فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۴۳ مورد.
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۳, No.۲۶, Spring & Summer ۲۰۲۰ 1 - 23
Psychophysiological studies and MRI neuro-imaging findings provide evidence that heart rate variability (HRV) which is in control of our emotions affects our brain cognitive centers. It has been shown that coherent heart-brain interaction can change the pattern of the afferent cardiac input that is sent to the brain. For this purpose, the Institute of HeartMath (IHM) has proposed a kind of biofeedback training, the TestEdge program, which self-regulates negative emotional learning impediments by increasing HRV measures. It leads to an optimal self-generated psychophysiological state that has an important role in cognitive development through autonomic nervous system dynamics. In the present study, through using IHM self-regulated techniques and tools, the TestEdge program was performed on 63 Iranian EFL learners. In particular, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HRV measures on reading comprehension performance. The data was measured and recorded by emWave Desktop device. The results confirmed that the intentional heart-focus techniques led to a beneficial mode of psychophysiological coherence of heart-brain interaction. The results indicated significant differences among EFL students with different levels of high, mid, and low coherence and their reading performance.
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۸, Issue ۳۳, Winter ۲۰۲۰ 115-129
Hedges, as tools to express tentativeness and doubt, have been studied in plenty of research papers in the Iranian EFL research setting. However, their use in a learner corpus, portraying Iranian learner English, is in need of more research attention. With this end in view, this study aimed at investigating how Iranian EFL learners who have majored in English-related fields in Iran deployed hedges in their academic, expository essays. This study was conducted through running the corpus analysis software MonoConc Pro-Semester version 2.2 on the electronically compiled Iranian Corpus of Learner English, totaling 436,035 words. Automatic and manual analyses suggested that hedges comprised only 7.4% of the total metadiscourse in the Iranian Corpus of Learner English, with 0.68 occurrences per 1,000,000 words. In a comparable native corpus, a sub-corpus of the British Academic Written English, hedges were used with 1.43 occurrences per 1,000,000 words (21% of the total metadiscourse in the corpus). Log-likelihood statistical analysis confirmed statistically significant differences between the two corpora in terms of the use of hedges, with underuse of hedges in the Iranian academic, expository essays relative to the English natives’ essays. Implementations of the results for English academic writing instruction including genre-based, explicit teaching of hedges through data-driven techniques with the aid of tools such as AntConc software and corpora such as the BAWE are considered.
An Investigation into Iranian EAP Teachers’ Burnout and its Variations in Relation to Their Demographic and Organizational Characteristics
منبع: Issues in Language Teaching (ILT), Vol. ۹, No. ۱, June ۲۰۲۰ 93 - 116
Teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses is highly demanding for EAP teachers as they are faced with diverse pedagogical and administrative challenges in such courses. This study addressed the level of burnout among EAP teachers and variations in relation to their demographic and organizational characteristics. To this aim, a demographic questionnaire along with the Persian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was administered to 276 EAP teachers from state universities in Iran. The results revealed that a considerable number of EAP teachers reported mid-levels of personal accomplishment. Moreover, variations in degree of burnout were found among EAP teachers in relation to marital status, age, years of experience in teaching EAP and content/general English courses, educational background, and the field and number of EAP courses taught. Also, EAP teachers with different demographic and organizational characteristics who were more susceptible to burnout were identified. Finally, implications for enhancing the working conditions of EAP teachers are presented.
منبع: Iinternational Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۸, Issue ۲۹, Spring ۲۰۲۰ 59-74
Condemning a laissez faire approach to English Language Teaching (ELT), English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher trainers unanimously agree that the building blocks of teachers’ teaching framework are profoundly influenced by conducting research. Focusing on quantitative research, this study endeavored to scrutinize the impact of the Critical Appraisal of Published Research (CAPR) in undergraduate teacher training programs on EFL teachers’ Data Analysis Knowledge (DAK). To this objective, 30 male and female EFL teachers were non-randomly selected and randomly assigned to two groups. In two Research classes, the experimental group received the CAPR whereas the control group received traditional teacher-centered instruction with summative assessment. The DAK section of the Quantitative Research Literacy (QRL) questionnaire was employed as the pretest and posttest. Subsequent to corroborating participants’ pre-treatment homogeneity in terms of DAK, analyzing the post-treatment data through running an independent-samples t-test, eta squared = .338 (representing a large effect size), indicated the existence of a significant difference in the post-treatment DAK scores between the two groups. The obtained results confirmed that the CAPR has a significantly better impact on EFL teachers’ DAK which is a key area of QRL. Therefore, it seems accurate to argue that ELT teacher training programs should endeavor to involve the students in a mentally engaging process, e.g. CAPR, where the content of the course is put into practice by the students, something which is required for balancing the concrete and the abstract.
پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا ارتباط بین یکی از جنبه های اصلی نظریه اجتماعی فرهنگی ویگوتسکی (1978)، یعنی واگویه را، با استدلال منطقی و دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان ایرانی بررسی کند. این ارتباط مبتنی بر تعاملی پویا بین قدرت استدلال منطقی و واگویه دانشجویان وهمچنین ارتباط هریک از این ساختارها با دستاورد زبانی آن هاست. برای دستیابی به هدف پژوهش، 200 دانشجوی زبان انگلیسی از دانشگاه های مختلف ایران پرسش نامه هایی را تکمیل کردند. از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد سه بخش از فعالیت ها (استنباط، استنتاج و ارزشیابی استدلال های منطقی) را از پرسش نامه «ارزیابی تفکر انتقادی واتسون گلیزر»ش (2010) انجام دهند. علاوه بر این، از آن ها خواسته شد به پرسش نامه «واگویه» طراحی شده توسط سیگریست (1995) پاسخ دهند. برای بررسی دستاورد زبانی، از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد معدل خود را ذکر کنند. مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری برای تحلیل مدل براساس داده ها انجام شد. برای تعیین ناپیوستگی های شناساییشده در مدل، هر مسیر که نمایانگر روابط علی و معلولی است به طور مجزا بررسی شد. داده ها، پیش بینی های نظری در مورد رابطه بین استدلال منطقی و واگویه دانشجویان را تأیید می کنند. به علاوه، تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که واگویه دانشجویان با سه زیرمجموعه استدلال منطقی همبستگی مثبت و قدرت پیش بینی خوبی برای آن ها دارد. علاوه بر این، سه مؤلفه استدلال منطقی به شکل مؤثر و مثبتی میزان دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان ایرانی را پیش بینی می کنند. در نهایت می توان نتیجه گرفت که واگویه می تواند همبستگی غیرمستقیم و مثبتی با دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان داشته باشد.
An Activity Theory Perspective on the Role of Cooperative Assessment in the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners
منبع: Issues in Language Teaching (ILT), Vol. ۸, No. ۱, June ۲۰۱۹ 129 - 163
Reading comprehension has recently been reconceptualized in EFL reading instruction to foreground the importance of putting a social perspective on learning. Developed as a crucial aspect of Vygotskian sociocultural theory, activity theory views reading as a socially-mediated activity, for which the prerequisite cognitive processes are distributed among teacher, individual reader, other students, and artifacts (Cole & Engeström, 1993). Given that cooperation and division of labor are the central tenets of activity theory, this study aimed at investigating whether assessing cooperative learning had a decisive effect on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 60 sophomores majoring in English translation at Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, were selected as the participants of the study. The reading instruction was geared to cooperative learning based on the elements of activity theory. Over the course of 12 weeks, both the process and products of cooperative reading were self-, peer-, and instructor-assessed. The findings indicated that assessing cooperative reading through the lens of activity theory had a significant effect on the participants’ reading comprehension. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the products of cooperative reading in predicting the participants’ reading comprehension posttest scores. Furthermore, the results showed that the participants held favorable perception toward activity theory-based cooperative assessment. The findings are hoped to shine a light on collective reading and highlight the need for more innovative constructivist approaches to EFL reading in Iran.
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۲, No.۲۴, Spring & Summer ۲۰۱۹ 17 - 40
This paper offers a state-of-the-art working definition for the concept of Critical Thinking (CT hereafter) in an attempt to provide a framework for the development of an operational definition for this complex concept. Having studied various definitions and models, proposed for CT by major figures in the field, the key defining features of this rich concept were identified and classified. Based on these key descriptors, a working definition consisting of three main components namely Mind Analysis , Data Evaluation , and Thinking in Education has been proposed and then each dimension of this definition is defined and elaborated further so that the complexity of the concept could be framed in an extended model. The elaborated conception of CT proposed in this paper seeks to include the core elements of CT so that it can be expandable into an operational definition with measurable items. There are two main reasons for conducting this research: Firstly, CT has evolved into a multifaceted construct with a broad range of cognitive abilities and intellectual dispositions. Secondly, although CT has been recognized as a significant concept in education, its full potential has not been achieved yet.
