Journal of Modern Psychology

Journal of Modern Psychology

Journal of Modern Psychology, Volume 1, Issue 3, Summer 2021



The Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback on Motor Performance and Learning in Adolescents with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD autonomy Feedback motor learning Self-Efficacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۱
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autonomy support (i.e., in the form of self-controlled feedback) on learning and self-efficacy in a throwing skill in adolescents with ADHD. The subjects were 40 adolescents with ADHD (14 to 17 years old) and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: self-controlled and yoked. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the self-controlled group received knowledge of result (KR) anytime the requested. The yoked group was matched with self-controlled group, but without having a choice to request for feedback. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that participants in the self-controlled group had significantly higher throwing accuracy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. Moreover, participants in the self-controlled group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. The results of this study show that people with ADHD benefit from autonomy support to learn a novel motor skill.

The Frequency of Self-harm Behaviors among University Students

کلید واژه ها: Direct self-harm Indirect self-harm university students

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۷۱
One of the common problems among university students is self-harm behavior which has many negative consequences for the people involved and the society. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of occurrence of self-harm behavior in university students. The participants of this descriptive study include the entire undergraduate students of the University of Guilan in the academic year 2019-20. A total of 508 students (368 females and 140 males) are selected based on Convenience Sampling. For data collection, the Self-harm Inventory Questionnaire (SHI) is employed; moreover, descriptive statistics as well as Chi-square test are used. According to the findings, 17.8% of students have self-harm behavior. The results of Chi-square test reveal that there is no significant difference between male and female students in terms of the frequency of occurrence of direct, indirect and general self-harm behavior (P> 0.01). Burning the body, recklessness in driving, alcohol abuse and deliberate loss of job in male students and being involved in relationships that expose one to sexual abuse and deliberate self-starvation are more common in female students (p< 0.01).  Also, local and non-local university students and different age groups of students show significant different behavior in terms of direct and indirect self-harm (P<0.01). Based on the findings, it can be stated that self-harm is relatively common behavior among university students. As a result, these people need to be identified and treated in a timely manner to reduce the negative consequences of this kind of behavior.

Predicting Married Women’s Mental Health based on Quality of Life Components

کلید واژه ها: Emotional well-being married women mental health quality of life social functioning

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۵۳
Women's mental health can overshadow theirs other responsibilities; therefore, examining the role of influential factors in mental health has been considered a matter of importance. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional components of quality of life in predicting the mental health of married women. This study was descriptive-correlational. In this regard, 240 individuals from the married women community of Shiraz were purposefully selected and surveyed in cyberspace using the SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire – 28 (GHQ-28). To analyze the data, multiple regression analysis (enter model) was employed. Data analysis revealed that emotional components of quality of life have a significant relationship with mental health (p< 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the components of energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, and social functioning play a positive role in predicting the mental health of married women; moreover, the component of role dysfunction plays a negative part due to lack of emotional health. According to the findings of the present study, it could be concluded that the emotional well-being, happiness, and vitality of married women can play an important role in their mental health.

The Comparison of Body Image and Depression Symptoms in People with and without Gender Dysphoria

کلید واژه ها: Body image Depression gender dysphoria

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۸
People with gender dysphoria experience some mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present study aimed to compare body image and depressive symptoms in people with gender dysphoria and the non-affected. This research was applied in terms of purpose and casual-comparative in terms of methodology. The statistical population of the study included two groups of people with gender dysphoria approved by the Iranian legal medicine organization in 1400 and non-affected people with gender dysphoria. For sampling, 30 people from both groups (15 males and 15 females) were selected by the convenience sampling method. A Multidimensional Body–Self Relations Questionnaire (BSRQ) and The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were employed to gather research data. Data analysis was performed by Independent Sample T-Test using SPSS-20 software. The findings of the study indicated that the mean scores of body image (P˂0.01) and depressive symptoms (P˂0.05) were significantly different in people with gender dysphoria and the non-affected people. People with gender dysphoria had a more negative body image and more depressive symptoms than non-affected people. 

The Comparison of Attachment Styles, Problem Solving Styles and Sensitivity Anxiety in Cardiovascular Diseases and Normal Individuals


کلید واژه ها: Anxiety attachment Cardiovascular Diseases Problem Solving

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۷ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
Cardiovascular diseases are regarded as one of the most disabling diseases of human beings around the world, particularly when psychological characteristics are taken into consideration. This study compared attachment styles, problem solving styles and sensitivity anxiety in cardiovascular diseases patients and normal Individuals. A total of 40 participants (20 diseased, 20 normal) were selected thought random cluster sampling procedure from among a population of cardiovascular diseases in the city of Ardabil. Data were collected using the attachment styles inventory (AAI), problem-solving styles questionnaire (PSSQ) and the anxiety sensitivity index (ASI); moreover, multivariate analysis of variance used for data analysis. These finding implied that among attachment styles, problem solving and sensitivity anxiety there existed differences in cardiovascular diseases patients and non-patients. Results showed that cardiovascular diseases patients used higher avoidance and ambivalence attachment than non-patients. Result also revealed that non-patients used higher safety attachment than cardiovascular disease patients and patients employed avoidant attachment style as well as ambivalence. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases patients had higher helplessness, problem solving control and avoidance style more than non-patients and the non-patients used higher creativity style, problem-solving confidence, avoidance style more than cardiovascular diseases patients. It was also found that cardiovascular diseases patients used higher physical, cognitive, social worries than non-patients. Overall, the finding indicated that attachment styles, problem solving styles and sensitivity anxiety were important components discriminating cardiovascular diseases patients from non-patients. The suggestion for further studies is about other variables in cardiovascular diseases to provide preventive strategies for these diseases

The Relationship between Video Games and Cognitive Skills of Students

کلید واژه ها: Creativity Critical thinking Cognitive Skills Video Games

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۷۸
This research examined the relationship between video games and cognitive skills including critical thinking and creative thinking. This was an analytical and cross-sectional study. The population of the present research consisted of high school students of Ardebil in the academic year 2013-2014. A sample consisting of 105 students, (54 female and 51 male), was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. They filled out two questionnaires, namely the California Critical Thinking Skill Test (CCTST) and Critical Thinking Test (CT). The data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS through one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as the Scheffe test. To conduct the analysis, the participants were divided into four groups based on the number of hours spent playing video games every day, namely no gaming, less than 1 hour, between 1-2 hours, and more than 2 hours of gaming; they were also divided into four groups based on the number of years they had been playing video games, namely no gaming, less than a year, 1-2 years, and more than 2 years. The results of the one-way ANOVA revealed significant differences in creativity between the four groups based on the hours spent playing and the number of years the subjects had been playing video games (P<0.05). The differences between the four groups in terms of critical thinking were also significant (P<0.05). The findings indicated that the individuals spending up to two hours playing video games on a daily basis had higher levels of creativity and critical thinking compared to non-gamers.