محمد خطیب

محمد خطیب

مدرک تحصیلی: دانشیار، دانشکده زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

مطالب

فیلتر های جستجو: فیلتری انتخاب نشده است.
نمایش ۱ تا ۲۰ مورد از کل ۳۱ مورد.
۱.

Evaluation of ELT Practicum Courses: Exploring the Perspectives of Student Teachers and Graduated Student Teachers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: practicum EFL student teachers teacher education pre-service training

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۷۵
Practicum as a component of the English language teacher education program has been welcomed by pre-service teacher education institutes. Despite the great emphasis laid on practicum by Farhangian University, it has not been evaluated comprehensively by the student teachers and graduated student teachers up to now.  The main objective of the study was to explore the benefits and problems of the practicum program. To do so, a qualitative case study was employed. 25 informants were recruited using a purposive sampling procedure. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with student teachers and graduated student teachers. The interpretational and reflective analysis techniques were employed to analyze the data. The findings were content analyzed in terms of benefits/advantages and challenges of the practicum. They indicate that practicum courses make the student teachers ready for real teaching, help them learn about the realities of real teaching and overcome the negative attitudes and feelings about the teaching profession. It has been also found that the practicum program needs revision in terms of evaluation, quality of placement schools, and cooperation between mentors, university educators and student teachers. Findings can be used by teacher training institutes, practicum educators, school mentors, and EFL student teachers.
۲.

Novice Non-Native English Language Teachers’ Imaginary and Actual Decision Making and Pedagogical Reasoning: Student and Personal Features(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Decision Making pedagogical reasoning novice teachers student features personal features

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۳۱
Two of the central concepts in teaching skills are decision making and pedagogical reasoning. Taking benefit from the dearth of studies on teachers’ actual or real-world decisions, this study aimed to respond to this invitation by keeping track of novice Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ decisions in two different times using six research-oriented teaching scenarios reflecting the student and personal features. Furthermore, their pedagogical reasoning was also attended to once through their responses to imaginary teaching scenarios and once through their actual classroom decisions. The participants comprised of ten novice Iranian EFL (six female and four male) teachers with an age range of 19 to 25 and a male experienced teacher, aged 30, who acted as a researcher-as-participant and was only accountable for the novices’ real-world reasoning. The data were collected through utilizing a total of six teaching scenarios, classroom observation, and video stimulated recalls. The findings, obtained through conversation analysis and pertinent vignettes and excerpts, revealed that the participants underwent a change in their decisions in two of the three scenarios reflecting the student features, while an approximate conformity could be observed in all scenarios mirroring personal features. It was revealed that whenever the teachers’ reasoning changed, their decisions underwent some changes as well. In addition, the findings showed that the flow of conversation in the classroom could be strongly influenced by the teachers’ decisions. A number of implications and recommendations for further research are also pinpointed.
۳.

The Effect of Face-to-Face Verses Online FLIP Learning on the Speaking Skill of Lower-Intermediate Iranian University EFL Learners(مقاله پژوهشی دانشگاه آزاد)

کلید واژه ها: face-to-face FLIP learning online FLIP learning Speaking Skill

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تعداد بازدید : ۱۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۵
Although FLIP learning has been used as an effective face-to-face and online learning pedagogy, there is a scarcity of research on students' English speaking skill using FLIP learning in these two modalities. Therefore, this study set out to investigate the effect of face-to-face vs. online FLIP learning on the speaking skill of lower-intermediate Iranian university EFL learners. The study was quasi-experimental with 32 participants (18 female and 14 male) whose homogeneity in terms of language proficiency at lower-intermediate level was assured through the administration of Oxford Placement Test. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, both of which took the pretest and posttest of speaking. One group participated in face-to-face FLIP classroom and the other one took part in online FLIP context using Adobe Connect. The findings revealed that using FLIP learning significantly improved the speaking skill of the two groups since the participants of both groups performed more successfully on the post-test as compered to the pre-test. The findings also indicated that the face-to-face FLIP learning participants outperformed the online FLIP learning participants. This means that using face-to-face FLIP learning in which the students had face-to-face interactions had a positive effect on their speaking skill more effectively.
۴.

