صدیقه خواجه افلاطون مفرد

صدیقه خواجه افلاطون مفرد

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فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۷ مورد از کل ۷ مورد.
۱.

The Effects of Model’s Skill Level on Learning a Basketball Skill in Children with Autism

کلید واژه ها: Autism Basketball throw skill level Video model

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳
One of the disabilities that has rarely been studied in the field of observational learning is autism. the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of watching a video model with different skill levels on learning a basketball skill in adolescents with autism. The current study is descriptive and causal-comparative. The subjects of this study consisted of 60 adolescents with autism with an age range of 13 to 18 years, and they were randomly and equally divided into three groups: skilled model, novice model, and control. The motor task involved a basketball throwing, in which the accuracy score was measured as the dependent variable. The subjects performed the pre-test (including ten throws), the acquisition stage (including 5 10-throws training blocks), and the retention test (including ten throws). Subjects in the observation groups watched their respective models for five times before each training block. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the throwing accuracy. The results showed that novice video group had significantly better throwing scores than skilled video model and control groups in the acquisition phase and retention test. In addition, skilled group had significantly better throwing scores than control group in the acquisition phase and retention test. The results of this study show that people with autism benefit from watching a video model to learn a basketball throwing skill. This result may indicate that these people have the necessary mechanisms to learn new skills through video observation.
۲.

The Effects of Mental Imagery and Physical Practice on Learning Dart-Throwing in Children with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD Dart throw Motor imagery physical practice

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵۶
The effects of motor imagery and physical practice on motor learning in individuals with ADHD received very little attention. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of motor imagery and physical practice on motor performance and learning dart-throwing in adolescents with ADHD. The current research was based on a causal-comparative approach. The participants included 60 adolescents with ADHD (with the age range of 12 to 17 years) randomly and equally assigned into four groups: 1) motor imagery, 2) physical practice, 3) combination of motor imagery and physical practice, and 4) control. The motor task involved dart-throwing, in which the accurate throw score was measured as the dependent variable. The participants performed the pre-test (ten throws) and the retention test (ten throws). ANOVA was run to analyze the throwing accuracy. Results showed that all groups had similar throwing scores in the pretest, however, in the retention test, the results indicated that combination group had significantly better throwing scores than all other groups (in all groups, P=0.000). In addition, physical practice group had significantly better throwing scores than motor imagery and control groups (both P=0.000). Finally, motor imagery group had significantly better throwing scores than control group (P=0.000). Individuals with ADHD benefit from motor imagery, indicating that they have the necessary mechanisms to learn new skills through motor imagery. Moreover, a combination of motor imagery and physical practice would be a better strategy for learning new motor skills.
۳.

Relationships between Physical Activity and Balance Performance among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۴۶
It has been shown that physical activity (PA) is related to motor proficiency in children. Nevertheless, relationships between PA and balance performance among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been rarely examined. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the relationships between PA and static and dynamic balance performance among children with ASD. The method used in this study was correlational. Eighty children with ASD (range age between 8 to 14 years old, average 11.51 years old) attended in special schools participated in this study. PA was measured using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Static and dynamic balance tests were used to measure balance performance. Pearson correlation test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Children with ASD had low amount of PA and balance performance. PA was significantly and directly associated with static and dynamic balance performance. In addition, PA has significantly and directly predicted both static and dynamic balance performance. PA plays a very important role in the motor proficiency in children with ASD. Hence, there is a need for targeted strategies and interventions to increase the level of PA in this population.
۴.

Associations between Physical Activity with Self-Esteem and Perceived Motor Competence among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

تعداد بازدید : ۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۶۰
Evidence shows that physical activity (PA) is associated with better self-esteem and perceived motor competence in typically developing children. Nonetheless, associations between PA with self-esteem and perceived motor competence among children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has received very little attention in the literature. As such, the purpose of this study was to survey the associations between PA with self-esteem and perceived motor competence among children with DCD. A correlational approach was used in this study. Participants were forty-nine children with DCD (mean age of 8.85 years old) from special schools. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children was used for assessing PA. Self-Perception Profile for Children was used to assess self-esteem and perceived motor competence. To analyze data, we used Pearson correlation test and regression analysis. Descriptive results showed that our sample participate in very low amount of PA. In addition, they have low levels of self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Furthermore, PA was significantly and directly associated with both self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Finally, PA has significantly and directly predicted both self-esteem and perceived motor competence. Our findings emphasize on benefits of PA for improving psychological status of children with DCD. Thus, it seems necessary to find out proper strategies and interventions for increase the level of PA in this population.
۵.

