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Abstract Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib (1797-1869) was the last great poet and writer of the Mughal period. Ghalib’s grandfather, Quqan Khan of Samarqand came to India during the reign of Shah Alam II. Undoubtedly Mirza Ghalib was a poet and writer of the Mughal era but he lived and wrote in the British India also. Ghalib was a product of Mughal society on the one hand, was also influenced by the British on the other. He has profusely written about the British in his works. A sizeable portion of his poetry in Persian is devoted to the odes of Queen Victoria, Governor Generals, and Chief Secretaries of Govt. of India and a host of other British dignitaries The Persian letters of Ghalib are full of appreciation for the British. He came in contact with several British secretaries of India in whom he found efficient administrators and good human being. His personal contact with them made him their great admirer and he considered them as his friends. Undoubtedly the British were the new paymasters of Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib. He had all the reasons to admire and appreciate the British Raj which was destined to usher in modern life and society in the Indian subcontinent. Hence Ghalib felt the impact of change and as such he became not a traditional but a modern poet and writer. The genius of Ghalib is more of intellect than of emotion. The present paper intends to discuss Ghalib’s Persian writings in which the British Raj will be fairly reflected.
This study compares and contrasts lexical cohesion in English and Persian abstracts of Iranian medical students’ theses to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages. For this purpose, one hundred English and Persian abstracts were selected randomly and analyzed based on Seddigh and Yarmohamadi’s (1996) lexical cohesion framework, a version of Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) and Halliday’s (1985) taxonomies. For contrastive analysis, the SPSS package was used. The results revealed some similarities and differences in the use of lexical cohesion sub-categories in the parallel English and Persian texts. The occurrence of all sub-types is nearly the same in the two groups of texts and the two- tailed t-test employed showed that the differences are not statistically significant. Both languages exhibit a general tendency in using repetition, but synonymy and meronymy are the least used sub-categories. Regarding the density of the texts, the analysis indicates that Persian abstracts are denser than their corresponding English ones.
Articles in general and definite articles in particular can create problems even long after all other aspects of English have been mastered. The present article investigated the learnability problems related to the acquisition of count-mass distinction of English nominals by Persian L2 learners. The theoretical underpinning of the study is the interpretability hypothesis (Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou, 2007) arguing that the features which are semantically interpretable can be acquired. To this end, 50 learners constituted the participants of the study and completed a forced-choice elicitation task requiring the use of articles. The results of the study substantiated the interpretability hypothesis. Nonetheless, the advanced L2ers showed a conservative behavior in the mass context. They significantly opted for a/an in wide scope indefinite non-referential de/re context. The findings reveal that article suppliance creates more learnability problems in the plural and indefinite mass contexts compared to the count singular ones.
Avoiding the current terminology debates in the literature on politeness research and following a variational pragmatics approach, this study attempted to illuminate how appropriacy/ inappropriacy is realized in Persian language in light of five speech acts of introduction, apology, refusal, congratulation, and condolence. Additionally, it was aimed to see to what extent appropriacy/ inappropriacy is a function of variables such as age, gender, job, and level of education. In order to achieve this aim, 300 participants (m=150, f=150) completed an Open-ended Production Test (OPT) consisting of twenty situations. Analyzed within a two-component part variational pragmatics framework; namely pragmatic level and social factors, the data revealed that the variables in the study in quite different forms guide the expectations, perception and performance of the participants in the study. Giving an appropriacy (Marked/unmarked) taxonomy of the study speech acts in Persian, it is illustrated how, in most cases, the norms of appropriate verbal behavior seem to be subject to the variables of the study. It was further shown that talk and acts between speakers at a social situation are governed by converging and diverging norms in different communities of practice in Persian. Thereupon, the study can highlight the significance of including variational perspective on conventions of language use for language teaching.
This study is to determine how bilingualism could influence the list of Persian basic color terms and their order. Using a monolingual Persian and a bilingual Kurd sample students, and a color list task, it is assumed that bilingualism could change the ordering of the non-basic color terms in the second language, but not the basic ones. Another assumption is that, the old usual methods for obtaining mean position and saliency, based on Sutrop (2001) would not determine the BCTs in Persian. The data suggest that Persian has 6 BCTs; Qermez, Âbi, Sabz, Zard, Siyâh, and Sefid. The BCTs are retrieved by monolinguals much faster than bilinguals. Mean Position and frequency in school and university students had differences in number supporting the hypothesis that staying for more than two years in a bilingual environment and L2 use frequency are the two effective factors in BCTs order.
Section 115 of Iranian constitution reads: "The president should be among the political, religious 'rejal' …". The word 'rejal' taken from Arabic language means 'men'. Some Iranian politicians believe that the word has the same meaning in Persian, therefore, women cannot lead the country as presidents; while, others argue that 'rejal' can now refer to both sexes, therefore women can be elected as presidents. This, study tackles the issue from a sociolinguistic perspective. To do this, we need to find if the word 'rejal' is now a Persian word borrowed from Arabic, or, it is an Arabic word to which Persian speakers switch. About eleven hours of sociolinguistic interviews were conducted with 10 Persian speakers and all nouns (Arabic or Persian) were extracted from the data and later subjected to analyses to describe the linguistic behavior of each category in its own context. Then the behavior of nouns in each context is compared to that of the other contexts. Our findings show that Arabic origin nouns are found to be behaving like Persian nouns, they have, therefore, been borrowed into Persian and have Persian connotations and functions. Evidence is, therefore, presented to the 'Persianness' of 'rejal', shedding scientific light on a political problem.