Identifying and Informing Novice Iranian English Language Teachers’ Classroom Decision Making and Pedagogical Reasoning Regarding Managerial Mode(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: SETT framework Decision Making pedagogical reasoning managerial mode novice teachers

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰۵
Decision making and pedagogical reasoning are regarded as two of the important concepts underlying teaching skills. This study aimed to first identify the novice Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ initial decision making and pedagogical reasoning in terms of managerial mode. More importantly, it sought to inform the teachers’ decisions and reasoning through some one-to-one feedback sessions, which were interactively held between every novice teacher and an experienced teacher. The participants were one experienced (male) and five novice (four females and one male) teachers. To collect the data, a number of teaching scenarios, classroom observations, stimulated recalls, and the Self-Evaluation of Teacher Talk (SETT) framework were used. The analysis of the data using conversation analysis showed that the novice teachers benefited from their negotiated interactions with the experienced teacher and applied the points regarding all five pedagogic goals of managerial mode in the framework. After the feedback sessions, the teachers could confidently defend their decisions pedagogically when enquired for reasons. The findings showed that modifying the teachers’ decision would not be successfully ensured until they reached the “aha” of the moment or a new understanding, which is the last stage in reforming one’s pedagogical reasoning. One way to achieve this moment is through raising the teachers’ awareness of the essential metalanguage. It is thus suggested that officials in charge and institute managers provide such learning opportunities for teachers so that they take more serious steps toward their own professional development through such frameworks as SETT
۵.

The Effect of Memorizing Particle Phrases through Student-Generated Sketches on EFL Learners’ Spoken Fluency(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Memory Phrasal Verbs spoken fluency student-generated sketches

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۴۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۹
Using chunks is said to bring about fluency into speech as they save speakers from constructing their speech upon a word-by-word basis. Particle phrases (A term coined in this study to refer to phrasal verbs and their derived and deviated nouns and adjectives) are also among those chunks. This study seeks to see whether memorizing them will affect EFL learners' spoken fluency. To this end, 51 Persian speaking participants (37 females, 14 males) who were selected from 3 intact classes based on their performance in narrative video-based retelling constituted the sample of the study. The study was a quasi-experimental one in design because of the non-random assignment of the participants into either of the experimental and control groups. They were assigned to three groups: two experimental and one control. Both experimental groups received the same instructions on metaphorical concepts of particles (out, off, etc.) in the 150 phrasal verbs available in Garnier and Schmitt’s (2015) frequency list. They both engaged in self-generated contexts except that those in the first came up with hands-on task of drawing sketches, too. The control group, however, received none of the above treatments. The results of a one-way ANOVA procedure in the immediate post-test indicated that the participants in the first experimental group significantly outperformed not only the control group, but also the second experimental group that made more relative gains than their counterparts in the control group. The outperformance of the first experimental group was also found in the delayed post-test, which represented the long-term effects of the methods. The findings suggest several implications for this vital but surprisingly neglected issue of engaging students with self-generated sketches.
۶.

Recognizing Stalactites and Stalagmites of ELT Vodcasting in Teacher Education Based on Activity Theory and Visual Thinking Strategies

کلید واژه ها: Vodcasting Activity theory Visual Thinking Strategies VTS

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵۰
Teachers need to know new applications for developing online materials and then they should become aware of different ways to present them to online audience. This study tries to help ELT teachers to overcome challenges and difficulties of vodcasting by recognizing their social and biological motives (Activity Theory), and using Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS). It can alter teachers’ negative attitudes towards online materials development via providing useful tools and techniques to become better producers of their knowledge to survive professionally. This QUAL-quan inquiry initiated with 10 University professors of Islamic Azad University-South Tehran Branch. All these participants answered ‘Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)’ questionnaire, ‘Personality Test and Job Satisfaction’, ‘Three-D Test’, and ‘Spatial Recognition Test’. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with those whose data were grounded and initiated from open coding, down to axial coding, and finalized with selective coding. Participants produced vodcasts as pre-test. Then, they received the treatments on an exclusively launched ‘MArt’ Telegram group in the form of the researcher-designed audios and videos and YouTube samples. As a post-test, each of the participants made another vodcast. Then, two experts who are ELT university lecturers evaluated the two sets of recorded data. Finally, all the interpretations and analyses were presented in different graphs and charts along with researcher’s interpretation based on theoretical frameworks. The results show that whether ELT teachers are capable of producing vodcasts or not. Besides, VTS help teachers to become much more visually literate and produce more successful vodcasts. Both treatments of the present study and the derived codes can be used in teacher education, and they can turn into a task-based digital or paper-based coursebooks benefiting M.A. TEFL students.
۷.

