Sport Sciences and Health Research

Sport Sciences and Health Research

Sport Sciences and Health Research, Volume 14, Issue 1,2022 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

The effect of an 8-week corrective exercise program on the body image of women with hyper kyphosis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Body image corrective exercise Deformity hyper Kyphosis Posture

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۳ تعداد دانلود : ۴۸
Background: Hyper kyphosis is a common postural issue that affects many women, often leading to negative body image. Aim: The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of an 8-week corrective exercise program on the body image of women with hyper kyphosis. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study was quasi-experimental. The study population consisted of female students aged 18 to 26 years with hyper kyphosis at Shahid Rajaee University. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=20) or the control group (n=20). Hyper kyphosis was measured using a flexible ruler, while body image was assessed using the Body-esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults. The questionnaire had a reliability coefficient of 0.83 as measured by Cronbach's alpha. After 8 weeks of corrective exercise, both the experimental and control groups completed the questionnaire again. The control group did not receive any training during this time. The data were analyzed using the mixed ANOVA method with SPSS-26 software at a significance level of 95%. Results: The results of the mixed ANOVA analysis showed that the main effect of the training group and the interaction between the group and test stages were significant in the post-test stage for the dependent variable of total body image (F=6.82, P =0.013), appearance (F=6.72, P =0.014), attitude (F=8.81, P =0.005), and kyphosis angle (F=18.91, P =0.000). However, there was no significant effect of training on weight satisfaction. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that eight weeks of corrective exercise significantly reduced the hyper kyphosis angle ( P =0.01), resulting in an improvement in the subjects' posture and a decrease in deformity. This improvement in appearance led to an increase in satisfaction with their appearance, as demonstrated by improvements in their body image.
۲.

The effect of contextual and interfering factors on the development of sports and physical activity in children(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: childhood sports Individual and family Physical activity sports facilities

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تعداد بازدید : ۷۵ تعداد دانلود : ۵۲
Background: Sports and physical activity are important for the healthy growth and development of children. However, various contextual and interfering factors can hinder the development of sports and physical activity in children.   Aim : The purpose to identify the contextual and interfering factors affecting the development of sports and physical activity in children. Material and Methods: The present study adopts a combinatory approach, where the first stage is qualitative and exploratory, and the second stage is descriptive-survey. In the qualitative stage, 16 experts in the field of children's sports were interviewed using purposive sampling, and the collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 2020 software. In the quantitative stage, SPSS software version 26 was used for exploratory factor analysis and t-tests, while PLS 3 software was used for confirmatory factor analysis. Results: The results of this study suggest that there are five contextual factors-personal and family, infrastructure and equipment, supportive, economic and managerial as well as five interfering factors-human resources, organizational, media activities, control and evaluation, and legislation. Furthermore, the results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the research measurement model was validated. Conclusions: In conclusion, it can be acknowledged that by considering the identified factors in the development of sports and physical activity in childhood, it is possible to address some of the challenges in the field of children's sports.
۳.

Correlation between angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism and endurance performance of novice adolescent wrestlers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: ACE adolescent wrestlers endurance performance Polymorphism Talent Identification

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تعداد بازدید : ۵۱ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹
Background: Gene polymorphisms are related to athletic performance. Angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is essential in identifying talent and guiding adolescents to appropriate sports. Aim : The aim was to investigate the relationship between the angiotensin gene and endurance performance of novice adolescent wrestlers in Ardabil. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 15 Amateur adolescent wrestlers in Ardabil (age: 13.07±1.53 years, height: 164.60±10.68 cm, weight: 60.14±6.32 kg, BMI: 22.22±4.98 kg/m 2 ) with three-year wrestling. Chest and thigh muscle endurance, abdominal fat percentage and cardiovascular endurance, chest press, and squat muscle endurance were measured. ACE polymorphism was determined using tetra-ARMs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compared direct DNA sequencing in salivary samples. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare frequencies and their relationship with performance indicators. Results: ACE DD genotype frequency was higher in novice adolescent wrestlers, and there was a significant difference between ACE polymorphism frequency ( P =0.008). There was a significant difference between ACE genotype distribution with endurance performance of pectoral and triceps ( P =0.004) muscles, body composition ( P =0.0001), and Vo 2 max ( P =0.0001). There was a significant difference between body composition and Vo 2 max of Amateur adolescent wrestlers with ACE DD ( P =0.0001), ACE II ( P =0.0001), and between body composition and Vo 2 max with ACE II ( P =0.0001), ACE DD ( P =0.0001), and ACE ID ( P =0.0001). In body composition, ACE II was significantly higher compared to ACE DD ( P =0.0001) and compared to ACE ID ( P =0.0001). Also, in Vo 2 max, ACE II was significantly higher compared to ACE DD ( P =0.0001) and compared to ACE ID ( P =0.0001). Conclusion: Findings showed the superiority of ACE DD polymorphism and its relationship with the endurance performance of novice adolescent wrestlers in Ardabil. ACE DD polymorphism is probably essential in wrestler success. Other research with more subjects and other genes is important.
۴.

