پرویز بیرجندی

پرویز بیرجندی

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۳۶ مورد.
۱.

Hedges in English for Academic Purposes: A Corpus-based study of Iranian EFL learners

تعداد بازدید : ۰ تعداد دانلود : ۸
Hedges, as tools to express tentativeness and doubt, have been studied in plenty of research papers in the Iranian EFL research setting. However, their use in a learner corpus, portraying Iranian learner English, is in need of more research attention. With this end in view, this study aimed at investigating how Iranian EFL learners who have majored in English-related fields in Iran deployed hedges in their academic, expository essays. This study was conducted through running the corpus analysis software MonoConc Pro-Semester version 2.2 on the electronically compiled Iranian Corpus of Learner English, totaling 436,035 words. Automatic and manual analyses suggested that hedges comprised only 7.4% of the total metadiscourse in the Iranian Corpus of Learner English, with 0.68 occurrences per 1,000,000 words. In a comparable native corpus, a sub-corpus of the British Academic Written English, hedges were used with 1.43 occurrences per 1,000,000 words (21% of the total metadiscourse in the corpus). Log-likelihood statistical analysis confirmed statistically significant differences between the two corpora in terms of the use of hedges, with underuse of hedges in the Iranian academic, expository essays relative to the English natives’ essays. Implementations of the results for English academic writing instruction including genre-based, explicit teaching of hedges through data-driven techniques with the aid of tools such as AntConc software and corpora such as the BAWE are considered.
۲.

The Impact of Implementing Critical Appraisal on EFL Teachers’ Data Analysis Knowledge

تعداد بازدید : ۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱
Condemning a laissez faire approach to English Language Teaching (ELT), English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher trainers unanimously agree that the building blocks of teachers’ teaching framework are profoundly influenced by conducting research. Focusing on quantitative research, this study endeavored to scrutinize the impact of the Critical Appraisal of Published Research (CAPR) in undergraduate teacher training programs on EFL teachers’ Data Analysis Knowledge (DAK). To this objective, 30 male and female EFL teachers were non-randomly selected and randomly assigned to two groups. In two Research classes, the experimental group received the CAPR whereas the control group received traditional teacher-centered instruction with summative assessment. The DAK section of the Quantitative Research Literacy (QRL) questionnaire was employed as the pretest and posttest. Subsequent to corroborating participants’ pre-treatment homogeneity in terms of DAK, analyzing the post-treatment data through running an independent-samples t-test, eta squared = .338 (representing a large effect size), indicated the existence of a significant difference in the post-treatment DAK scores between the two groups. The obtained results confirmed that the CAPR has a significantly better impact on EFL teachers’ DAK which is a key area of QRL. Therefore, it seems accurate to argue that ELT teacher training programs should endeavor to involve the students in a mentally engaging process, e.g. CAPR, where the content of the course is put into practice by the students, something which is required for balancing the concrete and the abstract.
۳.

بررسی رابطه واگویه، استدلال منطقی و دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان ایرانی از طریق تحلیل مسیر

تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۴۳
پژوهش حاضر بر آن است تا ارتباط بین یکی از جنبه های اصلی نظریه اجتماعی فرهنگی ویگوتسکی (1978)، یعنی واگویه را، با استدلال منطقی و دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان ایرانی بررسی کند. این ارتباط مبتنی بر تعاملی پویا بین قدرت استدلال منطقی و واگویه دانشجویان وهمچنین ارتباط هریک از این ساختارها با دستاورد زبانی آن هاست. برای دستیابی به هدف پژوهش، 200 دانشجوی زبان انگلیسی از دانشگاه های مختلف ایران پرسش نامه هایی را تکمیل کردند. از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد سه بخش از فعالیت ها (استنباط، استنتاج و ارزشیابی استدلال های منطقی) را از پرسش نامه «ارزیابی تفکر انتقادی واتسون گلیزر»ش (2010) انجام دهند. علاوه بر این، از آن ها خواسته شد به پرسش نامه «واگویه» طراحی شده توسط سیگریست (1995) پاسخ دهند. برای بررسی دستاورد زبانی، از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شد معدل خود را ذکر کنند. مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری برای تحلیل مدل براساس داده ها انجام شد. برای تعیین ناپیوستگی های شناساییشده در مدل، هر مسیر که نمایانگر روابط علی و معلولی است به طور مجزا بررسی شد. داده ها، پیش بینی های نظری در مورد رابطه بین استدلال منطقی و واگویه دانشجویان را تأیید می کنند. به علاوه، تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که واگویه دانشجویان با سه زیرمجموعه استدلال منطقی همبستگی مثبت و قدرت پیش بینی خوبی برای آن ها دارد. علاوه بر این، سه مؤلفه استدلال منطقی به شکل مؤثر و مثبتی میزان دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان ایرانی را پیش بینی می کنند. در نهایت می توان نتیجه گرفت که واگویه می تواند همبستگی غیرمستقیم و مثبتی با دستاورد زبانی دانشجویان داشته باشد.
۴.

Towards an Operational Definition of Critical Thinking

تعداد بازدید : ۵۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲
This paper offers a state-of-the-art working definition for the concept of Critical Thinking (CT hereafter) in an attempt to provide a framework for the development of an operational definition for this complex concept. Having studied various definitions and models, proposed for CT by major figures in the field, the key defining features of this rich concept were identified and classified. Based on these key descriptors, a working definition consisting of three main components namely Mind Analysis , Data Evaluation , and Thinking in Education has been proposed and then each dimension of this definition is defined and elaborated further so that the complexity of the concept could be framed in an extended model. The elaborated conception of CT proposed in this paper seeks to include the core elements of CT so that it can be expandable into an operational definition with measurable items. There are two main reasons for conducting this research: Firstly, CT has evolved into a multifaceted construct with a broad range of cognitive abilities and intellectual dispositions. Secondly, although CT has been recognized as a significant concept in education, its full potential has not been achieved yet.
۵.

An Activity Theory Perspective on the Role of Cooperative Assessment in the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

تعداد بازدید : ۳۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
Reading comprehension has recently been reconceptualized in EFL reading instruction to foreground the importance of putting a social perspective on learning. Developed as a crucial aspect of Vygotskian sociocultural theory, activity theory views reading as a socially-mediated activity, for which the prerequisite cognitive processes are distributed among teacher, individual reader, other students, and artifacts (Cole & Engeström, 1993). Given that cooperation and division of labor are the central tenets of activity theory, this study aimed at investigating whether assessing cooperative learning had a decisive effect on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 60 sophomores majoring in English translation at Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, were selected as the participants of the study. The reading instruction was geared to cooperative learning based on the elements of activity theory. Over the course of 12 weeks, both the process and products of cooperative reading were self-, peer-, and instructor-assessed. The findings indicated that assessing cooperative reading through the lens of activity theory had a significant effect on the participants’ reading comprehension. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the products of cooperative reading in predicting the participants’ reading comprehension posttest scores. Furthermore, the results showed that the participants held favorable perception toward activity theory-based cooperative assessment. The findings are hoped to shine a light on collective reading and highlight the need for more innovative constructivist approaches to EFL reading in Iran.
۶.

The Creation of an Intercultural Learning Experience in EFL Contexts

تعداد بازدید : ۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۹۲
The present Study aimed to examine the efficacy of using literary texts in promoting intercultural communication competence, and intercultural awareness and understanding within language teaching contexts. The participants were 50 Iranian undergraduate students of English Literature, 20 male and 30 female, with their ages ranging from 19 to 24 engaged in reading and discussing literary texts with an emphasis on their social and cultural themes and contents. 9 English and 2 Persian short stories were the main material implemented, and these were supplemented by 6 American and 2 Iranian movies with their screenplays adopted from literary works. The themes attended to included racial discrimination, social class, gender roles, and ethnic minorities.  Based on Byram’s (1997) proposed model of Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), five factors of the students’ ICC development, Savoir Comprendre, Savoire Etre, Savoire S’engager, Savoirs and Savoire Apprendre/Faire, were observed throughout a 14-session course. A Content analysis of students’ writing assignments and an examination of how fruitful they found the tasks and materials in enhancing their cultural understanding demonstrated a noticeable involvement of all the studied ICC factors in reading, discussing and contemplating on the literary texts and their cultural content.
۷.

