حمید مرعشی

حمید مرعشی

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۲۰ مورد.
۱.

Applying Cooperative and Individual Offline Planning in Speaking Classes: A Comparison of Impulsive and Reflective EFL Learners

تعداد بازدید : ۶۷ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
This study investigated the effect of two different types of offline planning, namely cooperative and individual, on the oral proficiency of impulsive and reflective EFL learners. Accordingly, 114 intermediate learners studying at a private language school in Tehran were chosen nonrandomly through their performance on a Preliminary English Test (PET). The participants also filled out the Eysenck and Eysenck’s (1991) Impulsiveness Questionnaire (EIQ) through which they were categorized into two subgroups within each offline planning setting consisting of impulsive and reflective learners. All in all, there were four subgroups: 28 impulsive and 28 reflective learners undergoing the cooperative offline planning treatment, and 32 impulsive and 26 reflective learners experiencing the individual offline planning treatment. Following the 14-session treatment, the mean scores of all four groups on the speaking posttest were computed and a two-way ANOVA was run to test all the four hypotheses raised in the study. The results revealed that the effect of offline planning to a great degree depends on the cognitive learning style of the learners: while impulsive learners benefit more from cooperative offline planning, reflective ones prefer to perform the task individually.
۲.

بررسی سوگیری در سوالات درک مطلب آزمون مقطع دکترای رشته زبان انگلیسی تحت سنجش تشخیصی شناختی

تعداد بازدید : ۷۲ تعداد دانلود : ۸۷
در چند دهه اخیر، بررسی سطح توانایی در آزمون های سرنوشت ساز از دیدگاه سنجش تشخیصی شناختی مورد توجه محققان ارزشیابی و سنجش و اندازه گیری قرار گرفته است. در این راستا، مدل های تشخیصی شناختی میزان تسلط و عدم تسلط آزمودنی ها را با خصیصه های چندگانه مورد بررسی قرار می دهد. بدین منظور، هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی کنش افتراقی سوال و کنش افتراقی خصیصه در آزمون ورودی زبان عمومی مقطع دکترای زبان انگلیسی می باشد. بنابراین، 3220 آزمودنی دختر و پسر از جامعه آماری شرکت کننده در آزمون سازمان سنجش کشور به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. در مدل اکتشافی داده ها، مراحل کیفی و کمی به ترتیب اجرا شده است. سپس از ماتریس کیو ساخته شده به وسیله پروتکل تفکر با صدای بلند استفاده شد تا داده ها با استفاده از بسته آر استودیو تجزیه و تحلیل شوند. مدل جی دینا تحت سنجش تشخیصی شناختی قرار گرفته و نتایج بدست آمده از کنش افتراقی سوال، سوگیری در سوالات را گزارش داده است.
۳.

EFL Learners’ Language Aptitude, Foreign Language Anxiety, and Willingness to Communicate

تعداد بازدید : ۶۶ تعداد دانلود : ۵۵
This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship among EFL learners’ language aptitude, anxiety, and willingness to communicate (WTC). Accordingly, two questionnaires and a battery were used: Language Aptitude Battery for Iranian Learners (LABI), Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), and WTC Scale. A total of 164 undergraduate students majoring in English literature and English translation of Islamic Azad University Central Tehran took part in this study, among whom 119 (52 males and 67 females) whose age ranged from 19 to 35 years responded to the three instruments completely and were thus considered as the actual participants. The researchers carried out a series of both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses and the results supported the notion that learners’ anxiety was negatively correlated with their WTC while learners’ language aptitude was positively correlated with their WTC. Hence, the major implication of this study is that by helping learners reduce their anxiety and enhance their aptitude, they can increase their WTC.
۴.