Contributions of Kumaravadivelu’s Language Teacher Education Modular Model (KARDS) to Iranian EFL Language Institute Teachers’ Professional Identity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: KARDS Language teacher education Teacher Professional Identity

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۶۶
This research aims to investigate the contributions of KARDS (knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing) to Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) institute teachers’ professional identity reconstruction. The researchers employed purposive sampling to choose twenty teachers. A KARDS questionnaire (Hassani, Khatib, & Yazdani Moghaddam, 2019a, 2019b) was used to classify the teachers into a more KARDS-oriented group (n=10) and a less-KARDS oriented group (N=10) on the basis of their scores on the questionnaire through quartile-based visual binning technique. Pre-course interview, post-course interview, teacher educator and teachers’ reflective journals, and class discussions were employed to gather data. After the pre-course interview, there was an implementation phase during which all twenty teachers became familiar with KARDS. Then, Grounded Theory was applied to analyze the data. Findings showed that there were four big shifts from “uncertainty of practice to certainty of practice”, “the use of fewer macro-strategies to the use of more macro-strategies”, “linguistic and technical view of language teaching to critical, educational, and transformative view of language teaching”, and “conformity to nonconformity to dominant ideologies” in teachers’ professional identities in both groups. The changes were analogous and/or identical in nature but not in quantity, and they should be underscored and incorporated in teacher education programs.
۸.

Contributions of KARDS to Iranian EFL University Teachers’ Professional Identity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: teacher education Teacher Professional Identity Knowing Analyzing Recognizing Doing Seeing

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۱۶
This paper deals with the contributions of a language teacher education model by Kumaravadivelu (2012) known as KARDS (knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing) to Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) university teachers’ professional identity reconstruction. The researchers used purposive sampling to select participants. A KARDS questionnaire designed, constructed, and validated by the researchers was used to group twenty teachers into a more KARDS-oriented group and a less-KARDS oriented group. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the questionnaire was both reliable and valid. Pre-course interview, post-course interview, teacher educator’s and teachers’ reflective journals, and class discussions were used to collect data. After the pre-course interview, there was a treatment during which teachers were familiarized with KARDS. Then, Grounded Theory was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that there were two big shifts from “uncertainty of practice to certainty of practice” and “the use of fewer macro-strategies to the use of more macro-strategies” in teachers’ professional identities in both groups. The changes were similar and/or the same in nature but not in quantity, and they should be emphasized and included in teacher education programs. The findings may drive teacher education programs, teacher educators, and teachers to welcome and embrace uncertainty and confusion in classrooms. Suggestions to reduce “uncertainty of practice” by teacher education programs and teacher educators are presented in this paper.
۹.

An Investigation of Teachers’ Perceptions of KARDS in an EFL Context

کلید واژه ها: KARDS Language teacher education teachers’ perception

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱۰
Kumaravadivelue’s (2012) language teacher education for a global society known as KARDS has gathered little momentum in the context of Iran due to scarcity of studies on it. To fill this gap, the present research investigated Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions of KARDS with regard to variables including teaching context, gender, and teaching experience. To this end, a KARDS questionnaire was designed, constructed, and validated by the researchers, and the results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the validity of the questionnaire. Later, it was administered to 400 English teachers in Tehran. Then, 20 participants volunteered for follow-up interviews, and their verbatim interview transcripts were content analyzed. The results of descriptive statistics and MANOVA indicated that teachers’ perceptions were positive for the majority of items except theorization, observation of colleagues’ classes, and needs analysis done by outsiders, and there were significant differences in teachers’ perceptions of KARDS with regard to their teaching context, gender, and teaching experience. Also, the qualitative investigation of teachers’ perceptions confirmed the findings of the quantitative part.
۱۰.