Iranian EFL Learners' Perception of the Efficacy of Activity Theory-based Reading Comprehension

تعداد بازدید : ۱۳۷ تعداد دانلود : ۷۳
Any language classroom is a distinctive learning context offering numerous affordances that might be perceived effectively, remain unnoticed, or even act as constraints. Therefore, exploring students' perception toward a particular method of instruction is crucial since it may produce a reliable piece of evidence for teachers to confirm or refute the effectiveness of the intended instructional activities. This study was an attempt to survey Iranian EFL learners' perception of the efficacy of activity theory-based reading comprehension. To this end, 60 students studying English translation at Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch participated in the study and received the reading instruction based on the elements of activity theory, i.e., subjects, object, mediating artifacts, rules, community, and division of labor. After receiving the treatment, the students filled in two perception questionnaires and took part in a semi-structured focus group interview. The findings indicated that the students showed favorable perception toward activity theory, for which they perceived different affordances. Moreover, the results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the students’ perception regarding the mediating elements of activity theory.  The study provides EFL teachers with new insights into the considerable benefits that activity theory might bring to reading classes.
۸.

Oral Pushed Output: the Route to Long-term Grammatical Accuracy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۲
This study investigated the impact of oral pushed output on the learning and retention of English perfect tenses. During the study, a pre-test was administered to 22 freshmen majoring in English translation. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. Then, for six sessions both groups received explicit instructions on English perfect tenses. Every session, the experimental group recorded their oral performances on some picture description and translation tasks whose completion entailed the use of the instructed language form, while the control group merely did some conventional multiple choice tests covering the instructed structures. Following the treatment sessions, a post-test was run. Four weeks later, a delayed post-test was also administrated. Analysis of the data through repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) supported the facilitative effects of oral pushed output on the learning and retention of English perfect tenses. The finding of the study can have some implications for English Language Teaching (ELT) materials developers and practitioners.
۹.

The Impressibility of Speaking Accuracy/Fluency among EFL Undergraduates: A Meta-Analysis

تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۱ تعداد دانلود : ۸۲
This meta-analysis is an investigation into the impressibility of two dimensions of the speaking skill, namely accuracy and fluency, in relation to the experimented treatments among Iranian EFL undergraduates. Having surveyed a collected bank of 74 research reports, the relationships among the variables in the 14 included studies were examined. More specifically, the analysis involved a statistical review of 67 effect sizes (at 95% CI) calculated from studies conducted between 2006 and 2016, including 890 participants. The analysis indicated that in 77% of the experimented treatments, the students performed as well as the students in the regular programs with no significant improvement in oral accuracy. The analysis also demonstrated that 63% of the treatments did not yield significant improvement in oral fluency in comparison with the regular instruction. Moreover, the synthesis of the effects of the contextual factors showed that low-level (i.e., elementary) learners experienced a better improvement in speaking performance. The analysis also revealed that, among the experimented treatments, dialogic tasks were most effective on oral accuracy while interviews were influential in promoting the students’ both oral accuracy and fluency. Finally, the quality of the study reports was analyzed and some directions for further research were suggested.
۱۰.