مقایسه تأثیر آموزش خودمختاری و تفکر نقاد بر مهارت گفتار زبان آموزان انگلیسی

تعداد بازدید : ۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۸
تفکر نقاد و خودمختاریِ فراگیران، ازجمله موضوعاتی است که بسیار در پیشینه پژوهش های آموزش زبان انگلیسی مورد بحث و بررسی قرار گرفته است. در این راستا، برای پی بردن به کارآمدی بیشتر این دو مقوله در زبان آموزی، مطالعه حاضر به مقایسه تأثیر آموزش تکنیک های تفکر نقاد با تکنیک های خود مختاری در پیشرفت مهارت گفتار زبان آموزان انگلیسی پرداخت. به این منظور، 90 نفر زبان آموز سطح متوسط کلاس های یکی از آموزشگاه های آزاد زبان در تهران که پژوهشگران این مطالعه به آن ها دسترسی داشتند، در یک نمونه آزمون اولیه انگلیسی (پِت) شرکت کردند. در نتیجه، 64 نفری که نمره های آن ها در محدوده یک انحراف معیار بالا و پائین میانگین نمره های کلی آن 90 نفر قرارگرفته، انتخاب شدند. لازم به اشاره است که این آزمون پیش از این، میان 30 زبان آموز دیگر در همان آموزشگاه پیش آزمون شده بود. در مرحله بعد، آن 64 نفر به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایشی گروه بندی شدند تا یک گروه تحت آموزش تکنیک های تفکر نقاد و گروه دیگر تحت آموزش تکنیک های خودمختاری به عنوان دو روش آموزشی مختلف قرار گیرند. پیش از آغاز آموزش نیز مهارت گفتاری هر دو گروه با استفاده از پیش آزمون گفتار مورد سنجش قرار گرفته بود و تفاوت معناداری بین میانگین نمرات آن ها مشاهده نشد. در انتهای دوره آموزشی 14 جلسه ای، دو گروه در پس آزمون یکسان گفتار شرکت کردند. نتیجه تحلیل آماری مربوطه (آزمون نمونه های مستقل تی) نشان دهنده آن بود که آموزش تفکر نقاد، تأثیربرتری بر مهارت گفتار نسبت به آموزش خودمختاری دارد. یافته های مورد اشاره، بیش از پیش برتری آموزش تفکر نقاد در کلاس های زبان را نسبت به سایر روش های تدریس نشان می دهد و بر ضرورت توجه بیشتر به این سبک آموزش تأکید می کند.
۵.

مقایسه کارهای هوشیارسازی دستوری و برونداد مدیریت شده بر مهارت گفتاری زبان آموزان

تعداد بازدید : ۶۰ تعداد دانلود : ۸۴
هدف از این مطالعه، مقایسه کارهای ارتقای آگاهی دستوری و برون داد مدیریت شده بر مهارت گفتاری زبان آموزان بوده است. بدین منظور، 66 زبان آموز دختر در یکی از آموزشگاههای تهران با برگزاری آزمون ابتدایی انگلیسی (پت) بین 91 زبان آموز انتخاب گردیده و در دو گروه آزمایشی قرار گرفتند. در ابتدا، هر دو گروه در پیش آزمون گفتاری شرکت کرده و همگن شدند و تحت آموزش در یک دوره 18 جلسه ای با صرف زمان مساوی برای هر گروه قرار گرفتند. در گروه آزمایشی اول، کارهای ارتقای آگاهی و در گروه آزمایشی دوم، کارهای برون داد مدیریت شده ارائه گردیدند. در پایان دوره، پس آزمون گفتاری دیگری از هر دو گروه آزمایشی گرفته شد. برای آزمون فرضیه مطرح شده از آزمون نمونه های مستقل تی استفاده گردید و نتیجه آن بود که مهارت گفتاری گروه کارهای ارتقای آگاهی به شکل معناداری نسبت به گروه کارهای برون داد مدیریت شده برتری داشتند. کاربرد این پژوهش برای معلمین و طراحان مطالب درسی در انتهای مقاله به تفصیل بحث شده اند.
۶.