Cultural Identity among Iranian EFL Learners: the Development of a Cultural Identity Questionnaire(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: language culture Identity

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۰
Learning English as a foreign language in Iran has provided a novel learning milieu for language learners, giving them the capability to create the dialogue between their home culture and the culture of the foreign language they are learning. The current study aims to investigate the level of Iranian EFL learners' cultural identity. To do so, the researchers developed a questionnaire through extensive readings of the literature on language, culture and identity at both national and international levels. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha was utilized. The reliability of all the items in the questionnaire was estimated as 0.78. To measure the validity of the questionnaire, Exploratory Factor Analysis through PCA was performed, demonstrating five underlying factors of Iranian Cultural Identity. Then, the questionnaire was administered to 494 language learners in the context of Iran. The analysis of the data revealed that nearly 68% of the Iranian language learners in the study possess a moderate level of cultural identity.
۱۱.

Particle Phrases as Metaphorical Concepts Retained in Online Speech: The Case of Spoken Accuracy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Formulaic Sequences Memory particle phrases self-generated contexts spoken accuracy

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۰
Particle phrases are defined as prefabricated “chunks” stored and retrieved as a whole from memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language grammar. This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of teaching particle-bound phrases on spoken accuracy of Iranian EEL learners. Having been homogenized, a sample of 51 Iranian EFL learners at a university in Karaj, Iran was assigned to three groups: two experimental and one control. Before the treatment, a pre-test of video-based narrative retelling was administered. The Experimental Group 1 (EG1) was presented with the target particle phrases and came up with drawings of their concepts. In Experimental Group 2 (EG2), the same procedure happened except for the hands-on drawing task. The Control Group (CG) was presented with the same particle phrases every session along with their L1 (Farsi) meanings. The results showed that EG2 (M = 5.16) significantly outperformed CG (M = 3.81) on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = 1.34, p = .000). It was also found that EG1 (M = 4.82) significantly outperformed CG (M = 3.81) on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = 1.01, p = .000). Plus, there was not any significant difference between EG1 (M = 5.16) and EG2’S (M = 4.82) means on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = .334, p = .146). Regarding delayed post-test, it was shown that there was no significant difference between EG1 and EG2 on delayed posttest, but both groups outperformed CG in that regard.
۱۲.

The Role of Corrective Feedback and Learning Styles on EFL Students’ Acquisition of Grammatical Structures(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: corrective feedback recast metalinguistic feedback Learning Styles Field-Dependency

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۷۰
The role of oral corrective feedback has been investigated by SLA researchers from various perspectives. Focusing on Iranian EFL context, the present study aimed to explore the role of receiving corrective feedback in the learning of English grammatical structures. It also probed the association between the type of corrective feedback and EFL learners’ learning styles. This was an experimental study examining a sample of 128 intermediate-level EFL learners through pretest-posttest control group design. Data of the study was analysed through one-way ANOVA conducted on post-test scores. Results of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences between experimental groups and control group in terms of receiving feedback. These findings implied the outperformance of the metalinguistic feedback group over recast group and also the superiority of providing EFL learners with feedback compared to no-feedback. The results obtained from two-way ANOVA revealed an effectively significant interaction between the type of oral corrective feedback and the learners’ learning styles. The study discussed how both types of corrective feedback and learning styles could manipulate L2 acquisition which might have some implications for EFL language teachers in the classroom.
۱۳.

The sociolinguistic content analysis of imported ELT textbooks’ cultural values (global or local) and their impact on Iranian EFL learners’ social identity(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: culture Globalization Identity Construction Social Identity

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۲۶ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲۰
Purpose: Investigating the cultural content of EFL textbooks is significant in critical discourse studies. The effect of cultural values on EFL learners’ social identity has been less investigated in the Iranian context. This study aimed at identifying type of cultural values embedded in New Interchange and Passages textbooks in terms of being global, local or glocal and the impact of these textbooks’ cultural values on Iranian EFL learners’ social identity. Methodology: 90 upper-intermediate EFL learners at 2 private language institutes and high schools in the city of Gilanegharb were selected among a population of 120 EFL learners based on taking an Oxford Placement Test (OPT). They were randomly divided into an experimental group (45 learners) and a control group (45 learners). The experimental group received global cultural teaching through exposure to private institute textbooks’ cultural values while the control group was taught through local cultural values embedded in the local textbooks. A Student Identity Questionnaire (SIQ) was used as both pre-test and posttest. Data were analyzed through Independent Sample T-tests using SPSS 21 software. Findings: The results indicated that the most frequent textbook cultural values were social power through the U.S. superiority, social relation through friendship and party, and accomplishments through success. Further analysis showed that the textbook cultural values had a significant impact on social identity scores of Iranian EFL learners showing stronger agreement with global cultural values promoted in the imported textbooks. Discussion: Results had implications for EFL teachers, learners, policy makers and material developers.
۱۴.