The virtual reality aerobic exercise on the anthropometric and psychological indices of overweight female students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: anthropometric index psychological index virtual reality

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تعداد بازدید : ۵۹ تعداد دانلود : ۶۸
Background: Virtual reality (VR) as a digital technology may affect the physical and mental performance of students.   Aim : The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of VR aerobic exercise on the physiological and psychological indicators of overweight female students. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a number of 30 overweight (body mass index (BMI) of 27±2) female students (aged 10-13 years), have been classified into three groups of aerobic exercise with VR glasses, aerobic exercise without VR glasses and control. The workout groups performed 8 weeks of aerobic exercise with and without VR glasses at home, during which time the control group did not exercise. Prior to and after the course, the students participated in pre-and post-test, which included body composition tests, waist to hip circumference to measure the anthropometric indices, and Harvard step test to measure aerobic capacity. The sport motivation and physical activity enjoyment scale were employed in order to measure the psychological indices. Results: The present results have indicated that eight weeks of aerobic exercising with and without VR glasses significantly reduces BMI ( P = 0.0001 and P = 0.005, respectively) and Heart Rate Recovery (step test) ( P = 0.0001 and P = 0.003, respectively). However, the indices of enjoyment of sports activity ( P = 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively) and sports motivation ( P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively) were found to meet a sharp increase in both exercise groups. Conclusion:  The present achievements showed that both exercise methods lead to reduced anthropometric and improved psychological indices.
۵.

Modeling the challenges affecting the internationalization of the Persian Gulf Pro League(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Challenges Internationalization micro and macro environment Persian Gulf Pro League

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تعداد بازدید : ۹۴ تعداد دانلود : ۵۹
Background : Internationalization of sports leagues can have several benefits, including increased exposure to a global audience; improved competitiveness; and enhanced financial opportunities and cultural exchange. Overall, the internationalization of a sports league can help it grow, become more competitive, and reach a wider audience, leading to benefits for both the league and its fans. Aim: The main objective of this research was to develop a model of challenges affecting the internationalization of the Persian Gulf Pro League (PGPL). Materials and Methods: We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with expertise involved in the functioning of the PGPL who were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The data was analyzed using grounded theory method, including open, axial, and selective coding. During the analysis, we identified 85 codes that generated 49 general concepts. Subsequently, through further reviewing the concepts and their combination with each other, we identified twenty tow final categories that affect the internationalization of PGPL. These categories were classified into five main dimensions: political-economic; managerial; legal; technical-marketing and socio-cultural. Results : According to the research findings, it is necessary for the Iranian football managers and practitioners to first address the challenges affecting the internationalization of the PGPL and then provide the required conditions and platforms with attitude-behavioral alignment to move toward internationalization. Conclusion: The study suggests that Iranian football managers and practitioners need to address challenges hindering the internationalization of the PGPL and provide the necessary conditions and platforms to facilitate the process. By doing so, the PGPL can expand its presence and competitiveness in the global football industry, leading to growth and success.
۶.

Investigating the relationship between superstition and sports success in Iraqi football league players(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Commitment football sports success Superstition Rituals Team Ritual

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۶۷
Background: Superstitions and rituals have long been a part of sports culture, with many athletes believing that they can bring good luck or improve their performance. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between superstitions and sports success in Iraqi football league players. Materials and Methods: This study used a descriptive-correlational analysis method, with data collected in the field from a sample of 200 players randomly selected from the population of players in the Iraqi football premier league. Two standard questionnaires, Superstition in Sports and Sports Success Questionnaire, were used to collect data, both of which were designed based on the Likert five value range. Results: The study found that there is a significant relationship between superstitions and sports success, with the most important priority related to the component of "team ritual" (5.58) in superstitions and "commitment" (4.58) in sports success. The study also found that 37% of changes in sporting success are related to superstitious components. Conclusion: Based on the study's findings, it can be concluded that the use of superstitious rituals can have a positive effect on the sports success of athletes.
۷.

