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نمایش ۱ تا ۱۰ مورد از کل ۱۰ مورد.
۱.

Effects of Attentional Focus on Learning a Balance Task among Children with DCD

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Attention balance children DCD motor learning

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
Motor learning studies on adults have shown that directing the learners’ attention to external cues is more effectual than internal cues. In this study, we investigated if this could be applied to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 45 boys with developmental coordination disorder were selected using motor observation questionnaire for teachers. The task was static balance test that was measured in two experimental conditions including internal (focus on body limb) and external (focus on rex marker) focus of attention. For data analysis, ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc were used at the significant level of P < 0.05. Results showed that external focus could improve motor learning. However, there was no significant difference between internal focus and control groups. Thus children with DCD benefit from the external focus of attention to learning a static balance skill. According to the results of this study, therapists and coaches should adjust their rehabilitation methods and instructions based on external focus of attention.
۲.

The Effect of Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ctDCS) on Postural Control Strategies in Elderly Population

کلید واژه ها: Cerebellar Stimulation Elderly Stroke aging Postural control strategies

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۶
Loss of balance and postural control are the main reasons for falls among the elderly adults that are considered as serious elderly health challenges with high impacts on the quality of life. The cerebellum is involved in postural control as one of the key neural structures that receives many inputs from the sensory systems. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) is a popular noninvasive and safe method enabling the adjustment of cerebellar activity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ctDCS on postural control variables among elderly population with a history of stroke. Thirty elderly individuals (60-75 years) participated in this study. After preliminary assessments of postural control strategies by post urography at six sensory conditions, they received five 20-min sessions of active ctDCS at 2mA (intervention, n = 15) or sham stimulation (control, n = 15) in a random manner. At the end of the stimulation process, postural control strategies were reassessed. After adjustment for pre-test values using the ANCOVA test, an improvement of the subjects' performance in the first four conditions was observed in the intervention group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, in the fifth (P = 0.24) and sixth (P = 0.58) conditions, there were no significant differences between the groups. The results of this study showed the significant effect of ctDCS on the postural control strategies. These improvements were reflected by normalization of strategy of postural control in elderly adults.
۳.

Effects of Physical Activity Participation on Fine and Gross Motor Skills in Pre-School Children with ADHD

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: ADHD Gender Motor proficiency Physical activity preschool children

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity with fine and gross motor skills in pre-school children with ADHD. The present study is a descriptive-correlational study. The participants were 58 children (20 girls) aged 4 to 6 years who were selected using a convenience sampling method. We utilized Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) to measure physical activity. The short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to measure the fine and gross motor. Independent t test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Children in this study had low levels of physical activity and motor proficiency. Boys had significantly higher physical activity and motor proficiency than girls (P<0.001). In addition, physical activity was directly and significantly associated with fine and gross motor skills (both P<0.001). These findings indicate that there is a need to increase the level of physical activity in pre-school children with ADHD, especially girls. Moreover, it is recommended that physical education teachers and sports coaches use programs in physical education lessons to facilitate motor skills in children.
۴.

Associations between Physical Activity with Self-Esteem and Perceived Motor Competence among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

تعداد بازدید : ۵۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۱
Evidence shows that physical activity (PA) is associated with better self-esteem and perceived motor competence in typically developing children. Nonetheless, associations between PA with self-esteem and perceived motor competence among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has received very little attention in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to survey the associations between PA with self-esteem and perceived motor competence among children with DCD. A correlational approach was used in this study. Participants were forty-nine children with DCD (mean age of 8.85 years old) from special schools. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children was used for assessing PA. Self-Perception Profile for Children was used to assess self-esteem and perceived motor competence. To analyze data, we used Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Descriptive results showed that our sample participate in very low amount of PA. In addition, they have low levels of self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Furthermore, PA was significantly and directly associated with both self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Finally, PA has significantly and directly predicted both self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Our findings emphasize on benefits of PA for improving psychological status of children with DCD. Thus, it seems necessary to find out proper strategies and interventions for increase the level of PA in this population.
۵.