Using Cooperative Group Feedback and Cooperative Group Writing in Writing Classes

تعداد بازدید : ۹۸ تعداد دانلود : ۷۱
The present study compared the effect of cooperative group feedback and cooperative group writing techniques in writing classes. Accordingly, 90 male and female intermediate English language learners sat for a sample piloted Preliminary English Test and 60 who scored one standard deviation above and below the mean were selected as the main participants. Both groups were taught the same course book. Moreover, they received the same hours of instruction and teaching aids in the same physical environment; therefore, the most significant point of departure in the two experimental groups in the present study was the form of writing practices presented in the classroom. One group underwent the cooperative group writing while the other the cooperative feedback procedure throughout the treatment period. The findings of this study based upon the results gained from an independent sample t-test run on the two groups’ posttest mean scores revealed that the participants’ L2 writing improved more significantly in the cooperative group writing class compared to the cooperative group feedback. The findings of this study may be contributory to EFL teachers and syllabus designers in the process of developing more efficient second language writing courses.
۷.

Student Teams Achievement Divisions and Think-Pair-Share: Which Works Better for Listening?

تعداد بازدید : ۶۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۱
This study was an attempt to investigate the comparative impact of Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) and Think-Pair-Share (TPS) on EFL learners’ listening. Accordingly, 60 female EFL learners selected from a larger group of 90 learners based on their performance on a sample piloted Preliminary English Test (PET) who studied at a language school in Tehran were randomly divided into two experimental groups. Both groups demonstrated homogeneity in terms of their listening at the outset. The same content was taught to both groups during 15 sessions with one experimental group undergoing STAD while TPS was used in the other group. At the end of the treatment, another sample PET listening section was administered to both groups. The result of the independent samples t-test run on the participants’ mean scores on the posttest revealed that the TPS group significantly outperformed those in the STAD group. These findings have certain implications which are discussed at length in the paper.
۸.

Using Information Gap and Opinion Gap Tasks to Improve Introvert and Extrovert Learners’ Speaking

تعداد بازدید : ۹۹ تعداد دانلود : ۴۷
This study compared the effect of information gap and opinion gap tasks on introvert and extrovert EFL learners’ speaking. Accordingly, 138 learners out of 180 intermediate learners were chosen through their scores on a sample Preliminary English Test (PET). These learners further responded to the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) which categorized them into introverts and extroverts. Altogether, four subgroups were established: 32 introverts and 37 extroverts undergoing the opinion gap task instruction and 33 introverts and 36 extroverts experiencing the information gap task treatment. All groups received 10 sessions of treatment and at the end sat for another sample PET speaking section as the posttest. A two-way ANOVA was run to respond to all the four questions showing that while extrovert learners benefited more from opinion gap tasks, introverts outperformed extroverts as a result of information gap tasks. The findings support the notion of using appropriate tasks for different personalities.
۹.

The Relationship between L2 Listening Comprehension and Listening Fatigue among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

تعداد بازدید : ۱۶۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳۴
Listening is referred to by many scholars as the most important as well as the most complicated skill in the language, which can cause mental fatigue in the learners. This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between L2 listening comprehension and listening fatigue among Iranian EFL learners. For this purpose, 86 intermediate and upper-intermediate Iranian EFL learners randomly selected after administering a paper-based TOEFL among an initial sample of 120 BA learners majoring in English language translation, took part in the study. A TOEFL listening test and a researcher-made validated listening fatigue questionnaire were utilized in order to gather the necessary data. Afterwards, during the qualitative phase, oral interviews were employed to obtain 30 % of the participant’s’ attitudes about the relationship between listening comprehension and listening fatigue. Applying a Pearson product-moment correlation revealed that there was a significant relationship between L2 listening fatigue and their listening comprehension. These findings were also supported by a small qualitative phase and learners gave their positive support and attitude about the relationship. These findings have some pedagogical implications for teaching and learning an L2, the most important of which is that in order to enhance EFL learners’ L2 listening comprehension, it is better to reduce their debilitative listening fatigue.  
۱۰.

EFL Teachers’ Language Proficiency, Classroom Management, and Self-Efficacy

تعداد بازدید : ۴۰ تعداد دانلود : ۶۰
This study explored the relationship among EFL teachers’ self-efficacy, language proficiency, and classroom management. A total of 110 Iranian EFL teachers of different levels of high schools and private language schools in Tehran participated in this research. The data were collected through two questionnaires and one test: the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale and a sample TOEFL were administered in two different sessions while two sessions of each teacher’s class were observed by two raters who used the Murdoch(2000) checklist to score the effectiveness of each teacher’s teaching. To find out the relationship among the three variables of this study, that is the teachers’ self-efficacy, language proficiency, and classroom management, a Pearson correlation was carried out. The results revealed that teachers’ self-efficacy was correlated with their language proficiency and that language proficiency and effective classroom management were not correlated. The study provides useful insights into the need to help teachers develop their language proficiency that, in turn, has relevance for their self-efficacy.
۱۱.