Investigating English Teachers' Awareness of Pedagogical Competence and its Effect on Students' Language Learning
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۶, Issue ۲۳, Autumn ۲۰۱۸ 35 - 49
The study examined the impact of high school English teachers’ awareness of pedagogical competence on student learning. A psychometric measurement instrument of English language teachers' pedagogical competence (ELTPC) was first developed through factor analysis with 320 high school teachers in Guilan, Northern Iran. Based on the developed instrument, 36 teachers were divided into two groups of aware and unaware teachers of pedagogical competence (PC) according to Contrasting Groups Method of cut score. Then, 160 high school third graders received instruction from the aware and unaware teachers for 7 weeks. Finally, a survey regarding the teachers’ implementation of pedagogical competence in classrooms was conducted with 30 students. The findings from the experiment and survey supported the teachers in aware group. Although, based on the survey results, the aware teachers were reported to act better, they were not reported as highly practicing the pedagogical competence. The findings can be practically used by schools, education administration, and teacher educators.
The present Study aimed to examine the efficacy of using literary texts in promoting intercultural communication competence, and intercultural awareness and understanding within language teaching contexts. The participants were 50 Iranian undergraduate students of English Literature, 20 male and 30 female, with their ages ranging from 19 to 24 engaged in reading and discussing literary texts with an emphasis on their social and cultural themes and contents. 9 English and 2 Persian short stories were the main material implemented, and these were supplemented by 6 American and 2 Iranian movies with their screenplays adopted from literary works. The themes attended to included racial discrimination, social class, gender roles, and ethnic minorities. Based on Byram’s (1997) proposed model of Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), five factors of the students’ ICC development, Savoir Comprendre, Savoire Etre, Savoire S’engager, Savoirs and Savoire Apprendre/Faire, were observed throughout a 14-session course. A Content analysis of students’ writing assignments and an examination of how fruitful they found the tasks and materials in enhancing their cultural understanding demonstrated a noticeable involvement of all the studied ICC factors in reading, discussing and contemplating on the literary texts and their cultural content.
Fostering EFL Teacher Enthusiasm through Vision Enhancement and its Relationship with Students’ Attitude and Effort
منبع: International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۶, Issue ۲۱, Spring ۲۰۱۸ 57 - 73
Teacher enthusiasm and its impact on students’ learning and emotions have remained unnoticed in the realm of second language learning and teaching. This study aimed at exploring the possibility of boosting language teacher enthusiasm and its potential relationship with language learners’ effort and attitude for language learning. In order to foster teacher enthusiasm, the highly novel concept of vision was utilized and a vision enhancement program was conducted to improve language teacher enthusiasm. Four EFL teachers and their 46 students participated in the research project. Two of the teachers were assigned to the six-week visionary intervention and the other two received no treatment. A Likert-scale questionnaire measuring perceived teacher enthusiasm, intended effort, and attitude to language learning was administered to all the students before and after the treatment. Results of ANCOVA revealed that those students whose teachers were subjected to vision enhancement were significantly different from the students whose teachers did not receive the treatment. Moreover, linear regression analyses demonstrated that students’ perception of teacher enthusiasm can positively predict their effort and attitude. The efficiency of visionary training for improving teacher enthusiasm gained empirical support. Besides, the findings underscore the link between teacher enthusiasm and students’ effort and attitude.
منبع: international Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۵, Issue ۱۹, Autumn ۲۰۱۷ 111 - 124
This study investigated the effects of English as foreign language (EFL) proficiency on what the authors of this study called pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic recognition of EFL learners. To elicit the data, the study used two types of pragmatic measures: a pragmalinguistic recognition (PLR) test and a sociopragmatic recognition (SPR) test. Both tests were developed by the researchers of this study based on the distinction made by Leech (1983) between pragmalinguistics and sociopragmatics. Subsequent to the development of the tests, 80 Iranian EFL students were divided into two groups based on their EFL proficiency level: the low level group (n = 41) and the high level group (n = 39). Each participant group was tested on the two pragmatic measures. Pearson correlation results indicated construct differences between PLR and SPR of speech acts. Moreover, independent samples t-test results revealed that there were developmental differences in pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic recognition of speech acts by EFL learners. The findings offer insights to EFL teachers and testers regarding pragmatic instruction and assessment.