The role of ethical values and coaching styles in adherence to sports in group and individual athletes(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: adherence to sports Behaviors Coaching styles ethics invariable Success

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۶ تعداد دانلود : ۴۵
Background: Regular exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on both physical and mental health. There is growing evidence to suggest that exercise can improve mood, reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression, and increase overall well-being. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the role of ethical values and coaching styles in adherence to sports in group and individual athletes. Materials and Methods: The statistical population of the present study included 350 athletes in group and individual disciplines in Mashhad, 296 of them were randomly selected as a statistical sample. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for statistical analysis in the present study, which was done using SPSS 23 (Chicago) and LISREL 8.80 software. Results: The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the research data have a normal distribution. The analysis results showed a significant relationship between coaching style and its components with adherence to sport and between ethical values and its components with adherence to the sport. Also, the regression analysis results showed that ethical values and their components and coaching styles and their components have the ability to predict adherence to the sport. Conclusion: Finally, it was found that the structural equation model of the relationship between ethical values and adherence to sport and coaching styles and adherence to the sport has a significant fit. According to the results of the research, it can be said that coaches and those involved in sports can, by properly explaining and presenting ethical values, as well as the correct use and application of coaching styles, encourage people in the community at all levels and especially athletes to adhere to physical activity and exercise.
۸.

The effects of game therapy on the static and dynamic balance of 4-10-year-old children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Dynamic and Static Stability Spastic Paralysis virtual reality

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تعداد بازدید : ۸۴ تعداد دانلود : ۶۳
Background: Balance is a critical physical factor for achieving independence, and children with spastic cerebral palsy often experience motor and balance difficulties. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of game therapy on the balance of children with cerebral palsy, with a focus on basic abilities. Materials and Methods: This study utilized a quasi-experimental design with a pretest-posttest controlled approach. Twenty children aged 4-10 years, diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy with levels 1 and 2 according to SCFMG standards, with a minimum IQ of 80 (to be able to perform the required tasks), and possessing the basic ability to stand and maintain posture balance, as well as communicate and understand linguistic concepts, were randomly selected from rehabilitation clinics in Tehran. Subjects were randomly divided into the control and game therapy groups. The pediatric balance scale (PBS) test was used to evaluate the balance level using a WII device with a wireless controller and a motion controller. The exercise program consisted of nine different games targeting various areas with the common goal of improving the child's balance. After 20 game therapy sessions, (four 20-minute sessions per week,) tests were repeated in the post-test. The data were analyzed with tow way ANOVA Test and paired T-test by SPSS, 20. Results : The results of the paired t-test indicate a significant improvement in static balance in the post-test for the game therapy group when compared to the pre-test ( P <0.0001). Moreover, the dynamic balance of the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the post-test when compared to the pre-test ( P =0.042). Conclusion: The study findings indicate that game therapy is a viable method for enhancing both static and dynamic balance in children with cerebral palsy. Given that the games used in the therapy are intended to be played at home with parental supervision, it is advised that these games be utilized to improve the balance of children with cerebral palsy.
۹.

The effect of manual techniques on maximum muscle activity electromyography, functional disability, and pain in women with non-specific chronic low back pain(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Chiropractic manual techniques electromyography activity Functional disability Pain non-specific chronic low back pain

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۵۰
Background : Low back pain (LBP) can cause changes in muscle activity in affected individuals, making it difficult for them to contract their muscles effectively and engage in physical activities. Manual chiropractic techniques have been proposed as a potential solution to improve muscle orientation and function in individuals with LBP. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manual techniques on maximum muscle activity electromyography, functional disability, and pain in women with non-specific chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Twenty women between the ages of 30 and 50, who had been experiencing NSCLBP for over three months with no history of spinal surgery or postural abnormalities, and were able to perform daily activities after providing consent, were recruited from a sports medicine clinic to participate in the study. In the pre-test, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess functional disability, and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain levels. Additionally, the maximum muscle activity of the multifidus and lumbar quadratus lumborum (QL) was measured using EMG. Chiropractic manipulation techniques were then implemented in the experimental group, with three sessions per week for six weeks, within the clinic. The same tests were repeated in the post-test. The ANOVA test was used to compare the chiropractic and control groups, with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Results : The study results indicate that chiropractic manual techniques were effective in reducing lumbar EMG activity ( P = 0.0001), reducing pain index ( P = 0.002), and improving functional disability ( P = 0.001) significantly. Conclusion : The study findings suggest that six weeks of chiropractic manipulation techniques can induce a feeling of relaxation, reduce pain, and passively strengthen the lumbar muscles. These improvements in muscle condition and functional disability may lead to a reduction in pain experienced by individuals with NSCLBP.
۱۰.

