of AL in educational settings, in the present study, we identified the factors constituting AL among university instructors and examined the ways English Language Instructors (ELIs) and Content Instructors (CIs) differed on AL. A researcher-made, 50-item questionnaire was constructed and administered to both groups: ELIs (N = 155) and CIs (N = 155). A follow-up interview was conducted to validate the findings. IBM SPSS (version 21) was used to analyse the data quantitatively. Results of exploratory factor analysis showed that AL included three factors: theoretical dimension of testing, test construction and analysis, and statistical knowledge. Further, results revealed statistically significant differences between ELIs and CIs in AL. Qualitative results showed that the differences were primarily related to the amount of training in assessment, methods of evaluation, purpose of assessment, and familiarity with psychometric properties of tests. Building on these findings, we discuss implications for teachers’ professional development.

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