This study investigated the impact of oral pushed output on the learning and retention of English perfect tenses. During the study, a pre-test was administered to 22 freshmen majoring in English translation. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Then, for six sessions both groups received explicit instructions on English perfect tenses. Every session, the experimental group recorded their oral performances on some picture description and translation tasks whose completion entailed the use of the instructed language form, while the control group merely did some conventional multiple choice tests covering the instructed structures. Following the treatment sessions, a post-test was run. Four weeks later, a delayed post-test was also administrated. Analysis of the data through repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) supported the facilitative effects of oral pushed output on the learning and retention of English perfect tenses. The finding of the study can have some implications for English Language Teaching (ELT) materials developers and practitioners.
Any language classroom is a distinctive learning context offering numerous affordances that might be perceived effectively, remain unnoticed, or even act as constraints. Therefore, exploring students' perception toward a particular method of instruction is crucial since it may produce a reliable piece of evidence for teachers to confirm or refute the effectiveness of the intended instructional activities. This study was an attempt to survey Iranian EFL learners' perception of the efficacy of activity theory-based reading comprehension. To this end, 60 students studying English translation at Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch participated in the study and received the reading instruction based on the elements of activity theory, i.e., subjects, object, mediating artifacts, rules, community, and division of labor. After receiving the treatment, the students filled in two perception questionnaires and took part in a semi-structured focus group interview. The findings indicated that the students showed favorable perception toward activity theory, for which they perceived different affordances. Moreover, the results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the students’ perception regarding the mediating elements of activity theory. The study provides EFL teachers with new insights into the considerable benefits that activity theory might bring to reading classes.
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۰, No.۲۱, Fall & Winter ۲۰۱۷ 184 - 225
This meta-analysis is an investigation into the impressibility of two dimensions of the speaking skill, namely accuracy and fluency, in relation to the experimented treatments among Iranian EFL undergraduates. Having surveyed a collected bank of 74 research reports, the relationships among the variables in the 14 included studies were examined. More specifically, the analysis involved a statistical review of 67 effect sizes (at 95% CI) calculated from studies conducted between 2006 and 2016, including 890 participants. The analysis indicated that in 77% of the experimented treatments, the students performed as well as the students in the regular programs with no significant improvement in oral accuracy. The analysis also demonstrated that 63% of the treatments did not yield significant improvement in oral fluency in comparison with the regular instruction. Moreover, the synthesis of the effects of the contextual factors showed that low-level (i.e., elementary) learners experienced a better improvement in speaking performance. The analysis also revealed that, among the experimented treatments, dialogic tasks were most effective on oral accuracy while interviews were influential in promoting the students’ both oral accuracy and fluency. Finally, the quality of the study reports was analyzed and some directions for further research were suggested.
Investigating Burnout among Iranian EAP Teachers: A Comparison of Content instructors and ELT Instructors
منبع: Applied Research on English Language, V. ۶ , N. ۴ , ۲۰۱۷ 455 - 472
English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses are currently well-established university programs. These courses are run independently by English Language Teaching (ELT) instructors and content instructors without any collaboration. However, ELT instructors and content instructors do not receive the same level of collegiality and social support from the organizations and students. This paper probed burnout among Iranian EAP teachers, including content instructors and ELT instructors in 28 state universities and its variations in relation to their demographic and organizational characteristics. To this aim, the Persian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was administered to content instructors (N=185) and ELT instructors (N=86) in the state universities in Iran. The results of the study indicated that while most of EAP teachers, both content instructors and ELT instructors, had low burnout, a considerable number had mid-levels of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. The findings of the study also indicated that the ELT instructors had higher emotional exhaustion than the content instructors, and it was also found that the content instructors with more than 13 years of experience and the ELT instructors with more than 20 years of experience in teaching such courses had the lowest burnout. Based on the findings of the study, educational administrators are suggested to take remedial and preventive actions against EAP teachers’ burnout and enhance ELT instructors’ occupational well-being. It also seems necessary to assist EAP teachers in adapting to the requirements of teaching EAP courses through pre/in-service teacher training courses to obviate the need for extensive experience for gaining expertise in it.
Self-regulated Learning Strategies, Achievement Goals and Listening Achievement of Iranian EFL Learners
منبع: International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, Volume ۵, Issue ۱۷, Spring ۲۰۱۷ 11 - 24
AbstractDeveloping self-regulated learners has been the life-long ambition of different stakeholders in education. This study was set out to find the relationships between self-regulated strategies as defined by time and resource management, cognitive and metacognitive strategies, achievement goals classified as mastery, performance-approach and performance-avoidance, and the listening achievement of EFL learners. Two hundred and fifty five Iranian high-intermediate EFL learners attending Iran Language Institute of Mazandaran were randomly selected. Correlational analysis of the data demonstrated that self-regulated strategies were significantly correlated with mastery goal orientation and listening achievement of the learners. Performance-approach goal orientation was neither correlated with these strategies nor with mastery goal orientation. It only showed a significant negative correlation with performance-avoidance goal orientation. The findings are in congruence with the assumptions made in social cognitive theory of learning, expectancy-value theory and the model of self-regulated learning developed by Pintrich and De Groot (1990).
