Sport Sciences and Health Research

Sport Sciences and Health Research

Sport Sciences and Health Research, Volume 13, Issue 1,2021 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Identifying and leveling the effective factors on the development of heritage sports tourism based on Interpretive Structural Modeling Approach (ISM)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Heritage Sports Tourism Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) Political and Legal Factors Rule of Law Tourism

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Background: Sport heritage is increasingly being recognized as a potent instigator of tourism. The convergence of heritage, sport and tourism involves many different and diverse fields, including sport tourism, heritage tourism, sport management. Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify the effective factors on the development of heritage sports tourism with an interpretive structural modeling approach (ISM). Materials and Methods: The present research is applied, qualitative and analytical in terms of nature and purpose, data retrieval, and data analysis method, respectively based on interpretive structural modeling. Data collection tools in this study were library studies, interview and questionnaire based on interpretive structural modeling. In order to identify the factors affecting the development of heritage sports tourism, with the collective agreement of experts and reviewing the research literature, 16 factors affecting the development of heritage sports tourism were identified. Results: According to the third step of the ISM method, the effective factors on the development of heritage sports tourism were classified into 7 levels and the political and governmental dimensions along with the rule of law were at the lowest level of the model (seventh level); these are prioritized in terms of implementation over other dimensions. As a result, officials and managers in the field of tourism and sports tourism should pay special attention to these dimensions in order to provide the ground for the emergence and realization of other dimensions at higher levels of the model. Finally, based on the analysis matrix of influence and dependence, it was determined that the political and governmental dimensions, rule of law, management and supportive factors are among the influence factors; economic dimensions, socio-cultural factors, infrastructure and welfare services, education and research, specialized human resources, technology, heritage sports tourism attractions, heritage, marketing and information and international relations are among the linking factors; and the dimensions of safety and security, complementary attractions and sporting events are among the dependent factors in this research. Conclusion: According to the results of the model, for the development of heritage sports tourism, there must be a serious determination. In this regard, the policies of a nation must be progressive, and in the first step, government with a decisive role must provide the infrastructure.

Investigation of plyometric and endurance training on athletic performance in female elite rowers(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: peak rowing power Performance plyometric training rowing time trial

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Background: Plyometric training is defined as a quick, powerful movement involving a system of reactive exercises and an eccentric contraction, followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction. Aim : This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric and aerobic training on peak power and performance in female elite rowers. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female elite rowers with a minimum of 1 year’s competitive rowing experience were recruited to perform six weeks of plyometric or cycling endurance training for 30 min before practice on the water three days per week. Rowing performance was assessed through a 500-m rowing time trial (TT), while peak rowing power (PR) was evaluated by over three maximal trials of 15 s on the rowing ergometer. The recorded value for peak power was the highest wattage observed during the 15-s period. All statistics were performed using commercially available software (SPSS v. 23, Armonk, NY). Pre-planned t-test comparisons were used to determine significance at baseline in changes within both groups. Results: The results showed 500-m TT performance significantly improved for the plyometric group ( P < 0.05) but not for the endurance group ( P > 0.05). Moreover, PR was considerably higher in the plyometric group in post-test than endurance training. Conclusion: These results suggest that plyometric can improve rowing performance in female elite rowers, and rowing coaches should continue using this form of training. Coaches can perform plyometrics in conjunction with other strength training methods or as a warm-up before beginning rowing-specific training.

Sport on the silk road; sport and Iran-China 25-year cooperation agreement(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Iran China document championship sport medal Olympics

