Particle phrases are defined as prefabricated “chunks” stored and retrieved as a whole from memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language grammar. This study was an attempt to investigate the effect of teaching particle-bound phrases on spoken accuracy of Iranian EEL learners. Having been homogenized, a sample of 51 Iranian EFL learners at a university in Karaj, Iran was assigned to three groups: two experimental and one control. Before the treatment, a pre-test of video-based narrative retelling was administered. The Experimental Group 1 (EG1) was presented with the target particle phrases and came up with drawings of their concepts. In Experimental Group 2 (EG2), the same procedure happened except for the hands-on drawing task. The Control Group (CG) was presented with the same particle phrases every session along with their L1 (Farsi) meanings. The results showed that EG2 (M = 5.16) significantly outperformed CG (M = 3.81) on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = 1.34, p = .000). It was also found that EG1 (M = 4.82) significantly outperformed CG (M = 3.81) on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = 1.01, p = .000). Plus, there was not any significant difference between EG1 (M = 5.16) and EG2’S (M = 4.82) means on the immediate posttest (Mean Difference = .334, p = .146). Regarding delayed post-test, it was shown that there was no significant difference between EG1 and EG2 on delayed posttest, but both groups outperformed CG in that regard.
The Effectiveness of Metacognitive Strategies Training on Cognitive Failure in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder
The purpose of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of meta-cognitive strategies training on the cognitive failure in patients with general anxiety disorder (GAD). This quasi-experimental design consisted of two groups, with pre-test/ posttest and the control group. Considering the experimental nature of the research and also, with regards to the drop in the number of 30 people (15 in each group), patients with generalized anxiety disorder (DSM-5) were selected according to the available criteria and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups according to entry requirements. In both groups, the scale of Broadbent et al. Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was carried out. Then, the experimental group underwent metacognitive strategies in 10 sessions of 90 minutes and the control group did not receive any training. At the end, the same questionnaire was administered in both groups. The results of the two groups were evaluated in two stages using relevant statistical tests. Multivariate covariance analysis showed that meta-cognitive strategies training significantly reduces cognitive failure and its subscales (distraction, memory defects and inadvertent errors) in patients with general anxiety disorder (P<0/05); there was no significant difference between meta-cognitive strategies training with the subscale of not remembering names (P>0/05). Despite the differences in the scores of cognitive failures in the group studied, it is recommended to use metacognitive strategies to reduce the symptoms of cognitive impairment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.
The Role of Informal English Language Teaching in Childhood on English Knowledge and Attitude towards the English Language in Adulthood
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of informal English language teaching in childhood on English knowledge and attitude towards the English language in adulthood. The research design was of a causal-comparative nature. The statistical population included all the first-year undergraduate students of Islamic Azad Universities who had been studying humanities in the academic year of 2015-2016. A sample size of 200 students was selected by multistage cluster sampling method. The research tools were English knowledge test and attitude questionnaire which were developed by the researcher. Statistical analyses using MANOVA was implemented. Findings revealed that the informal English language teaching in childhood, as compared to its absence, leads to more English knowledge and improves attitude towards the English language in adulthood. Based on the obtained results, it is recommended that English language learning should not only start at an earlier age but it should also and be taught informally.
Presenting a Structural Model for Student Hope Forecast Based on Perception of Parent-Child Relationship and Socioeconomic Status through Mediation of Self-Esteem
The study was conducted with the aim of predicting educational hope based on the perceived parent-child relationship and socioeconomic status through self-esteem mediation in female high school students in the 19th district of Tehran during the academic year of 1396-97. The research method was descriptive-correlational. 200 students were randomly selected using cluster random sampling. Copepool and Kawon (2001)’s socioeconomic status and Rosenberg’s self-esteem (1965) and Mark Fine et al. (1983)’s perceived parent-child relationship questionnaires were Completed. Statistical analysis of structural equation modeling using AMOS software was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that the direct effect of parent-child relationship perception and self-esteem on academic achievement was positive and significant, but the direct effect of socioeconomic status on academic hope was insignificant but significant on self-esteem. The indirect effect of the parent-child relationship and socioeconomic status on academic self-esteem mediation was also significant. Based on the findings of the study, the role of teenage female-parent relationship in the hope of education and self-esteem of adolescent females was emphasized. In addition, socioeconomic status plays an important role in explaining the student's education and self-esteem.
This study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between spatial memory and Symptoms of Neuroticism in men and women visitors of a flower garden. The participants were chosen by an available sampling method among people who visited flower garden, located in Isfahan, Iran in October 2016. Subjects (woman=36, man=24) were asked to specify approximate locations of eight sites in the flower Garden on the incomplete map of flower garden after visiting the garden. Then, the subjects filled a demographic questionnaire and a short form of Eysenck introversion-extraversion questionnaire. The results showed that the means of spatial memory in men are significantly more than those of women (F= 11.46, p<0.05) and also, neuroticism in men is significantly less than that in women (F=7.22, P<0.05). Furthermore, positive relationship between age and spatial memory (r= 0.41, p<0.01) and negative relationship between neuroticism and spatial memory have been discovered (r= -0.59, p<0.01). According to the results, it can be concluded that neuroticism avoids paying attention to the environment and it causes memory function slump.
The Relationship between Working Memory, Speaking Accuracy and Length of Utterances of Iranian EFL Learners
This study explored the relationship among working memory (WM), speaking accuracy and length of utterance of Iranian Intermediate EFL learners. The data were collected from 38 female EFL learners whose age range was between 12 and 15 studying English at a language institute in Tehran. First, an Oxford Placement Test (OPT) was administrated to ensure the homogeneity of the participants and based on the results of the test thirty homogenous learners were selected as the main participants of the study. Next, a working memory capacity test developed by Daneman and Carpenter (1980) was administered to the participants. Later, the researcher administered a speaking test on a topic appropriate to the level of the participants which was taken from Top Notch 1 (Saslow & Ascher, 2011). Then, the researcher recorded their voices and transcribed them in order to calculate the number of lexical words the students could articulate based on a formula developed by Gilmore (2004). Speaking accuracy was also measured using a formula developed by Gilabert (2004); In fact, the students' performance was rated by two experienced teachers. Then, the Pearson correlation formula was utilized to analyze the obtained data. The results revealed a significant correlation between working memory capacity and speaking accuracy. Based on the findings, no significant correlation was shown between working memory and length of utterance. And finally, no significant correlation was depicted between length of utterance and speaking accuracy.
The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-being in 12th grade students in Tehran city
The aim of this study is investigate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness Education on Emotional, Psychological, and Social Well-being in 12th grade students in Tehran city. The research method is semi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of the study includes all 12th grade students of the 12th district of Tehran city in the academic year of 2018 to 2019. From the mentioned population, 60 students had earned low scores in three dimensions of Subjective Well-Being Questionnaire of Keyes and Magyar-Moe (2003) by using random sampling method and they were selected and randomly assigned into 2 experimental and control groups. Then experimental groups were received a Mindfulness protocol in 8 sessions during 2 hours. After completion of the sessions, all subjects were re-evaluated. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of covariance. The findings of this study showed that in the emotional well-being aspect with the components of positive emotional affection and negative emotions , in the psychological well-being of the components Self-esteem, life goal, environmental domination, relationships with others , personal development with, and in the social well-being aspect, the correlation coefficients with , admission and acceptability with and realism with, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups and it can be said that the education of mindfulness affects the improvement of components of psychological, social and emotional well-being in students.