Relationships between Physical Activity and Balance Performance among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

تعداد بازدید : ۴۹ تعداد دانلود : ۳۹
It has been shown that physical activity (PA) is related to motor proficiency in children. Nevertheless, relationships between PA and balance performance among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rarely examined. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the relationships between PA and static and dynamic balance performance among children with ASD. The method used in this study was correlational. Eighty children with ASD (range age between 8 to 14 years old, average 11.51 years old) attended in special schools participated in this study. PA was measured using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Static and dynamic balance tests were used to measure balance performance. Pearson correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Children with ASD had low amount of PA and balance performance. PA was significantly and directly associated with static and dynamic balance performance. In addition, PA has significantly and directly predicted both static and dynamic balance performance. PA plays a very important role in the motor proficiency in children with ASD. Hence, there is a need for targeted strategies and interventions to increase the level of PA in this population.
۶.

Different Effects of KR vs. KP Feedback on Movement Pattern and Accuracy of a Badminton Serve in Children with Autism

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: children Feedback KP KR

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۴
The present study was designed to examine the effects of two kind of feedback presentation, namely KR and KP, on movement pattern and accuracy of a Badminton serve in children with autism. We used a causal-comparative method in the current study. Sixty children with autism with an age range of 7 to 12 years from special schools were selected based on a convenience sampling method and were randomly and equally assigned into four groups including KR, KP, KR+KP, and control groups. The motor task in the present study included the badminton serve, in which the movement patter and accuracy were measured as the dependent variable. The children participated in the pretest including 10 services, acquisition phase (5 training blocks, each of which included 10 services), and the retention test with 10 services. Respective feedback was provided before each practice block. We used ANOVA to analyze data. The results showed that both KR and KP feedback improve both the pattern and the accuracy of movement better than the condition without feedback. In addition, KP had better effects on the movement pattern and KR had better effects on the movement accuracy. Finally, children who were in the combination group performed better than all the groups in both execution of the movement pattern and service accuracy. Children with autism benefit from feedback to learn novel motor skills, indicating that they may have the necessary mechanisms to learn new skills through feedback.
۷.

The Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback on Motor Performance and Learning in Adolescents with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD autonomy Feedback motor learning Self-Efficacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۱
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autonomy support (i.e., in the form of self-controlled feedback) on learning and self-efficacy in a throwing skill in adolescents with ADHD. The subjects were 40 adolescents with ADHD (14 to 17 years old) and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: self-controlled and yoked. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the self-controlled group received knowledge of result (KR) anytime the requested. The yoked group was matched with self-controlled group, but without having a choice to request for feedback. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that participants in the self-controlled group had significantly higher throwing accuracy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. Moreover, participants in the self-controlled group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. The results of this study show that people with ADHD benefit from autonomy support to learn a novel motor skill.
۸.

The Effect of Positive Social-Comparative Feedback on Learning a Throwing Skill in Adolescents with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD Enhanced expectancies motor learning Positive Feedback Self-Efficacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۳
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of positive social-comparative feedback on motor learning and self-efficacy of a throwing motor skill in individuals with ADHD. The subjects were 44 adolescents with ADHD in the age range of 15 to 18 years old and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: positive social-comparative feedback and control group. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the positive social comparison feedback group were informed that their throws on the previous block were, on average, better than the throws of the other participants in this group. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were employed to analyze the data. Positive social comparison feedback group throwed the bean bags significantly better in the acquisition phase and the retention test compared to the control group. In addition, positive social comparison feedback group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test in comparison to the control group. Our findings indicated that enhanced expectancies benefited individuals with ADHD to enhance their performance and learn a novel motor skill
۹.

اثر کانون توجه درونی و بیرونی بر نوسان در تکالیف قامتی و فراقامتی در سالمندان(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: تمرکز توجه قامت تکلیف فراقامتی کنترل خودکار