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Background: China is the undisputed power of sports in the world today and due to the close relations of China and Iran in many different aspects, the bilateral scientific works can be considered as well. Aim : The purpose of this study was to analyze the opportunities for the development of championship sports with a look at the cooperation document between Iran and China. Materials and Methods: The present study was a qualitative (descriptive-analytical) type of library studies in terms of applied purpose and in terms of data collection, which examined scientific works including books, articles, and notes during 2010-2021 about Iranian sports and China took place. Results: The research findings showed that the Islamic Republic of Iran and China, as two superpowers of West and East Asia, can have different sports interactions with each other in team and individual disciplines, respectively. In addition, the Iranians can use sport as a starting point and a tool to facilitate and accelerate their political-trade relations by winning 76 and the Chinese by winning 696 medals in the Summer and Winter Olympics; For example, the Chinese in the fields of swimming and diving, gymnastics, table tennis and recently weightlifting have emerged as the undisputed power of the world, while Iran can also compete in team sports such as football, volleyball and even Basketball to share its experiences in human resource development as the most important precondition for national excellence with this country. Conclusion: All in all, sport as a facilitator between Iran and China can develop the future political communications. China is the pioneer of Olympic Games and 25 years agreement can lead to brilliant future for Iranians.

The effect of Stickygym games on motor development of children during Covid-19 lockdown(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: COVID-19 motor development preschoolers Stickygym games

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Background: Children's motor skills are inversely related to sedentary screen time. COVID-19-lockdown during the pandemic has caused a further increasing on screening time. Aim: The current research aims at investigating the impact of Stickygym games on motor development of children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight eligible subjects (4-6 years old) were chosen and randomly grouped into control group (n=13) and experimental group (n=15). Using TGMD-2 test, gross motor development was measured. The experimental group performed online Stickygym games for 8 weeks. Stickygym kit includes Hook & Loop strips, with two linear polyester strips being easily but firmly attached together. Trained instructors performed online training sessions. In the end, TGMD-2 test was conducted again in person. Data analysis was done using Shapiro-Wilk, Levene and the analysis of covariance tests were with the significance level of 0.05 in SPSS 24. Results : Some locomotion skills were significantly improved by Stickygym games: bound ( P =0.005), galloping ( P =0.012), and running ( P =0.003), as well as object control skills: overhand throw ( P =0.004), underhand roll ( P =0.01), and striking a stationary ball ( P =0.021). Conclusion : This play kit can be utilized by pre-school educators and parents for improving object control and locomotion skills in preschool children.

The relationship between coaching behavior style, exercise pleasure and athletes' moral health(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: athlete coaching Health moral

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Background: The coaching styles are a powerful force that can affect the health of athletes and their view of sports. Aim : The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Coaches' Behavioral Style (CBS) and Exercise Pleasure (EP) and Athletes' Moral Health (AMH). Materials and Methods: This research is descriptive-correlational. The statistical population of this study included all athletes in Neyriz city. Three questionnaires were used for data collection: CBS questionnaire of Chelladurai and Saleh (1980), EP questionnaire of Scanlan et al. (1993), and AMH questionnaire of Vallerand et al. (1996). Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that although some of the components of AMH and CBS, such as negativism, were inverse, overall, there was a positive and significant relationship between CBS and AMH. Also, there was a positive and significant relationship between AMH and EP. Conclusion: According to the results, CBS can affect AMH and EP. Therefore, sports coaches should choose their behavior style according to athletes' needs, however, based on their willingness in supportive and participatory styles

A comparison of 8-week-resistance and endurance exercise programs on levels of plasma apelin and blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Apelin plasma Blood pressure endurance training Obese postmenopausal women resistance training

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Background: Studies show that apelin vasodilator peptide plays an important role in vascular tone and cardiovascular function, but the effect of resistance training and comparison of resistance and endurance training on plasma apelin has not been well documented. Aim : The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of eight weeks of resistance and endurance exercise programs on levels of plasma apelin and blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women Material and Methods: The present study was 24 postmenopausal women obese (age: 55.5 ± 5.63 y, height: 154.31 ± 4.69 cm, weight: 72.65 ± 11. 44 kg, and BMI: 30.62 ± 3.63) were randomly divided into two groups of 12 people (endurance and resistance) groups (resistance training with 60 to 80% 1RM, and endurance training with 55 to 70% of heart rate Karvonen). Apelin plasma levels and blood pressure 24 h before and 48 h after the end of the program were measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures. The significance level was P< 0.05. Results: The results showed that changes in intragroup and intergroup blood pressure decreased significantly and plasma apelin increased in both groups, but this increase was not significant ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Following eight- week resistance training and endurance training reduces blood pressure in postmenopausal obese women and were significantly associated with increased plasma Apelin but not as significant.

