The purpose of this research is selecting the Most Effective Strategic Capability for Sustainable Development under Risk and Uncertainty in the Oil Industry by Rough Set Theory. The research methodology is qualitative and quantitative. The target population in the qualitative section included 14 industrial management specialists at the university level and in the quantitative section 32 senior managers in companies active in the Oil Industry. In this research, were used Meta-synthesis and Delphi analysis methods were used to identify the components and propositions of the research and in a small part, the analytical approaches of Ruff collection. The results showed that among the 15 final statements of risk and uncertainty in the Oil Industry, the risk of change in domestic law relative to political / economic diplomacy in the development of infrastructure for the Oil Industry X5 as the most important risk statement and uncertainty in the field. Political and legal risks that have been identified as a measure of the strategic viability of sustainable development. Finally, it was found that, despite the most probable risks selected in this study, namely the risk of changes in domestic law to political / economic diplomacy in the development of infrastructure of the Oil Industry "X5" Existence of sanctions of the world powers "X1" Strategic capabilities of sustainable economic development is the most important feature that should be considered in the country's inflationary conditions.
Companies have access to a variety of financial resources to implement available profitable investment projects, to settle overdue debts, to increase working capital, and to pay dividends to shareholders Correct decision making and the ability of companies to determine the appropriate financial resources are the main factors of company success. The effects of financing on the company's return and risk are the most important goals that management should pay attention to when choosing a financing method, and select resources that minimize financing costs. In this research, first, to identify financing methods and also the criteria for selecting the appropriate financing method, the fuzzy Delphi method has been used. Then, the AHP method was used to prioritize the parameters. The results of this study showed that the factors of efficiency, cost, sustainability, operationality, fairness, and transparency are the most important criteria for selecting financing methods in gas companies and also forming subsidiary consortia, receiving facilities, issuing participation bonds, creating an investing companies, presence in the stock market, creating a plan as a shareholder, have been identified as financing methods.
Financial performance evaluation emerged as the great academia and business concern in the competitive world, today. In order to clarify the progress status and improvement trend of finance, it is of supreme significance to appoint a professional financial performance evaluation study for supportable progress of enterprises. This research focused on the seven important factors which represented principal effects on the financial performance of the Persian Gulf petrochemical companies. In order to achieve the research objectives, experts and engineers of 12 companies in the Persian Gulf petrochemical industry have been surveyed by sampling method, in which 180 questionnaires have been completed and the basis of the work has been used. By the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) divergent validity of all desired factors as well as correspondent of the questionnaire were approved. To meet the research goals, non-parametric analysis demonstrated the main hypothesis of the study regarding the effectiveness of all under investigation parameters. By the Friedman ranking test, the internal processes and external environment of the organization provided the highest and the lowest rank of impact on the financial performance of the Petrochemical companies under review, respectively
Despite numerous upstream communications, there is still no comprehensive and reliable model for implementing these tasks; neither in the literature nor in oil & gas industry. Previously developed models focus more on the outsourcing process and it seems that there is no outsourcing model that has been developed with an eye to utilizing internal capabilities in a portfolio of alliances and be compatible with the unique characteristics of the Iran's oil and gas industry. In an attempt to validate the components of the "Model of development outsourcing physical assets in the oil and gas industry, with the approach of upgrading internal capacity" this study used a questionnaire in a Likert scale (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). From the population, 102 people participated and a total of 100 completed questionnaires received. Using confirmatory factor analysis the validity of the variables and the questionnaire were examined. In this research, SPSS and Smart PLS softwares were used and the error probability level was considered α = 0.05. The results showed that the model has a good fit. According to the Geiser index, the fit of the model was medium to high and the goodness of fit criterion was equal to 461.0 and indicates the optimal fit of the model.
The present article aims to examine the risk of host governments’ interference with the property of foreign investors (expropriation) in the petroleum industry. Host states have the police power to make regulatory changes. The ‘police power’ is defined as the inherent and plenary power of a sovereign to make all laws necessary and proper to preserve the public security, order, health, morality, and justice. It is a fundamental power essential to government, and it cannot be surrendered by the legislature or irrevocably transferred away from government. The government can interfere with the contract and change the contract terms or may even directly take the investment. This is the main reason for international petroleum disputes and international arbitration practice has addressed such risk. For this purpose, the concept of property and compensable property rights under international law are of great significance. Indeed, expropriation conveys a deprivation of a property owner of this property. This paper assesses the concept of expropriation, the international legal requirements for a lawful expropriation, and then, analyses the relevant international arbitral awards in petroleum jurisprudence.
Making an agreement between Iran and an integrated countries bloc like Shanghai Cooperation Organization or Eurasian Economic Union to boost energy trade is considered as an efficient factor to improve multilateralism and regionalism of Iranian economy. However, the outbreak of COVID-19 has had caused serious and unprecedented consequences on globalization and regionalization. This research seeks to find out the relationship between COVID19 and regional energy integration for two cases of South Asia and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). To estimate the coefficients of variables, the panel data framework based on quarterly data over 2010Q1-2020Q2 is employed. The major results reveal that the COVID19 pandemic is found to be a serious challenge for regional energy integration in these two unions, particularly the integration of larger economies which are more developed and have a higher level of trade liberalization are disturbed by this pandemic. A policy implication based on the conclusions is that Iran may try to make regional energy integration with its neighbors and trading partners. However, to reduce the long-run negative impacts of pandemic, Iran and its energy trade partners should make a plan to determine types and magnitudes of negative impacts of pandemic, regulating monetary and fiscal policies to encounter with the negative influences. To the best of author’s knowledge, despite some earlier researches, there is not any existing literature focusing on how the Corona affects the economic integration. Therefore, this paper tries to fill in this literature gap.