تأثیر اشتیاق به فعالیت بدنی بر بهزیستی روانشناختی افراد شرکت کننده در اماکن ورزشی

کلید واژه ها: اشتیاق فعالیت بدنی بهزیستی روانشناختی مراکز ورزشی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۸۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۰
مقدمه: در سال های اخیر ورزش و فعالیت بدنی به یک گرایش رایج تبدیل شده است که با ترویج روانشناسی ورزش، اشتیاق به فعالیت بدنی نقش مهمی در تأثیرگذاری بر جنبه ذهنی افراد ایفا می کند. هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف تأثیر اشتیاق به فعالیت بدنی بر بهزیستی روانشناختی افراد شرکت کننده در اماکن ورزشی انجام شد. روش: روش پژوهش توصیفی- همبستگی، مبتنی بر مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری بود. جامعه آماری شامل تمام افراد شرکت کننده در اماکن ورزشی منطقه ۱۵ شهرداری تهران در سال ۱۴۰۰ بود که براساس تعیین حجم نمونه نرم افزار جی پاور نسخه ۳/۱ تعداد ۳۴۸ نفر با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده انتخاب شدند. از پرسشنامه اشتیاق به فعالیت بدنی (والرند و همکاران، ۲۰۰۳)، رضایت از زندگی بالیس و همکاران (۱۹۹۸)، غفلت از خود و تجربه آسیب فیزیکی لوئیس و همکاران (۲۰۱۶) برای جمع آوری داده ها استفاده شد. از روش معادلات ساختاری با نرم افزار SPSSنسخه ۲۴ و۳ Smart PLS جهت تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها استفاده گردید. یافته ها: نتایج معادلات ساختاری نشان داد اشتیاق سازگار (۰/۰۰۱=p) و اشتیاق افراطی (۰/۰۰۳=p) بر غفلت از خود به ترتیب تأثیر منفی و مثبت معنادار دارد. همچنین، اشتیاق سازگار بر رضایت از زندگی و اشتیاق افراطی بر آسیب در حین تمرین تأثیر مثبت و معنادار دارد (۰/۰۰۱=p). نهایتاً غفلت از خود بر رضایت از زندگی تأثیر منفی معنادار دارد (۰/۰۰۱=p)؛ اما بر آسیب در حین تمرین تأثیری ندارد (۰/۲۰۴=p). نتیجه گیری: نتایج نشان داد اشتیاق سازگار تأثیر مثبت و اشتیاق ناسازگار تأثیر منفی بر روی بهزیستی روانشناختی دارند. لازم است برنامه هایی توسط مدیران امر توسعه داده شود که از فعالیت های ورزشی در استراتژی های مداخله با شهروندان در جهت بهبود رضایت و بهزیستی روانشناختی استفاده کنند.
۶.

The Effect of Self-Controlled Feedback on Motor Performance and Learning in Adolescents with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD autonomy Feedback motor learning Self-Efficacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۶
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autonomy support (i.e., in the form of self-controlled feedback) on learning and self-efficacy in a throwing skill in adolescents with ADHD. The subjects were 40 adolescents with ADHD (14 to 17 years old) and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: self-controlled and yoked. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the self-controlled group received knowledge of result (KR) anytime the requested. The yoked group was matched with self-controlled group, but without having a choice to request for feedback. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were used to analyze the data. The results showed that participants in the self-controlled group had significantly higher throwing accuracy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. Moreover, participants in the self-controlled group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test than those in yoked group. The results of this study show that people with ADHD benefit from autonomy support to learn a novel motor skill.
۷.

The Effect of Positive Social-Comparative Feedback on Learning a Throwing Skill in Adolescents with ADHD

کلید واژه ها: ADHD Enhanced expectancies motor learning Positive Feedback Self-Efficacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۸۲ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱۹
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of positive social-comparative feedback on motor learning and self-efficacy of a throwing motor skill in individuals with ADHD. The subjects were 44 adolescents with ADHD in the age range of 15 to 18 years old and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: positive social-comparative feedback and control group. Motor task consisted of throwing bean bags with the non-dominant arm at a target on the ground. The participants completed the pretest (10 trials), an acquisition phase including 6 blocks of 10 trials, and a retention test consisting of 10 trials. The participants in the positive social comparison feedback group were informed that their throws on the previous block were, on average, better than the throws of the other participants in this group. Prior to pretest, each block, and before the retention test, all participants completed the self-efficacy scale. Dependent measures were throwing accuracy scores and self-efficacy. Independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were employed to analyze the data. Positive social comparison feedback group throwed the bean bags significantly better in the acquisition phase and the retention test compared to the control group. In addition, positive social comparison feedback group reported significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the acquisition phase and the retention test in comparison to the control group. Our findings indicated that enhanced expectancies benefited individuals with ADHD to enhance their performance and learn a novel motor skill

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