A survey about sports investments in Iran: Comparison between 1998 & 2016 without inflation(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: Inflation Investment sports industry

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Background: Sports Investments is one of the most unique sports events, in the country dealing both with collectors and dealers. Aim : The purpose of this study was to compare the sports investment o Iran in 2016 and 1998. Therefore, we estimate the value of the sports investment sector and share of total investment, GDP, GDSP and compare with 1998 in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, national accounts were used. Most of the basic data fare available in a decentralized manner in the Statistics Center and the Program and Budget Organization of Iran. Due to achieving real changes in sports investment between 1998 and 2016, prices in 1998 was considered as the base year and were considered. Then using the price index of the desired years, the effects of inflation were eliminated and growth real was calculated. Results: The results indicate that investment in sport in 1998 was 360 billion Rials, which is 0.43% of total investment, 0.1% GDP, and 26.2% of GDSP. Also, investment in sport in 2016 was 15449 billion Rials, which is 0.46% of total investment, 0.11% GDP and, 73.38% of GDSP. Investment in sport in 2016 compared to 1998 had 2347% real growth. Conclusion : Although, investment in sport in 2016 compared to 1998 has grown, but it is very small compared to the total investments. Results also show the major share of the public sector and the low participation of the private sector.

The effect of arginine supplementation following sleep deprivation on carbohydrate and fat metabolism, balance and fatigue index in female athlete students(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: arginine exercise Fatigue lactate Sleep

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Introduction : Sleep deprivation is one of common phenomena in athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of arginine supplementation following sleep deprivation on carbohydrate and fat metabolism, balance and fatigue index in female athletic students. Methods: The study population included all undergraduate female students of Sport Sciences at Imam Khomeini International University (age: 22.2± 2.16 years, BMI: 230.15±2.59 kg/m<sup>2 ) of whom 8 volunteered took part in the research. All experiments were performed in laboratory of university in 2020. Subjects were classified into four groups: Control, Sleep deprivation, Arginine and Arginine-sleep deprivation. Lactometer was used to measure blood lactate. Best Balance device was used to measure balance and GAS Analyzer was used to measure metabolism. Data was analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: Sleep deprivation significantly decreased static balance ( P =0.01) and dynamic balance ( P = 0.004) while arginine consumption resulted in improved static balance in sleep deprivation arginine group ( P =0.03). It was also shown that lactic acid levels were lower in the two groups that took arginine than in the groups that did not take arginine ( P ≤0.05). Conclusion: Arginine consumption can improve static and dynamic balance as well as mitigate side effects of sleep deprivation on static balance.

The effect of exercise interventions on the balance of diabetic neuropathic patients: A systematic review study(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: balance diabetic neuropathy Physical activity

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Background: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) reduces the senses, proprioception, reflexes, and strength in the lower extremities and leads to balance dysfunction. Aim : This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used by researchers and therapists to minimize balance dysfunction in people with DPN. Materials and Methods: This study is a comprehensive review of exercise interventions on the balance of patients with diabetic neuropathy by searching in the PubMed Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases with the combined keywords “balance”, “diabetic peripheral neuropathy”, “training interventions”, “proprioception”, “risk of diabetic fall”, “peripheral neuropathy” and also in Persian databases of Jihad Daneshgahi Scientific Information Center, MedLib (Comprehensive Database of Medical Articles), IranMedex, Iran Institute of Information Science and Technology Research Institute (IRANDOC), Iranian Publications Database (MAGIRAN) and with keywords “fall risk”, “profundity” and “postural control in diabetic neuropathic patients” from 2010 to 2021. After collecting the search results, first the title and then the summary of the pieces were studied. If the articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, their results would be used in the review study and otherwise discarded. Results: Twenty-five studies published between 2010 and 2021 met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that training interventions were more effective than control conditions to improve the balance of patients with diabetic neuropathy. Also, the most training programs and rehabilitation protocols have a positive effect on the balance of patients with diabetic neuropathy. Conclusion: The studied exercise interventions are an effective tool to improve the balance of diabetic neuropathy patients. However, given the small number of studies and their limitations, the present findings of this study should be considered.