Validity and reliability of the Iranian force plate(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: force plate ground reaction force Reliability Validity

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تعداد بازدید : ۶۹ تعداد دانلود : ۵۶
Background: Force plates are widely used in biomechanics and sports sciences to measure various aspects of human movement. The accuracy and reliability of force plate measurements are critical for valid data interpretation. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Iranian force plate in the vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral directions using two manual dynamometers and a load cell. Materials and Methods: In this study, the force plate device utilized had a frequency of 1200 Hz and was manufactured by the Danesh Salar Iranian Company. Additionally, to determine the device's validity, we used Lafayette hand-held dynamometers manufactured in the United States and a load cell by Zemik. Pearson's correlation coefficient was employed to determine the validity of the force plate, while the internal consistency coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the force plate's reliability. Results: The study findings indicated a significant and high level of reliability between the maximum force obtained from the force plate device and manual dynamometer devices and load cell. Additionally, the internal consistency coefficient was found to be excellent (very high) for 20 trials in the three directions of vertical (0.98), anterior-posterior (0.96), and medial-lateral (0.97). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the Iranian force plate is a reliable device for measuring maximum force in the three directions of vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral, with very high validity.
۱۱.

The effects of acetazolamide on physiological variables among adolescents at high altitude(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Acute mountain sickness Carbonic Anhydrase hemoglobin Hemotocrit

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۴
Background : High altitude environments can cause a range of physiological changes in the body, and adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of altitude sickness. Acetazolamide has been shown to be an effective treatment for altitude sickness, but further research is needed to determine its impact on physiological variables among adolescents at high altitude. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acetazolamide in adolescents over 17 days at high altitude. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five healthy adolescents volunteered for this study and were randomly separated into control group (CG, n=12) and acetazolamide group (AG, n=13). AG took 250mg of acetazolamide. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) and Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) using the Lake Louise questionnaire were measured each morning and afternoon during field testing; Resting Blood Pressure (RBP) was measured each afternoon. Pre- and post-blood samples (haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct)) were taken at sea level (SL) one week before departure and within 40 hours on return to SL. Results : Significant differences between groups for RHR on days 2, 3 and 5; systolic blood pressures for day 4 and 13 ( P <0.05). No significant difference between groups for diastolic blood pressure, pre- and post-altitude for Hb, Hct and PV. AMS scores did not differ from the two groups except on morning of day 12 ( P <0.05). Discussion and Conclusion : Results revealed that acetazolamide did not significantly induce changes to adolescents’ AMS scores and physiological changes. However, adolescents may consume acetazolamide to achieve lower RHR that may enable them to accommodate to HA, prolonging exercise in similar environments.
۱۲.

The effect of a selected exercise protocol on trunk and lower limb muscle activity of older adults with both low back pain and pronated feet during walking(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Electromyography Foot Pronation Intervention Low Back Pain Training

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تعداد بازدید : ۴۵ تعداد دانلود : ۴۹
Background: Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal condition that can impact a person's ability to walk and move comfortably. Pronated foot posture has been suggested as a potential contributor to low back pain, and this study examines its impact on muscle activity during gait in individuals with low back pain. Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether pronated foot alters the activity timing of trunk and lower limb muscles during gait in low back pain patients. Materials and Methods: The sample of this study included 32 men with low back pain and pronated foot. Participants were divided into control (n=15, with foot pronated only) and experimental (n=17, with both low back pain and foot pronated) groups. The experimental group did resistance training with Thera-band for 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week. A wireless electromyography system with 9 pairs of bipolar surface electrodes was used to record the electromyography activity timing of back and lower limb muscles (sample rate: 2000 Hz). Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant between-group differences were found at baseline onset of EMG activity timing for gastrocnemious medialis ( P <0.001), gluteus medius ( P <0.001) and erector spinae at 3rd lumbar vertebral level ( P =0.001) muscles. Results indicated significant main effects of “Time” for erector spinae at 3rd lumbar vertebral level offset ( P =0.023), significant main effects of “group” for tibialis anterior offset ( P = 0.039) and for erector spinae at 3rd lumbar vertebral level offset ( P = 0.010). Conclusion: The selected training program changed the timing of erector spinae at 3rd lumbar vertebral level in older adults with both low back pain and pronated feet during walking.

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