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۵۹۴
مطالعات قبلی نشان داده اند که کنترل قامتی می تواند با هدایت توجه اجراکننده به آثار حرکات خود (تمرکز خارجی) به جای حرکات بدن که ایجادکننده این آثار هستند (تمرکز داخلی)، بهبود یابد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارزیابی تأثیر تمرین تعادلی و تمرکز توجه اتخاذشده در تکالیف قامتی و فراقامتی بر کنترل قامتی بود. تعداد 20 مرد مسن (77/5 ± 27/59 سال) به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند و در یک طرح پیش آزمون-پس آزمون یک گروهی شرکت کردند. پروتکل تمرین تعادلی شامل 16 جلسه 30 دقیقه ای انجام آزمون رومبرگ تعدیل شده بود. م ؤلفه های مرکز فشار، جابه جایی مرکزی- پیرامونی و قدامی- خلفی تعادل شرکت کنندگان، در دو تکلیف قامتی و فراقامتی در دو شرایط تمرکز توجه درونی و بیرونی در مراحل پیش آزمون و پس آزمون با استفاده از سیستم پایداری بایودکس ( BSS ) سنجیده شدند. تکلیف قامتی شامل ایستادن روی دستگاه بایودکس در حالت عادی و تکلیف فراقامتی شامل نگهداری ظرفی پر از آب و ایستادن روی دستگاه بایودکس بود. توجه نیز با متمرکزکردن توجه شرکت کنندگان به نقطه ای خارج از بدن و توجه به کاهش نوسان های بدن درحین انجام تکالیف، دست کاری شد. در بخش آمار استنباطی از آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه های تکراری و آزمون پیگردی بونفرونی برای بررسی جایگاه تفاوت ها در سطح معناداری 0.05 > P ، ازطریق نرم افزار اس.پی.اس.اس. نسخه 22 استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش حاضر، تأثیر مثبت تمرین تعادل ی بر تمامی مؤلفه های کنترل قامتی را نشان داد. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد که تمرکز توجه بیرونی نسبت به تمرکز توجه درونی به کاهش نوسان های قامتی در هر سه مؤلفه کنترل قامت منجر می شود. این مطالعه نشان داد که به کارگیری فرایندهای کنترل خودکار می تواند به سادگی با هدایت توجه اجراکنندگان به دور از حرکات بدن خود تسهیل شود.
۱۰.

دیدگاه پزشکان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان درباره تأثیر استفاده از نظام های اطلاع رسانی پزشکی بر کیفیت مراقبت و عوامل مؤثر بر استفاده پزشکان از این نظام ها(مقاله پژوهشی وزارت بهداشت)

کلید واژه ها: نظام اطلاع رسانی پزشکی پزشکان بیمارستان های آموزشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی هرمزگان

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۹ تعداد دانلود : ۵۰
مقدمه: استفاده صحیح از نظام های اطلاعات مراقبت بهداشتی باعث بهبود ایمنی، بروندادها وکیفیت مراقبت، بهبود کارایی و بهره وری، کاهش هزینه ها و رضایت مندی می شود. هدف اصلی هر سازمان مراقبت بهداشتی، به خصوص موسسات بیمارستانی، بهبود کیفیت مراقبت است. چون کاربران اصلی نظام اطلاعات به خصوص نظام اطلاعات بالینی، پزشکان هستند، لذا، بررسی تأثیر استفاده از نظام های اطلاع رسانی پزشکی بر کیفیت مراقبت و عوامل مؤثر بر استفاده پزشکان از این نظام ها ضروری به نظر می رسد. روش کار: این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی - تحلیلی است. برای انتخاب نمونه از روش نمونه گیری در دسترس استفاده شد، که شامل 74 نفر از پزشکان بیمارستان های آموزشی بود. گردآوری داده ها با استفاده از پرسشنامه خود ساخته انجام گرفت که روایی پرسشنامه توسط اساتید متخصص و پایایی آن از طریق آزمون مجدد (test-retest) به تایید رسید. در نهایت داده ها با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها: یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که نظام های " اطلاعات آزمایشگاه "با میانگین 4.61 و " بررسی علائم حیاتی آنلاین " با میانگین 4.28 و" بررسی اثرات متقابل دارویی " با میانگین 4.08 به ترتیب بیشترین تأثیر را در بهبود کیفیت مراقبت داشته اند. عوامل " نگرانی از امنیت اطلاعات " با میانگین 4.05، " ارتقاء مداوم نظام " با میانگین 4.04، " کمبود اطمینان به کیفیت خدمات نیروهای پشتیبان فناوری اطلاعات " با میانگین3.97 بیشترین تأثیر را در استفاده پزشکان از نظام های اطلاعات پزشکی داشته اند. بحث: پزشکان بیان کردند که نظام های اطلاعاتی در افزایش کیفیت مراقبت نقش مؤثری داشته اند. آن ها نگرانی از امنیت اطلاعات، کمبود مهارت های کامپیوتری، کمبود آموزش جهت استفاده بهینه از تمامی قابلیت های نظام اطلاعاتی و سرعت پایین انتقال اطلاعات را مؤثرترین عوامل در عدم استفاده از نظام های اطلاعاتی بیان کردند. لذا، بهینه سازی نظام های اطلاعاتی، بخصوص در حیطه عوامل مذکور جهت بهبود کیفیت مراقبت سلامت ضروری است.

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