Motivational Beliefs, Self-Regulation and EFL Listening Achievement: A Path Analysis

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۵
Informed by the expectancy-value and social cognitive theories of learning, the present study proposed a path model to investigate the impact of motivational beliefs as defined by listening self-efficacy, three types of goal orientations, and task value on self-regulation of Iranian EFL learners, in addition to the unique contribution of each to the variability in the listening comprehension score. Results of path analysis revealed significant positive effect of listening self-efficacy and self-regulation on students’ listening comprehension and task value on self-regulation. Unlike performance approach goals, mastery and performance avoidance goals demonstrated a significant impact on participants’ self-regulation but no significant direct effect of any goals on listening achievement was detected.
۱۱.

The Effect of Output-based Task Repetition on EFL Learners’ Speech Act Production

کلید واژه ها: Speech Acts Output Metapragmatic information Visual enhancement Task repetition

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۵۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۹
This study investigated the effects of different output-based task repetition conditions on EFL learners’ speech act production. Three intact classes of English-major students constituted three instructional groups: (1) the explicit task-repetition (ETR) group, (2) the implicit task-repetition (ITR) group, and (3) the no-input task repetition (NTR) group. All the three groups engaged in the repetition of output-generation tasks. However, before the second performance of the task, the ETR group received input coupled with metapragmatic information, the ITR group received visually enhanced input coupled with a consciousness raising task, and the NTR group received no input. The results of a written discourse completion test (WDCT) revealed statistically significant gains in the learners’ performance from the pretest to the posttest in the ETR and ITR groups, but not in the NTR group. Moreover, the analysis of differences across the groups in the posttest revealed the superiority of the ETR over the ITR and NTR groups. The results suggest that output-based task repetition cannot enhance EFL learners’ speech act production ability unless learners are provided with input before the second performance of the task. Also when explicit and implicit instructional methods are integrated with output-based task repetition, the explicit approach is more effective than its implicit counterpart.
۱۲.

Translation and Hybridity in Scenes and Frames Semantics

کلید واژه ها: Translation Scenes and Frames Semantics Hybridity Pure Texts Scene Frame Cognitivism

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۶
The present study is a theoretical attempt to illustrate how Fillmore's Scenes and Frames Semantics (SFS) could be employed as a framework to portray the process of understanding and translating hybrid texts. It first reviews the origin of SFS; then it maps SFS onto Nida’s linguistic model of translation process and the Interpretive Theory of Translation; it examines in the next section, within the framework of SFS, different forms of understanding and translating hybrid and pure texts with reference to the selection of linguistic frames and more importantly the activation of scenes. The paper explains all four processes of hybridization, dehybridization, rehybridization and hybridity preservation using SFS. The study concludes that, although hybridity is a complex phenomenon, Fillmore’s scenes and frames semantics can adequately explain and justify its different aspects and manifestations. Moreover, it revealed that understanding, seen in SFS model, has an element of individuality and this gives rise to a broader perspective on translation where there can potentially be as many valid translations as there are translators. This has significant implications for our conception, analysis and assessment of translation.
۱۳.

افزایش آگاهی کاربردشناختی زبان آموزان نسبت به ساختارهای بین فرهنگی بلاغت در نگارش

کلید واژه ها: ساختارهای بین فرهنگی بلاغت در نگارش افزایش آگاهی کاربردشناختی ساختارترکیبی نگارش درستی نگارش

