Converting unused offshore oil and gas installations into artificial reefs as one of the alternative methods of decommissioning, is used in many coastal states across the globe for the purposes of coastal management, enhancement and attraction of living marine resources, protection and preservation goals. Despite the positive impacts of artificial reefs, there are also potential negative impacts which require adequate maintenance of assets as well as, continuing monitoring and supervising. Although a lot of countries have comprehensive regulation on artificial reefs, many nations have blanket regulation requiring obsolete structures to be removed, yet it can bring about enormous environmental, socio-economic benefits. The sensitivity of deployment of structures as artificial reefs induced international and regional conventions to intervene and regulate the matter. The aim of this paper is to compare the most important international and regional conventions and critically compare and analysis them with the current Iran’s national laws and regulations. Iran is one of the biggest oil and gas producers and have a huge number of offshore installations which will require decommissioning in the coming years. Therefore, comprehensive national regulation should be enacted on decommissioning and also the possibility of creation artificial reefs. The authors seek out to evaluate the existing legislation in order to assess the potential capacity of Iran’s seas for converting the installations into artificial reefs.
Rapid changes and competitions in today's world have shifted the role of governmental enterprises into regulating and directing activities. This has led to the need for the analysis of internal/ external situations and the revision of strategic planning of such companies. The Iranian Oil Terminals Company, as one of the National Iranian Oil Company subsidiaries, has developed its vision, mission, and strategic plan. In this paper, the strategic planning was fulfilled for the Procurement and Supply system of IOTC, which has the role of supporting the primary activities of the company by sourcing, purchasing, warehousing, and delivering the requested materials. In this regard, different models of strategic planning were reviewed to design a suitable approach for strategy formulation. The adopted framework was implemented using the balanced scorecard approach and the results were presented step by step in the paper. . . . . . . . . . . .
Context/purpose: Factors affecting the technology, and innovation levels of crude oil treatment’s surface facilities, are numerous and extensive. Localization of surface facility as a high-tech Technology, which include oil and gas production and processing units, has always been one of the main issues, and technology management and innovation are essential priorities for these facilities. The purpose of this practical, heuristic, and quantitative research is to develop the studies and identify the current state of technology for crude oil treatment’s surface facility technology level in Iran and compare it with its global one. Methodology: Considering the wide range of factors that are used in evaluating technological and innovative capabilities with uncertainty. This research is applied in terms of purpose. Using a survey method and collecting qualitative data through a questionnaire, has led to descriptive results. This study by referring to experts and specialists, these factors according to their importance and priority in different classes of classification and then with statistical analysis, the relationship and correlation of these factors have been examined. For this purpose, 44 experts in oil and gas industry have been used for replying the qualitative questionnaire, then the fuzzy system model has been used to investigate the uncertainty in their answers and Quantitative results. Findings: The results of this study show that the most influential factors in surface facilities such as technological and innovative factors and managerial potential and human resources, etc. are not at an acceptable level compared to developed countries. Conclusion: The analysis of uncertainty between opinions of experts and factors investigated also confirms that attention to innovation and technology capacity and Technology capability and human resources in the National Iranian Oil Company should be increased.
COVID affects various sectors of the economy, including energy. Measuring these effects on the energy sector can help policymakers adopt appropriate protectionist policies. In this paper, the effect of COVID shock on energy and non-energy sectors has been investigated using the DSGE model. For this purpose, two shocks of preferences and shocks of labor supply have been used. This article adds COVID to the model as well as adding energy to the New Keynesian model. The effect of COVID on the energy and non-energy sectors of the two channels of labor supply and consumer preferences has been investigated. The results of the study indicate that consumption, investment, and production in the energy sector have increased under the influence of both shocks. But consumption, investment and production in non-energy sector have declined. Prices and production costs have increased in both sectors. Also, the negative effects of the preferences shock were greater than the negative effects of the labor supply shock.
This paper analyzes the existence of an asymmetric causality relationship between the consumption of hydrocarbon products in four sectors: residential-commercial, manufacturing, agricultural, and transportation, and the economic growth of Iran during the years 1981-2017. To achieve this goal, the effect of positive and negative shocks of the mentioned variables is investigated using the asymmetric causality approach of Hatemi-J (2012). Research results suggest a two-way causal relationship between the positive shocks of economic growth and the consumption of carriers of hydrocarbons in all four residential-commercial, manufacturing, agricultural and transportation sectors. There is a two-way causal relationship between negative economic growth shocks and hydrocarbon carriers’ consumption in agriculture and transportation, and a one-way causal relationship between hydrocarbon energy carriers’ consumption and economic growth in the residential-commercial and industrial sectors. There is no causal relationship between non-directional shocks of hydrocarbon consumption and economic growth.
The goal of this paper is to study the effect of Covid-19 outbreak on oil markets volatility.Covid-19 as a pandemic has a significant negative effect on global economy. Alongside the global economy, stock markets responded to the outbreak immediately. The first case appeared in February 20 in Iran. The outbreak has different implication for Iranian economy. Using daily data on return of oil companies registered at Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE), change in new cases integrated into the E-GARCH model as a proxy for the virus outbreak form February 20, 2020 until December 12, 2020, it applies an E-GARCH model to derive volatilities in index. To test the effect of Covid-19 outbreak on the volatilities in oil companies’ index, change in daily new cases integrated into the E-GARCH model as a proxy for the virus outbreak. The results show that, despite of fresh money pumped into the market and increase in market transactions and volume of trade, during the first phase of outbreak, Covid-19 has negatively affected returns of oil companies’ prices.