Informed by the expectancy-value and social cognitive theories of learning, the present study proposed a path model to investigate the impact of motivational beliefs as defined by listening self-efficacy, three types of goal orientations, and task value on self-regulation of Iranian EFL learners, in addition to the unique contribution of each to the variability in the listening comprehension score. Results of path analysis revealed significant positive effect of listening self-efficacy and self-regulation on students’ listening comprehension and task value on self-regulation. Unlike performance approach goals, mastery and performance avoidance goals demonstrated a significant impact on participants’ self-regulation but no significant direct effect of any goals on listening achievement was detected.
This study investigated the effects of different output-based task repetition conditions on EFL learners’ speech act production. Three intact classes of English-major students constituted three instructional groups: (1) the explicit task-repetition (ETR) group, (2) the implicit task-repetition (ITR) group, and (3) the no-input task repetition (NTR) group. All the three groups engaged in the repetition of output-generation tasks. However, before the second performance of the task, the ETR group received input coupled with metapragmatic information, the ITR group received visually enhanced input coupled with a consciousness raising task, and the NTR group received no input. The results of a written discourse completion test (WDCT) revealed statistically significant gains in the learners’ performance from the pretest to the posttest in the ETR and ITR groups, but not in the NTR group. Moreover, the analysis of differences across the groups in the posttest revealed the superiority of the ETR over the ITR and NTR groups. The results suggest that output-based task repetition cannot enhance EFL learners’ speech act production ability unless learners are provided with input before the second performance of the task. Also when explicit and implicit instructional methods are integrated with output-based task repetition, the explicit approach is more effective than its implicit counterpart.
The present study is a theoretical attempt to illustrate how Fillmore's Scenes and Frames Semantics (SFS) could be employed as a framework to portray the process of understanding and translating hybrid texts. It first reviews the origin of SFS; then it maps SFS onto Nida’s linguistic model of translation process and the Interpretive Theory of Translation; it examines in the next section, within the framework of SFS, different forms of understanding and translating hybrid and pure texts with reference to the selection of linguistic frames and more importantly the activation of scenes. The paper explains all four processes of hybridization, dehybridization, rehybridization and hybridity preservation using SFS. The study concludes that, although hybridity is a complex phenomenon, Fillmore’s scenes and frames semantics can adequately explain and justify its different aspects and manifestations. Moreover, it revealed that understanding, seen in SFS model, has an element of individuality and this gives rise to a broader perspective on translation where there can potentially be as many valid translations as there are translators. This has significant implications for our conception, analysis and assessment of translation.
هدف ازاین مطالعه بررسی تاثیر افزایش آگاهی زبان آموزان ایرانی در مورد کاربرد ساختارهای بین فرهنگیبلاغت در نگارش بر افزایش توانایی نگارش آنها در زبان انگلیسی و همچنین صحت و ساختار ترکیبی نگارش آنها می باشد. بدین منظور، دو گروه 25 نفری از زبان آموزان ایرانی که درس نگارش پایه را می گذراندند بوسیله امتحان مهارتهای زبانی (پت) انتخاب شدند و در دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش قرار داده شدند. سپس یک تست محقق ساخته نگارش بعنوان پیش آزمون به آنها داده شد. گروه آزمایش آموزش مستقیم معلم در زمینه ساختارهای بین فرهنگی بلاغت در نگارش را دریافت کردند همراه با انجام تکالیفی مرتبط با موارد آموزش داده شده. در حالیکه تکالیف گروه کنترل محدود به انجام تمرینات کتاب بود بدون آنکه آموزش مستقیمی در زمینه فوق در نگارش دریافت کرده باشند. پس از 9 جلسه آموزش از هر دو گروه پس آزمون بعمل آمد. نتایج تحقیق نشانگر آن است که آگاهی کاربردشناختی از ساختارهای بین فرهنگیبلاغت به شکل مؤثری موجب افزایش کیفیت نگارش زبان آموزان ایرانی شده و همچنین درستی نگارش آنها را نیز افزایش داده است ولی در مورد ساختار ترکیبی نگارش آنها تفاوت قابل ملاحظه ای مشاهده نشده است.