Petroleum Business Review (PBR)

Petroleum Business Review (PBR)

Petroleum Business Review (PBR), Volume 6, Issue 1 - Serial Number 18, Winter 2022 (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

مقالات

۱.

A Nonlinear Approach to the Effect of Oil Shocks on Iran’s Economy(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۲
This paper aims to show the asymmetric effect of oil shocks on Iran’s economy. It uses nonlinear time series models to investigate the asymmetric effect of oil shocks on resource allocation in Iran’s economy. The results show that adverse oil shocks have been more persistent during the last decades and severely negatively affect resource allocation in Iran’s economy. Different oil shocks have different implications for importing and exporting countries, and the rigidity of state fiscal systems in exporting countries causes adverse oil shocks to be more persistent. The oil economy’s response to positive and negative oil shocks depends on the structure of the economy. The government budget and trade balance have significant implications for the effects of oil shocks on oil-exporting economies. The government budget is highly dependent on oil revenues, so in the case of adverse oil shocks, the pass-through exchange rate will cause high inflation because of foreign exchange shortage and overshoot in the exchange rate. 
۲.

COVID-19, CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption in Asian Countries: An Application of Stirpat and Beck’s Theory of Risky Society(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۸
This paper aims to show the asymmetric effect of oil shocks on Iran’s economy. It uses nonlinear time series models to investigate the asymmetric effect of oil shocks on resource allocation in Iran’s economy. The results show that adverse oil shocks have been more persistent during the last decades and severely negatively affect resource allocation in Iran’s economy. Different oil shocks have different implications for importing and exporting countries, and the rigidity of state fiscal systems in exporting countries causes adverse oil shocks to be more persistent. The oil economy’s response to positive and negative oil shocks depends on the structure of the economy. The government budget and trade balance have significant implications for the effects of oil shocks on oil-exporting economies. The government budget is highly dependent on oil revenues, so in the case of adverse oil shocks, the pass-through exchange rate will cause high inflation because of foreign exchange shortage and overshoot in the exchange rate. 
۳.

Designing a Forensic Accounting Model with a Focus on Protecting of Shareholders Rights of Petrochemical Companies: Fuzzy Network Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۴ تعداد دانلود : ۱۰
Protecting shareholders’ rights today is considered a practical competitive function at the level of capital markets, which is based on transparent and coherent actions within the framework of laws and regulations. In other words, the more the level of company operations is based on regulatory and legal procedures, the more level of protection of shareholders’ interests can be expected to be observed more uniformly by companies. This study aims to design a forensic accounting model focusing on protecting shareholders’ rights of petrochemical companies. The collection tool based on the analytical nature of the research consisted of two parts: evaluation checklist and matrix checklists. In fact, in order to promote the level of innovation in the relationship between forensic processes and quantitative accounting to collect data for the development of the forensic accounting model, through meta-synthesis and Delphi analysis, the components and propositions of forensic accounting were determined in the qualitative section, focusing on the protection of shareholders’ rights; then based on the matrix checklist, the most influential research propositions were determined through the analysis of fuzzy networks. The research results in the qualitative part indicate the existence of three components of structural mechanisms; it was the meta-structural and legalization of forensic accounting to protect shareholders’ rights, which was approved in the form of 18 statements. Further, the results in the quantitative part concerning the analysis of fuzzy networks were identified. The most effective component of forensic accounting in the protection of shareholders’ rights was structural mechanisms, and the most influential statements of forensic accounting in the protection of 
۴.

Assessing the Relationship Between OPEC Convergence and Oil Market Balance(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

نویسنده:
تعداد بازدید : ۱۳ تعداد دانلود : ۹
The oil market is affected by the supply of oil by oil-producing countries. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was established in the 1960s to balance oil prices in favor of oil-producing countries. OPEC has gone through a period of convergence and divergence since its inception under political-economic events and crises. In turn, this convergence and divergence have had a significant impact on oil production, supply, and prices in the oil market. OPEC members form a diverse range of population, size, reserves, output, gross domestic product, ideology, and type of relationship with world powers. This diversity, along with internal tensions, leads to different approaches on energy markets and production quotas, which has affected the interests of all producing countries. Thus, this study aims to assess the convergence relationship between OPEC members on the strength of this organization on the market. To reach this aim, we have used a qualitative method of descriptive and analytical type using library resources and documents. Findings show that any lack of convergence and understanding between OPEC members has led to increased supply in the oil market and fluctuating prices. These price fluctuations seriously damage the economies of exporting countries.
۵.

Design a Structured Financing Instrument in Iran’s Downstream Sector of the Oil and Gas Industry(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹
One of the most critical bottlenecks in the country’s oil industry is the lack of sufficient liquidity and a suitable and codified method for financing projects in the downstream sector of Iran’s oil and gas industry. These projects include the construction of oil and gas refineries and petrochemical plants. Oil and gas projects require a very high volume of investment, and the limited financial resources and insufficient attractiveness of the currently defined instruments do not meet the new investment needs of downstream projects to achieve the 1404 vision. Therefore, in this article, due to the novelty of the issue, numerous interviews were conducted with staff and operational managers and other relevant officials in the field of financing the downstream part of the oil and gas industry. Then, with the help of Maxqda software, all independent ideas in the form of concepts and sub-themes were identified. With the help of the Delphi method based on the process of Islamic financial engineering based on responding to existing needs by identifying the needs of the parties to the transaction, asset base, and related cash flow analysis, appropriate structured instrument in this sector were designed in six instruments. From experts and related tests, as well as analysis and comparison of their various risks by AHP using Expert Choice software, finally based on the tests performed on the results obtained from questionnaires and interviews of experts, structured financing instrument in the form of convertible securities parallel Istisna Sukuk–Lease (Ijarah) and Sukuk–stock was approved.
۶.

Practical Development of Forensic Accounting Paradigm Based on the Risks of Oil Companies Investors: Interpretive Ranking Process Matrix Analysis(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

تعداد بازدید : ۱۷ تعداد دانلود : ۲۵
Forensic accounting, as a process of legal inspection of corporate accounting practices, has become an important strategy to prevent fraud and financial misconduct, creating information transparency for investors to make financial decisions. Among the capital market companies, oil companies can strengthen the forensic accounting paradigm to provide documentation and transparency of decision-making to prevent market distrust caused by investor risks and contribute to the sustainable development of its presence in advancing competitive strategies. This study aims to develop an effective forensic accounting paradigm based on the risks of investors in oil companies. In this study, the components (dimensions of forensic accounting) and research propositions (investor risk themes) were used to from a combined analysis with 15 accounting experts at the university level. In the quantitative part, the components and propositions identified in the form of matrix questionnaires were evaluated by the interpretive ranking process (IRP) by 20 financial managers of oil companies in the capital market. The results showed that the statements of inflation and credit risk as the most influential themes threaten investors in oil companies, strengthening the focus on legal mechanisms as a component of the forensic accounting paradigm. This result shows that, in the presence of inflationary and credit risks for oil companies’ investors, the importance of legal mechanisms in judicial accounting can lead to increased information transparency to protect the interests of oil companies’ investors

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