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۵۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۶
هدف ازاین مطالعه بررسی تاثیر افزایش آگاهی زبان آموزان ایرانی در مورد کاربرد ساختارهای بین فرهنگیبلاغت در نگارش بر افزایش توانایی نگارش آنها در زبان انگلیسی و همچنین صحت و ساختار ترکیبی نگارش آنها می باشد. بدین منظور، دو گروه 25 نفری از زبان آموزان ایرانی که درس نگارش پایه را می گذراندند بوسیله امتحان مهارتهای زبانی (پت) انتخاب شدند و در دو گروه کنترل و آزمایش قرار داده شدند. سپس یک تست محقق ساخته نگارش بعنوان پیش آزمون به آنها داده شد. گروه آزمایش آموزش مستقیم معلم در زمینه ساختارهای بین فرهنگی بلاغت در نگارش را دریافت کردند همراه با انجام تکالیفی مرتبط با موارد آموزش داده شده. در حالیکه تکالیف گروه کنترل محدود به انجام تمرینات کتاب بود بدون آنکه آموزش مستقیمی در زمینه فوق در نگارش دریافت کرده باشند. پس از 9 جلسه آموزش از هر دو گروه پس آزمون بعمل آمد. نتایج تحقیق نشانگر آن است که آگاهی کاربردشناختی از ساختارهای بین فرهنگیبلاغت به شکل مؤثری موجب افزایش کیفیت نگارش زبان آموزان ایرانی شده و همچنین درستی نگارش آنها را نیز افزایش داده است ولی در مورد ساختار ترکیبی نگارش آنها تفاوت قابل ملاحظه ای مشاهده نشده است.
۱۴.

The Role of Verbalization in Listening Conceptual Formation among Iranian EFL Learners: A STI Perspective

کلید واژه ها: Concept formation Materialization Collaborative verbalization Listening performance

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۴
The present study was an attempt to investigate the significance of verbalization and teaching the concepts of listening on the development of listening performance among Iranian EFL learners. To do so, an experimental study was designed in which the participants were sixty pre-intermediate learners selected based on the results of their performance on a standard version of Oxford Placement Test (OPT). The participants were divided into two experimental groups. The learners in experimental group I (Systemic Theoretical Instruction- Explanation and Materialization (STI-EM), were exposed to materialized tools which consisted of presenting the target concept in charts accompanied by the examples and related strategies to extract the concept, while Group II students (Systemic Theoretical Instruction- Explanation, Materialization, and Verbalization (STI-EMV), enjoyed materialized tools as well as collaborative verbalization. The learners in both groups went through pre-test, intervention, and post-test. The collected data were analyzed through employing analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results indicated that the group which practiced collaborative verbalization in L1 outperformed the one which was just mediated by teacher's oral explanation and materialized objects
۱۵.

تأثیر انگیزه و برنامه کمک آموزشیِ مبتنی بر رابطه متقابل بین زبان آموز و معلم و کارِ گروهی بین زبان آموزان بر روی درک مطلب زبان آموزان ایرانی

کلید واژه ها: درک مطلب برنامه مداخله ای آموزشی سطح انگیزه

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۵۷ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۲
این پژوهش به بررسی تأثیر و ارتباط سطح انگیزه بر روی درک مطلب زبان آموزان ایرانی می پردازد که برنامه آموزشی مبتنی بر رابطه متقابل بین زبان آموز و معلم و کار گروهی بین زبان آموزان دریافت می کنند. در ابتدا زبان آموزان به چهارگروه تقسیم می شوند. زبان آموزان همگی دانشجویان ترم سوم رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی بودند و در پیش آزمون تافل و اجرای اولیه پرسش نامه شرکت کردند و تفاوت معناداری بین سطح انگیزه و توانایی درک مطلب آنان وجود نداشت. سپس آنان در دو گروه آزمایشی و دو گروه کنترل قرار گرفتند. دو گروه کنترل (گروه الف و ب) به ترتیب ۲۸ و ۱۲ نفر زبان آموز داشتند و شیوه آموزش مهارت درک مطلب متداول را دریافت کردند. گروه های آموزشی (الف و ب) به ترتیب ۲۸ و ۱۲ نفر زبان آموز داشتند و شیوه آموزش مهارت درک مطلب مبتنی بر رابطه متقابل بین زبان آموز و معلم و کار گروهی بین زبان آموزان را دریافت کردند. در انتها همگی در پس آزمون تافل و اجرای دوم پرسش نامه شرکت کردند. نتایج با استفاده از تحلیل واریانسِ دوطرفه وتحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که گروه های آموزشی از گروه های کنترل بهتر عمل کردند و برنامه کمک آموزشی بر روی انگیزه برای خودکارآمدی، چالش، کنجکاوی، رقابت، شناخته شدن، نمرات، دلایل اجتماعی و اطاعت در درک مطلب تأثیر می گذارد.
۱۶.