The role of social vitality on the impact of sports activities on public health based on the theory of planned behavior(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Planned behavior popular health sport activities

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Background: There are relationships between exercise effect on mental health, especially negative emotions such as anxiety and stress. Aim : The aim study was the effect of participation in public sports activities based on the theory of planned behavior on the public health. Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation study with confirmatory factor analysis approach. Data was collected from 288 public sports participants of Tehran Municipality. Three standard questionnaires, including Goldberg General Health (1979) with 28 questions were used for collecting data. Results: Construct Variance extracted was 0.4, composite reliability 0.9 and Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha 0.7. As a result, the convergence validity and reliability of the model were acceptable. Divergent validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity of the model were confirmed by first order and second order confirmatory factor analyses. The positive validity of all subscriptions for latent variables indicated the appropriate quality of the measurement model. In this model, it was found that regular physical activity combined with planned behavior had a direct effect of 53% (correlation 0.729) on general health. Conclusion: According to the structural equation model, it was found that regular physical activity combined with planned behavior has a direct effect of 58% on general health.

The effect of male body mass index (BMI) on COVID- 19 disease infection(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: BMI COVID-19 obesity

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Background: Since the outbreak of COVID-19 virus and the rise in concerns, researchers have been investigating risk factors of this disease. One of the factors affecting the hospitalization of influenza patients is high BMI. Due to the relation between COVID-19 disease and influenza. Aim : the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of BMI on the infection and severity of COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: BMI of 126 men was calculated and three groups of "appropriate weight", "overweight" and "obese" were identified. Then, the prevalence and severity of their disease were recorded. For data analysis, chi2 test was used in SPSS 26 software at a significance level of P = 0.05. Results: Prevalence of COVID-19 infection in the group with “appropriate weight”, ”overweight” and “fat” were 56%, 61% and 58%, respectively. Mild infection was reported in the three groups, 27%, 27% and 26%, respectively; Moderate infection was 22%, 26% and 26%, respectively; and severe infection was 7%, 8% and 5%, respectively. Therefore, there was no significant difference between their infection and the severity of infection in groups ( P ˃.05). Conclusion: Obesity has negative effect on the body's immune response and lung function. The hospitalization rate for influenza is higher in this group. But in infection of COVID-19 and severity of this disease, no significant difference was observed between men with different BMI. However, due to the relation between obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the vulnerability of these patients to the COVID-19 virus, serious attention is necessary to prevent these individuals from COVID-19.

The effect of 11+Kids program on the scores of musculoskeletal screening tests(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: FIFA 11+ Kids injury prevention neuromuscular training soccer player

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Background: Children and adolescents are more vulnerable to injuries than other groups. Therefore, it is necessary to use screening tests to identify players who are more susceptible to be injured and in parallel, using intervention programs to reduce the risk of injury.  Aim : The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of 11+Kids program on the scores of musculoskeletal screening tests Materials and Methods : Forty-eight players were randomly assigned into the FIFA 11+Kids (mean±SD; age= 12.70±1.30 years; weight= 44.34±6.16 kg; height= 1.52±0.09 m) and control groups (mean±SD; age= 12.91±1.31 years; weight= 45.51±8.13 kg; height= 1.55±0.11 m). The FIFA 11+ Kids performed instead of the usual warm-up for 8 weeks, while the control group performed their usual warm-up program. Functional movement screen (FMS) and special football jump-landing task (SFJLT) tests were examined in pre-test and post-test.  Results: The independent t-test showed no significant differences between the FIFA 11+ Kids and the control group in the FMS test ( P = 0.055). Furthermore, results showed significant differences between groups in the SFJLT test ( P = 0.001).  Conclusion: Performing 8 weeks of FIFA 11+Kids can improve the musculoskeletal screening test score of SFJLT as a field-assessment soccer-specific jumping-landing test. It is suggestive that a field-based assessment tool to identify prone athletes is more beneficial than the FMS test of adolescent male soccer players.


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