The Impact of Task-based Language Teaching on ESP Learners’ Productive Skills: From Task-based Instruction to Investigation of Learners’ and Instructors’ Attitudes toward the Course(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Task based Language Teaching English for Specific Purposes Productive Skills

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۰۹
Togetherness of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) has been the subject of many recent studies in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) domain. Few studies, however, have addressed the impact of TBLT on ESP learners’ linguistic production. This study aimed at investigating the impact of task-based teaching on ESP learners’ speaking and writing. Furthermore, this study aimed to explore the ESP learners’ and instructors’ attitudes toward the nature of program and their perceived needs of tasks to be accomplished in the course. To fulfill this aim, 60 ESP students majoring in Law in 2 different classes at Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran, and 10 ESP instructors were selected as the participants of the study. Accordingly, the students in one of the two classes received a one-semester long instruction based on the principles of TBLT as the experimental group, while the students in the other class were taught according to the content of the textbook developed for such courses. After the instruction was over, the students were given a set of standardized and teacher-made tests. The results of the data analysis indicated that the experimental group showed a significant difference in terms of improvement in acquiring productive skills. It was also revealed that there were significant differences between the participants’ attitudes regarding the nature of the course and their perceived needs of tasks. The findings of this research could provide an insight into designing opportune syllabi for ESP courses.
۱۵.

A Model of Iranian EFL Learners' Cultural Identity: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iranian Cultural Identity Identity culture

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۲۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۵
This study aimed, firstly, to investigate the underlying components of Iranian cultural identity and, secondly, to confirm the aforementioned components via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. In order to achieve these goals, the researchers reviewed the extensive local and international literature on language, culture and identity. Based on the literature and consultations with a group of 30 university undergraduate and post graduate learners English language learners and a cadre of four university professors in the field of sociology, an Iranian EFL Language Learners’ Cultural Identity Model with six components (Nationality, Religion, Arts, Persian Language and Literature, Media, and Globalization) was hypothesized. In order to test and validate the model, a questionnaire was developed. To probe the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s Alpha was used. The reliability of all the items in the questionnaire was 0.78. To estimate the construct validity of the model, Exploratory Factor Analysis using PCA was performed, which indicated five components (Religion, Arts, Persian Language and Literature, Media, and Globalization) underlying Iranian Cultural Identity. Then, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis through AMOS 22 was performed to test the model and the interaction among the components. The SEM results confirmed the existence of five factors. Finally, statistical results are discussed and implications are provided.
۱۶.

Exploring English Teachers' attitudes towards Pronunciation issues and varieties of English in three circles of world Englishes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Identity Language awareness pronunciation intelligibility English as an International language

