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Reviewing the literature indicated that no validated model was found that examine the extent to which teachers support their students emotionally in EFL classrooms. Therefore the present study elaborated on this issue through developing and validating a teacher emotional support scale in an Iranian English foreign language context. Main components of the scale have been specified based on Hamre and Pianta's (2007)theoretical framework. A large number of items were created primarily based on operational deﬁnitions of each component. After reviewing the items by a group of experts, the questionnaire was piloted and tested on a sample of 324 EFL teachers. Finally, the researchers evaluated the validity of the questionnaire through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.The results of the reliability of the questionnaire estimated through Cronbach’s alpha were 0.833. 17 items have been removed from analysis resulting in identifying 4 factors in exploratory factor analysis. The model was evaluated using AMOS 22 also indicated that the model was fit the data.the current study contributes to the field of English language education through designing and validating new instrument to assess teacher emotional support in EFL classrooms. Researchers and other practitioners who are involved in teaching English language can assess the extent to which teachers support students emotionally in similar pedagogical EFL context using this instrument. They also need to encourage teachers to improve their emotional skills by participating in teacher training courses.
Avoiding the current terminology debates in the literature on politeness research and following a variational pragmatics approach, this study attempted to illuminate how appropriacy/ inappropriacy is realized in Persian language in light of five speech acts of introduction, apology, refusal, congratulation, and condolence. Additionally, it was aimed to see to what extent appropriacy/ inappropriacy is a function of variables such as age, gender, job, and level of education. In order to achieve this aim, 300 participants (m=150, f=150) completed an Open-ended Production Test (OPT) consisting of twenty situations. Analyzed within a two-component part variational pragmatics framework; namely pragmatic level and social factors, the data revealed that the variables in the study in quite different forms guide the expectations, perception and performance of the participants in the study. Giving an appropriacy (Marked/unmarked) taxonomy of the study speech acts in Persian, it is illustrated how, in most cases, the norms of appropriate verbal behavior seem to be subject to the variables of the study. It was further shown that talk and acts between speakers at a social situation are governed by converging and diverging norms in different communities of practice in Persian. Thereupon, the study can highlight the significance of including variational perspective on conventions of language use for language teaching.
Nagy (1988) states that vocabulary is a prerequisite factor in comprehension. Drawing upon a reductionist approach and having in mind the prospects for material development, this study aimed at creating an English for Academic Purposes Word List (EAPWL). The corpus of this study was compiled from a corpus containing 6479 pages of texts, 2,081,678 million tokens (running words) and 63825 types (individual words), and 2615 word families from online resources. The created EAPWL included 636 word families, which accounted for 12%of the tokens in the EAPWL under study. The high word frequency and the wide text coverage of this word list confirm that this word list plays an important role in English for Academic Purpose texts and hence can be a justified resource for material development in the field. From these findings, it can be concluded that the EAPWL created in this study can serve as a guide for material developers and syllabus designers especially in designing course-books, in addition learning these words by learners can help them in better understanding of their texts, and development in their writing and reading comprehension.
Although decades of research have well elaborated on teacher professional development, we still do not have a thorough picture about what teacher professional development could entail and what components it consists of. The present study aims to develop and validate a teacher professional development scale in an Iranian English foreign language context. An initial tentative model with 130 items was piloted and tested through exploratory and confirmatory data analyses on a sample of 400 EFL teachers. This level resulted in the removal of 28 items in our sample loaded, resulting in a final 102 teacher professional development inventory. The developed inventory measures the extent to which EFL teachers are professionally developed and makes teachers aware of multiple characteristics of professionally developed teachers. These competencies are essential components of teacher professional development, enabling the teachers to utilize them in everyday teaching and learning practices in the classroom settings which, as a result, leads to student achievement. As teachers fulfill important professional roles, they need valid instruments to assess their day-to-day functioning in the class. With the instrument developed and validated in the current research, we, in fact, allow language teachers to assess their extent of professional development in different pedagogical contexts.
The concept of teacher change is critical in second language teaching and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context due largely to the fact that, almost, whatever we do in teacher education looks for initiating change of one sort or another. A substantial body of research has been dedicated to investigate teacher change (TC) from various perspectives. However, having studied the related literature, we found no robust, valid and reliable measure for TC in EFL context. Accordingly, effort was made to develop and validate a reliable and valid measure that could assess TC in an EFL context. The review of the prior research resulted in the collection of 186 items affecting TC out of which a temporary data driven model of teacher change was developed. 324 Ph.D. and M.A. graduated EFL teachers took part in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the initial measure. Finally, a 66-item scale consisting of three components and thirteen sub-components was developed.The results showed both factorial validity andinternal consistency reliability for the measure.The TCSsubscales also had strong validity evidence based on the associationsfound. This study has various applications for language teachers and practitioners in the field.
مقایسة نشانه های فراگفتمان در مجلات انگلیسی بین المللی و داخلی؛ مطالعة موردی: مقالات حوزة زبان شناسی کاربردی
نشانه های فراگفتمان ابزاری هستند که بدون اضافه کردن چیزی به محتوای اصلی متن،جهت سازماندهی زبان به کار می روند. این نشانه ها در درک بهترخوانندگان از نگرش نویسنده و ایجاد و تحکیم ارتباط بین نویسنده و خواننده نقش مؤثری ایفا می کنند. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی انواع و تعداد نشانه های فراگفتمانبه کاررفته در مقالات علمی- پژوهشی انگلیسی در مجلات بین المللی و داخلی در حوزة زبان شناسی کاربردی می پردازد. بدین منظور، با استفاده از برنامة «فراوانی» (نیشن و هیتلی، 2007)، انواع و تعداد نشانه های فراگفتمان به کاررفته در 512 مقالة علمی، شامل 168,051,3کلمه، چاپ شده در 16 مجلة بین المللی و داخلی در حوزة زبان شناسی کاربردی، بر اساس مدل نشانه های فراگفتمان هایلند (2005: 49) مورد مطالعه قرارگرفتند. نتایج این مقایسه گواه وجود تفاوت هایی در کاربرد نشانه های فراگفتماندر دو گروه مقالات برگرفته از مجلات بین المللی و داخلی است. توجه به این تفاوت ها در به کارگیری نشانه های فراگفتمان و در نظر گرفتن آنها در آموزش نگارش آکادمیک می تواند موجب ارتقای کیفیت مقالات چاپ شده در مجلات داخلی انگلیسی شود.
On the Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers’ Efficacy of Classroom Management, Reflective Thinking, and Transformational Leadership Style: A Structural Equation Modeling
In spite of the significant role of teachers in the efficacy of classroom management particularly in teaching English as a Foreign Language, the issue has not been addressed sufficiently especially in relation with other individual variables. Hence, this study made an attempt to investigate the association between Iranian EFL teachers’ classroom management, reflective thinking and transformational leadership style. 247 English Foreign Language teachers took part in the study. To measure the variables of the study, Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001), Reflective Thinking Scale (Choy & Oo, 2012) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(Avolio, Bass & Jung, 1995) were used. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied to test the hypothesized model of associations. After confirming the hypothesized model (= 1.275; RMSEA=.02; RMR =.03; GFI =.97; AGFI =.93; NFI =.97; CFI =.99; IFI =.99), the results revealed significant internal correlations among the main as well as the sub-scales of the study. Multiple regression analysis further confirmed the direction of the path model proposed for the study. Generally, it was concluded that reflective thinking and transformational leadership improve teachers' efficacy of classroom management which, in turn, facilitates teaching processes. Implications are discussed.