This study aims at ascertaining a framework that would account for the Persian data. We scrutinize all data occurring in the selected corpus, and describe how they usually work on the basis of the two following variables: power and intimacy. According to our investigation, the use of terms of address in Persian is affected by age, sex, occupation, ideology, political and social position of the interlocutors. These variables can be stated as a result of the investigation of older material – such as qualitative analysis of observations followed by unobtrusive note taking of contemporary use, a corpus of several plays, travel accounts, interviews, TV, radio and careful observation terms used to address today. The above-mentioned variables indicate a strong relationship between social structures and address terms in Persian.
This paper aims at describing the mechanism of German loanwords adaptation with respect to constraints of Persian language and within OT framework. Consequently the adaptation of consonant clusters and diphthongs as well as the phonemes substituted in loanwords will be examined. Prince and Smolensky’s (1993) Optimality Theory with its key notions of faithfulness and markedness constraints is suited to model this aspect of linguistic competence. So in this research a number of 30 German loanwords were selected as research data of which some were collected through the library method from written resources and the rest are the trade names of German Products that are collected through a field work. Descriptive analysis of the mentioned data within Optimality Theory comes into valuable linguistic conclusions such as: “In Persian, initial consonant clusters of German loanwords are broken up through vowel epenthesis which is mostly identical to the vowel of the second syllable.”
This study investigates the morphological phenomenon known as plurals-in-compounds effect by analyzing responses given by 25 Persian-speaking children. The children, ranging in age from 3.5 to 13, were divided into six groups and asked questions like what do you call someone who verb-s [ regular/irregular ] plurals? that required them to form synthetic compounds such as car-stealer . Results indicated that when the nouns in the questions addressed to the children were regular plural, the non–heads in the compounds were predominately singular. Moreover, the children’s responses to questions containing irregular nouns showed that they preferred non–compound Agent ( singular N ) over compounds containing either singular or irregular plural nouns. The findings are in line with the specifications of Kiparsky's (1982) level-ordering model which bans plural morphology inside compounds. It was also revealed that the children’s compound construction relied on both structural and semantic constraints.
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۲, No.۲۵, Fall & Winter ۲۰۱۹ 53-78
This study addresses the acquisition of the morphological markers in Persian learners of English as a foreign language. To this end, the accuracy order of nine morphemes including plural –s, progressive –ing, copula be, auxiliary be, irregular past tense, regular past tense –ed, third person –s, possessive -ʼs and indefinite articles was studied in 60 teenage Persian EFL learners. Placement and proficiency tests and a demographic questionnaire were employed to collect the data. The total production of 2160 morphemes was manually checked, classified, and counted to rank their acquisition order. The learners’ accuracy order was ranked in a decreased order from 1 to 9 as follows: regular past tense, auxiliary be, copula be, present progressive tense, indefinite articles, plural –s, possessive -ʼs, irregular past tense and third-person singular –s. The Spearman correlation showed that Persian students’ accuracy order had a moderate and weak relationship with the accuracy order of ESL and EFL learners, respectively. This finding proves that Persian EFL learners do not learn English grammatical morphemes in a natural order. Moreover, the universal grammar does not remain fully in these learners. The minor role of UG in EFL acquisition also indicates the important role of transfer in foreign language learning.
On the Efficacy of a Communicative Framework in Teaching English Phonological Features Absent in Persian to Iranian EFL Learners
Although Persian and English share many common phonemes, there are some phonological features that are present in English but absent in Persian which tend to lead to mispronunciation on the part of Persian learners of English, mostly through negative transfer. The present research assesses the efficacy of a communicative framework in improving Iranian adult EFL learners’ pronunciation of five English phonemes absent in the phonological system of Persian. Thirty EFL learners, divided into experimental and control groups, participated in the training course which lasted 22 sessions (330 minutes). The experimental group was instructed using the communicative framework for teaching pronunciation while the control group received traditional methods of pronunciation teaching. The pronunciation quality of these sounds were then assessed by four native and four non-native English teachers as well as by the PRAAT speech analysis software in the case of the vowels. Although no significant difference was detected between the experimental and control groups with regard to posttest results, a positive trend was observed in favor of the experimental group regarding specific features (e.g., formant frequencies, duration, center of gravity) of the problematic sounds.
The COVID-19 Lingo: Societies’ Responses in form of Developing a Comprehensive Covidipedia of English vs. Persian Neologisms (Coroneologisms)
منبع: The Journal of English Language Pedagogy and Practice, Vol.۱۳, No.۲۷, Fall & Winter ۲۰۲۰ 26 - 52
Languages as living and dynamic structured systems were influenced at the very first moments of the COVID-19 pandemic as they became medicalized by the use and practice of various jargons and technical terms. Meanwhile, homebound individuals around the world started to create a COVID-19 pandemic-related lexical-overload of neologisms (Coroneologisms or Corona coinages) in different languages which started to spread across the globe by mass media, and some of them even entered the official databases of the well-known dictionaries and Wikipedia corpora. This study was a scrutinized attempt to explore the English vs. Persian (Farsi) Coroneologisms across various Extensible Markup Language (XML) corpora and a huge body of E-resource discourses (websites, social media, and news channels and forums) based on embedded mixed-method design to provide a comprehensive insight into their types, structures, and meanings. To provide a better understanding of how and why particular Coroneologisms were created in terms of social, cultural, or political contributing factors, they were investigated based on the reflections of a series of sociolinguistic focus-group E-interviews with 184 volunteer English and Persian native speakers. This study might provide implications for sociolinguistics, corpus-based language studies, lexicographers, designers of corpora, etymologists, and discourse analysts in English and Persian.