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تعداد بازدید : ۸۰۴ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹۶
Drawing on the literature on the emergence of different varieties of English in the globalized world, current debates surrounding English as an international language (EIL), and more orientation towards intelligibility and mutual understanding in international communication, this article reports the findings of a quantitative and qualitative research study with 112 native American and British, 120 Indian and 120 Iranian teachers as members of Inner Circle (IC), Outer Circle (OC) and Expanding Circle (EC) (Kachru, 1992) to explore their attitudes towards pronunciation pedagogy within the framework of English as an international language and  how they see their role in relation to different varieties of English. The findings demonstrate the extent to which teachers’ acceptance of pronunciation and varieties of English differs. In particular, the Iranian teachers’ norm-bound orientation was found to be the greatest among the three groups. Native English teachers’ replies were also indicative of their acceptance of different varieties of English. Teachers’ preferences will be discussed with consideration of their attitudes towards varieties of English which might have influenced the construction of English teachers’ identity and the educational policy of each country. The findings also highlight the localization of L2 language planning and policies in an EIL pedagogy. This article argues that, together with encouraging and valuing different varieties of English, it is important to acknowledge and promote ways to raise awareness of teachers and learners towards global spread of English and the realities of English today which can be really helpful to be more realistic and not just blind followers of a particular model. Keywords: Pronunciation, Intelligibility, English as an International Language, Language Awareness, Identity   نگرش معلمان نسبت به انواع انگلیسی جهانی: معیار های تلفظ در زبان انگلیسی و  نوع آموزش تلفظ زبان انگلیسی در لایه های درونی، بیرونی، و رو به گسترش زبان انگلیسی یکی از مهمترین موضوعات در حوزه آموزش زبان توجه به انواع انگلیسی جهانی از دیدگاه تلفظ زبان انگلیسی و نوع آموزش تلفظ می باشد. تمامی افراد حتی غیر بومی ها عضوی از جامعه انگلیسی به عنوان زبان بین المللی می باشند و هیچ گروهی دستور زبانی خاصی راتعیین نمی کند. بومی سازی زبان نقش مهمی در ارتباط میان افراد در یک جامعه خاص را دارد. اهمیت موضوع تلفظ می تواند به دو دلیل اصلی است: اول، ساخت فهم که اشاره به ایجاد یک گفتمان قابل فهم در میان شرکت کنندگان در یک چارچوب ارتباطی دارد. دوم، با در نظر گرفتن نقش اصلی تلفظ درزبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان بین المللی و راه آن است که شکل آگاهی زبان آموزان نسبت به هویت فرهنگی اجتماعی خود را شکل می دهد .مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش تجزیه و تحلیل کمی و کیفی به بررسی دیدگاه معلمان در سه لایه زبانی (112 معلم بومی انگلیس و آمریکا: لایه درونی؛ 120 معلم هندی: لایه بیرونی؛ و 120 معلم ایرانی؛ لایه روبه گسترش)، اعتقادات و نگرش آنها نسبت به هنجارهای تلفظ و آموزش آن می پردازد، چرا که آنها می توانند با توجه به عوامل اجتماعی فرهنگی و سیاسی متفاوت  تغییر کنند.  این مطالعه همچنین نسبت به تغییر نگرش معلمین نسبت به انگلیسی بومی و سوق دادن آنها بسوی اهمیت زبان بر اساس قابل فهم بودن و توجه به ارتباط میان مخاطبین تا تلفظ بومی خاص زبا انگلیسی توجه دارد. توجه ویژه به انواع انگلیسی های جهانی و حفظ هویت فرهنگی خود به هنگام یادگیری زبان خارجی از دیگر اهداف این تحقیق می باشد کلمات کلیدی: تلفظ، گفتمان قابل فهم ، انگلیسی به عنوان زبان بین المللی، آگاهی زبانی ،  هویت
۱۷.

An Investigation of Iranian EFL Teachers and Learners’ Preferences in the Selection of Different Types of Direct and Indirect Oral Corrective Feedback(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: corrective feedback Explicit correction recast Metalinguistic Clue repetition Corrective Feedback Literacy

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۱ تعداد دانلود : ۱۵۰
This paper aimed at examining the Iranian EFL teachers and learners’ preferences for two types of direct oral corrective feedback, including explicit correction and metalinguistic clues, and two types of indirect oral corrective feedback, including recast and repetition. The participants included 39 teachers and 84 EFL learners, selected through purposive sampling. A scenario-based questionnaire was constructed based on Lyster and Ranta’s (1997) typology of corrective feedback (CF) for the purpose of collecting data on the teachers and learners’ preferences for the type of CF. Feedback scenarios were extracted from the literature on CF. The questionnaire was distributed to the participants by one of the researchers. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted in order to triangulate the data gathered through the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that the EFL teachers and learners preferred direct CF more than indirect CF. The results also revealed significant differences among EFL teachers with differing levels of teaching experience (i.e., low, moderate and high). The present study drew attention to the fact that direct types of CF were preferred over others in EFL context. This study has implications for EFL teachers, learners, and material developers.
۱۸.