The Effect of Self-Assessment and Conference on EFL Students’ Production of Speech Acts and Politeness Markers: Alternatives on the Horizon?

کلید واژه ها: Self-assessment Alternative Assessment Interlanguage Pragmatics (ILP) Pragmatic Assessment Conference Metapragmatic Awareness

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۹۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۵
Alternative assessment approaches received considerable attention soon after a discontent with traditional, one-shot testing. These approaches, however, have been used only to improve learners’ linguistic ability despite communicative models of language which pointed that knowledge of language also involves pragmatic ability (Bachman, 1990; Bachman & Palmer, 1996). The present study tries to explore the effect of two alternative assessment approaches (self-assessment and conference) on students’ production of four speech acts (apology, complaint, request, and refusal) plus politeness markers. A sample of 64 EFL students participated in this study. Metapragmatic explanations were given to three groups of university students studying English as a foreign language. The two treatment groups received instruction through self-assessment and conference and a comparison group was exposed to the conventional one-shot testing. The results of the One-Way ANOVA conducted after the treatment revealed an outperformance of alternative assessment approaches to the conventional one in the production of the four speech acts and politeness markers in WDCTs. A qualitative analysis of students’ self-ratings in the self-assessment group revealed that they focused more on linguistic criteria during the initial sessions and on pragmatic ones by the end of the treatment. It can be concluded that alternative assessment approaches are beneficial to students’ production of speech acts and politeness markers. In the end, the applicability and the positive effect of alternative approaches in pragmatic assessment are emphasized.
۱۷.

مقاله به زبان انگلیسی: تاثیر مطالب خودآگاهی بخش برگرفته از ویدئو بر درک کنش های گفتاری عذرخواهی، درخواست و امتناع؛ Pragmatic comprehension of apology, request and refusal: An investigation on the effect of consciousness-raising video-driven prompts

کلید واژه ها: زبان- منظورشناسی منظور- جامعه شناسی فرضیه آگاهی بخشی

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۸۸۸ تعداد دانلود : ۳۹۳
تحقیقات اخیر در زمینه منظور شناسی بین زبانی به این نتیجه رسیده اند که بعضی از جنبه های منظور شناسی زبان را می توان در محیط های کلاسی آموزش داد. اما اینکه چه روشهایی و چه مفاد آموزشی بهترین تاثیر را دارند قابل بحث است. بنابراین، هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیر مطالب خودآگاهی بخش برگرفته از ویدئو بر درک کنش های گفتاری عذرخواهی، درخواست و امتناع می باشد. بدین منظور، 78 فارسی زبان سطح متوسط به بالا بطور تصادفی در چهار گروه (فرا منظور شناسی، جستجوی ساختار، ایفای نقش، و کنترل) قرار گرفتند. به این چهار گروه 45 برش ویدیو که از فیلم های Flash forward, Stargate TV series & Annie Hall, در 9 جلسه 60 دقیقه ای هفته ای دو بار تدریس شد. نتایج آزمون چند گزینه ای تکمیل کلام نشان داد که تمامی این سه روش آموزش موثر بوده اند و تست Tukey (HSD) نشان داد که عملکرد گروه فرا منظور شناختی از گروههای دیگر بهتر بوده است. یافته ها حاکی از ان است که مدرسین و تالیف کنندگان کتاب های آموزشی می توانند از ویدیوهای آموزشی برای آگاهی بخشی مفاهیم منظورشناسی در کلاس درس استفاده کنند.
۱۸.