EFL Teachers’ Adversity Quotient, Personal Growth Initiative, and Pedagogical Success

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۹۰
This study investigated the relationship among Iranian English teachers’ adversity quotient, personal growth initiative, and pedagogical success. The participants comprised 28 male and female English teachers and a total of 336 male and female EFL learners who attended the abovementioned teachers’ classes (12 for each teacher). Stoltz’ (1997) Adversity Response Profile (ARP) and Robitscheck’s (1998) Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS) were administered among the 28 teachers while Moafian and Pishghadam’s (2009) Characteristics of Successful Iranian EFL Teachers Questionnaire (SIETQ) was administered among the 336 students. To look into the relationship and the predictability of the three aforesaid constructs, a Pearson product-moment correlation and subsequently multiple regression analysis were run following all statistical prerequisites necessary for running these parametric tests. The results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation among the teachers’ scores on the ARP and SIETQ, and their PGIS and SIETQ. Also, there was a significant difference in the predictability of the teachers’ SIETQ by their ARP and PGIS.
۱۲.

EFL Teachers’ Beliefs and Motivational Strategies

تعداد بازدید : ۴۳ تعداد دانلود : ۵۴
This study explores the relationship and interconnections between EFL teachers’ beliefs and their motivational practices in the classroom. The present study combined qualitative and quantitative methods of research. First, the motivational practices of 30 teachers in two private language schools in Tehran were explored with a classroom observation instrument, the Motivation Orientation of Language Teaching (MOLT) which was used to estimate the time that teachers spent for each motivational strategy. Then, teachers’ beliefs were examined through the Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and an open-ended questionnaire aimed to assess beliefs about motivational strategies. The quantitative results indicated that the higher the teachers’ scores on the BALLI, the less frequently their use of motivational strategies in the classroom. The findings based on qualitative data, drawing largely on data from observations and the open-ended questionnaire, showed that although teachers were observed to generally follow their beliefs, there existed several points of difference between their beliefs and practices. Also, there was evidence that what teachers practice in the classrooms does not always impact their beliefs.
۱۳.

Developing and Validating a Questionnaire to Assess Critical Discourse Analysis Practices among EFL Teachers

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸۴
The present study was an attempt to investigate to what extent Iranian EFL teachers practice critical discourse analysis in the English language classroom during their teaching. To reach this aim, a 27-item questionnaire was designed and administered among 120 male and female Iranian English teachers in different language schools in Tehran. Following descriptive statistics through which the mean, standard deviation, and reliability of the questionnaire were calculated,a factor analysis was conducted to assess the construct validity of the designed questionnaire.The results of the statistical analysis clearly demonstrated the validity of the designed questionnaire.Once validated, certain within group comparisons (with respect to the demographic factors of gender, age, and educational degree) were conducted to see how the different demographic subsets of the sample responded to the questionnaire. The study also discusses the implications of such measurement for ELT and points out a number of suggestions for further study.
۱۴.

The Effect of Teaching Reading Strategies on EFL Learners’ Reading Anxiety

تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴۰
The present study was conducted to explore the effects of teaching reading strategies on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ reading anxiety. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 55 intermediate EFL learners were selected among a total number of 90 through their performance on a sample piloted Preliminary English Test (PET), and then randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (27 in the control and 28 in the experimental groups). Subsequently, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) was administered between the two groups to make sure that both groups were homogeneous in terms of their reading anxiety at the outset. Then both groups underwent the same amount of teaching time (14 sessions) by the same teacher using the same textbook. The students in the experimental group also received the instruction of the Super Six Comprehension Strategies (i.e. making connections, predicting, questioning, monitoring, visualizing, and summarizing). Finally, the FLRAS was administered again as the posttest to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through an independent samples t-test. The results (t = 2,718, p = 0.009 < 0.05) led to the rejection of the null hypothesis, thereby indicating that there was a significant difference between the experimental group and control group. In other words, the instruction of reading strategies significantly lowered EFL learners’ reading anxiety.
۱۵.