Exploring EFL Learners' Beliefs toward Communicative Language Teaching: A Case Study of Iranian EFL Learners(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners' beliefs questionnaire development and validation

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۷۳
Although Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has been widely advocated by a considerable number of applied linguists and English language teachers, its implementation in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) contexts has encountered a number of difficulties.  Reviewing the literature suggests that one of the reasons for unsuccessful implementation of CLT may be neglect of learners' beliefs in the process of learning. Using a Likert-type scale, the current study was undertaken to explore 242 Iranian EFL learners' beliefs towards six core tenets of the CLT approach: namely, the importance of grammar; the use of group work and pair work; the role and contribution of the learners; the role of the teachers in the classroom; the quality and quantity of error correction and assessment; and the role of the learners' native language in EFL classes. Analysis of the data revealed that although in some cases learners had viewpoints that opposed CLT principles, a considerable percentage of the respondents appreciated and had a high perception of CLT principles, indicating a welcoming atmosphere toward the implementation of CLT in Iran.
۱۹.

Developing an Analytic Scale for Scoring EFL Descriptive Writing (ایجاد مقیاس نمره دهی تحلیلی جهت ارزشیابی نگارش توصیفی زبان آموزان)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: تحلیل محتوا نگارش توصیفی مقیاس نمره دهی تحلیلی روش تحقیق تلفیقی آنالیز فاکتورها

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تعداد بازدید : ۸۱۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹۰
مدرسین زبان انگلیسی از گذشته تا کنون از مقیاس هایی جهت ارزشیابی زبان آموزان بهره گرفته اند که حاصل نظرات و تجربیات شخصی و شهودی متخصصین حوزه آموزش زبان بوده است. از آنجایی که این مقیاس ها از مبنای علمی و تجربی لازم برخوردار نیستند، نمرات و نیز تصمیماتی که در نتیجه استفاده از این مقیاس ها حاصل می شود پایایی و اعتبار لازم را ندارند. با توجه به اهمیت گونه نگارش توصیفی و نظر به این نکته که ادبیات تحقیقی موجود هیچ مقیاس نمره دهی تحلیلی مناسبی جهت ارزشیابی این نوع نگارش ارائه نکرده است، نویسندگان این مقاله از طریق انجام مطالعه ای تلفیقی شامل ۳ فاز اقدام به ایجاد مقیاسی تحلیلی جهت ارزشیابی نگارش توصیفی زبان آموزان کردند. این مطالعه در فاز اول (فاز کمی) اقدام به آنالیز فاکتورهای مربوط به تحلیل ۱۷۲ کارشناس آموزش زبان از گونه نگارش توصیفی و در فازهای دوم و سوم (فازهای کیفی) اقدام به تحلیل محتوای ۲۰ متن توصیفی نوشته شده توسط کارشناسان آموزش زبان و نیز تحلیل محتوای۳۰متن توصیفی نوشته شده توسط زبان آموزان کرد. در نتیجه دو استنباط کلی که در طی این مطالعه صورت گرفت، مقیاس نمره دهی تحلیلی برای ارزشیابی نگارش توصیفی زبان آموزان ایجاد شد. امید است بهره گیری از این مقیاس در آینده منجر به دستیابی به نمرات و همچنین اتخاذ تصمیماتی در مورد زبان آموزان گردد که از پایایی و اعتبار بیشتری نسبت به گذشته برخوردارند.
۲۰.

Exploring the Role of M-Game as a Seat of ESP Reading in the Iranian TVT(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ESP Blended Learning ICT-mediated Learning Iranian TVT M-game

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۱۲ تعداد دانلود : ۴۸۶
To direct m-game to be a possible didactic option for Iranian TVT (Technical Vocational Training) trainees, in this study m-game-mediated (Mobile Game-Mediated) materials delivery was incorporated into the conventional teaching method in the blended ESP reading skill platform. So, 52 male trainees fromTechnical and Vocational College of Isfahan were selected by convenience sampling. Afterwards, 48 trainees were defined as homogeneous using Englishtag Test to learn ESP in 16 triads under two different blended learning scenarios in 18 sessions in the academic year 2014-2015. While the first group of the trainees practiced in the blended learning situation with ready-made displaying device and materials, the second-group trainees practiced the same content through the medium of their own self-made PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) and materials; in this way, their learning performance assessed continuously in and outside the classroom. To employ tree-prong approach, interest survey and focus-group interview were embraced, as well. Overall, descriptive and inferential analyses of the collected data disclosed that trainees who were involved in the process of materials development were more excited and learned more than their counterparts who practiced via prefabricated devices and materials. Consequently, self-made (vs. prefabricated) m-game-mediated blended platform was found to be more liable to teaching and learning ESP reading skill.

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