Assessing Language Learners’ Knowledge of Speech Acts: A Test Validation Study

کلید واژه ها: Speech Acts pragmatic competence interlanguage pragmatics test development

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۴۸ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۳
Veryfew attempts have been made in the past to develop instruments to measure pragmatic knowledge of second language (L2) learners. The absence of such instruments in the literature of English language teaching (ELT) underscores the need for the researchers to develop new tests that are specifically designed to assess this crucial but less explored aspect of language learners’ (LLs) knowledge. In line with this objective, the present study was conducted to develop and validate four tests of pragmatic knowledge that measured LLs’ knowledge of speech acts. The following steps were taken in this study to develop the written discourse completion tests (WDCTs) and the multiple-choice discourse completion tests (MCDCTs) that respectively measured the test takers’ ability to produce and comprehend request speech act. During the “prototype step” the researchers identified the content and the number of items for each designated test battery. At the “test construction step” the sociolinguistic variables of power (P), social distance (D), and absolute rank of imposition (R) were inserted into the content of the test items. Finally, at the “validation step” the reliability of the tests was examined. The finding of the study showed that the constructed test batteries were sufficiently reliable and valid for measuring pragmatic knowledge of L2 learners.
۲۰.

بررسی و ارزشیابی کمی دوره کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی در ایران

کلید واژه ها: ارزشیابی ارزشیابی کیفی دوره کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی مدل CIPP مهارت زبان دوم

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۳۲۳ تعداد دانلود : ۹۸۴
هدف از انجام این تحقیق بررسی و ارزیابی دوره کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی می باشد. با وجود اینکه حدودا هشت سال از تشکیل این دوره می گذرد اما از ابتدای تشکیل هیچ نوع ارزیابی از این رشته انجام نشده است. به منظور انجام ارزشیابی حاضر، بعد از مطالعه بیش از 30 مدل ارزشیابی ابتدا مدل 2002) CIPP (Stufflebeam، که برای این تحقیق مناسبتر از بقیه مدلها بود انتخاب شد و سوالات تحقیق بر اساس چهار قسمت این مدل (Context، Input، Process، and Product) به شرح زیر نوشته شدند: 1- مهمترین مهارتهای زبانی(عمومی- آکادمیک) دانشجویان دوره کارشناسی ارشد رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی از نظر مدیران گروه، استادان و خود دانشجویان کدامند؟ 2- آیا برنامه آموزشی این دوره بر مبنای اهداف مصوبه شورای عالی برنامه ریزی وزارت علوم و آموزش عالی طرح ریزی و اجرا شده است ؟ 3- آیا در مورد ارزیابی دانش ومیزان تسلط دانشجویان روی مهارتهای زبانی، بین نظر استادان و دانشجویان هماهنگی وجود دارد؟ 4- به عنوان شاخص ونشان دهنده میزان موفقیت یا عدم موفقیت این دوره، آیا بین دانش و مهارتهایی که دانشجویان در این دوره کسب می نمایند و میزان رضایت آنان رابطه ای وجود دارد؟ اولین گام درجهت انجام این تحقیق نیاز سنجی جامعه ای بود که نیازها و اهداف دانشجویان، همچنین مشکلات زبانی و ترجمه ای آنها را در این دوره نشان دهند. این نیاز سنجی از طریق مشاهده کلاسی، انجام مصاحبه، تهیه و توزیع پرسشنامه ها در کلیه واحدهای دانشگاهی (سراسری و آزاد) که این رشته در آنها تدریس می شود (بغیر از واحد چابهار) انجام گرفت. بطور کلی اطلاعات بدست آمده حا کی از آن است که هدف اول این دوره آموزشی یعنی «تربیت مترجمان زبده در زمینه های علوم انسانی، علوم اجتماعی وغیره» که مورد نیاز جامعه می باشد چنا نکه باید وشاید تحقق پیدا نکرده است. بنظر می رسد که رفع این نا رسا یی نیاز به بررسی و انجام اقدامات اصلاحی نیاز دارد که امید می رود با راهنمایی و نظریات استادان و مسئولین امر به مرحله اجرا گذاشته شود.

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