Using Clinical Supervision to Lower EFL Teachers’ Burnout

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۹
The present study was an attempt to explore the effect of clinical supervision on EFL teachers’ level of burnout. For this purpose, a total number of 80 male and female EFL teachers within the age range of 26 and 47 who were working at a language school in Tehran participated in this study. Forty teachers in the experimental group underwent a clinical supervision program which comprised the three steps of pre-observation conference, observation, and post-observation feedback conference while the other 40 teachers who were in the control group were subjected to the conventional supervision program of the language school. The program for both groups spanned a total period of 12 weeks. Prior to the program, the Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire (MBI) was used to measure the level of all of the teachers’ burnout as the pretest and again at the end of study, both groups took the MBI questionnaire as the posttest. The analysis of the test scores using a test of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the clinical supervision program had lowered significantly the participants’ burnout. As a result of this study, the researchers suggest that ELT establishments take into consideration the practice of clinical supervision to enhance their teachers’ performance.
۱۶.

Using Critical Discourse Analysis Based Instruction to Improve EFL Learners’ Writing Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency

تعداد بازدید : ۱۵۵ تعداد دانلود : ۱۴۲
The literature of ELT is perhaps overwhelmed by attempts to enhance learners’ writing through the application of different methodologies. One such methodology is critical discourse analysis which is founded upon stressing not only the decoding of the propositional meaning of a text but also its ideological assumptions. Accordingly, this study was an attempt to investigate the impact of critical discourse analysis-based (CDA) instruction on EFL learners’ writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF). To fulfill the purpose of this study, 60 female intermediate EFL learners were selected from among a total number of 100 through their performance on a piloted sample PET. Based on the results, the students were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group with 30 participants in each. Both groups underwent the same amount of teaching time during 17 sessions which included a treatment of CDA instruction for the experimental group. A writing posttest was administered at the end of the instruction to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through a MANOVA. The results led to the rejection of the three null hypotheses, thereby demonstrating that the learners in the experimental group benefited significantly more than those in the control group in terms of improving their writing CAF. To this end, it is recommended that CDA instruction be incorporated more frequently in writing classes following of course adequate syllabus design and materials development.
۱۷.

Using Critical Discourse Analysis Instruction in Argumentative and Descriptive Writing Classes

کلید واژه ها: Systemic functional linguistics Critical discourse analysis Argumentative writing critical language awareness writing genres descriptive writing

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۳۴ تعداد دانلود : ۲۶۰
The field of ELT is constantly witnessing the introduction of new instructional approaches: one such perhaps recent initiative is critical discourse analysis (CDA). Accordingly, the present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of CDA instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ descriptive and argumentative writing ability. To fulfill the aforementioned purpose, a sample TOEFL was primarily piloted among a group of 30 upper intermediate EFL learners by the researchers; with the acceptable reliability and item analysis indices achieved, then the researchers administered the test among another group of 90 upper intermediate learners. Ultimately, those 60 learners whose scores fell one standard deviation above and below the mean were chosen as the participants of the study and were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group with 30 participants in each. Both of these groups underwent the same amount of teaching time during 20 sessions which included a treatment of CDA instruction based on Jank’s (2005) set of 14 features for the experimental group. A posttest was administered at the end of the instruction to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through a multivariate analysis of variance. The result (F = 14.41 and p = 0.000 < 0.05) led to the rejection of the two null hypotheses raised in this study, thereby demonstrating that the learners in the experimental group benefited significantly more than those in the control group in terms of improving their descriptive and argumentative writing ability. Hence, the major pedagogical implication of this study is that CDA instruction can be effectively used to assist EFL learners improve their argumentative and descriptive writing ability.

پالایش نتایج جستجو

تعداد نتایج در یک صفحه:

درجه علمی

مجله

سال

حوزه تخصصی

زبان