This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental policies including price and non-price policies on natural gas demand in Iranian industrial sector. For this purpose, considering the dynamic nature of our panel data, we adopted Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) method to estimate natural gas consumption for 22 Iranian industries from 2005 to 2015. The results illustrated that the annual average of natural gas consumption has been rising, reaching five times higher than the consumption of other fossil fuels. Among the industries, other non-metallic minerals industry with 8 percent of the total production and more than 25 percent natural gas consumption have been regarded as the most natural gas consumer industry. The results of our GMM model showed that non-price environmental policies are more effective than the price policies on natural gas consumption. Overall, in non-price policies, energy intensity seems more important comparing to CO2 emission reduction. We recommend that governmental energy policies should focus more on energy intensity improvement in Iranian industries through technological enhancement and fuel energy saving regulations.
Energy has been always the focus of attention since the establishment of the WTO.The significance of this issue was doubled when the major energy-producing countries states sought to join the WTO.To join the WTO,many energy-producing and energy-exporting states inevitably needed to modify and change their own laws.The adoption of a dual pricing policy by the applicant countries appears as one of the controversial issues in this regard.By determining lower energy prices for their domestic producers,the energy-rich countries provide them with a superior position relative to their international rivals.From the perspective of some energy-importing countries,such behaviors are seen as subsidizes.Iran as one of the largest energy-rich states,has been seeking about twenty years to join the WTO.Iran subsidizes its domestic producers to support its energy sector and infant industries.This article focused on examining the pricing policies,and in particular,the approach to determine the price of energy in Iran.In addition,we studied of the impact of the pricing method of the energy sector in Iran on the process of its accession to the WTO by a comparative evaluation of the accession process of the energy-producing countries such asRussia andSaudi Arabia to the WTO.Through studying the laws and regulations of the energy sector of Iran, one can realize that Iran has been distancing from DP in recent years and is striving to approach the price of its energy to the global price by benefiting fromthe experiences of the performance of the membercountries of the WTO aimed at accelerating the process of its accession to the WTO
Designation of incentive mechanisms to increase the speed of liquidity of receivables is one of the leading options for streamlining domestic resources in the field of oil and gas industry financing. The main objective of this research is to investigate and optimize the liquidity methods of gas sales receivables in line with the requirements of the National Iranian Gas Company. After a deep review of literature, we extract methods and legal platforms for receivables liquidation methods. The current research is an applied and descriptive-analytical research in terms of its purpose and methodology. The data analysis is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods and required data for this study including the amounts and duration of deferred receivables by different categories of subscribers of the NIGC during 2012 to 2018. Subsequently, in order to visualize the data in the form of heat tables, Microsoft's Business Intelligence software is applied to understand the process of creating and settlement of receivables, cluster receivables by the different categories of subscription and, finally, reveal the subscriber behavior patterns in disbursements. Finally, using theoretical foundations and experts' opinions, a set of optimal methods has been recommended to accelerate the process of collecting current receivables, depending on the behavior of different groups of subscribers. Based on the results of the interviews, NIGC should apply IT-based methods, incentive policies and deterrent (punitive) strategies to accelerate the liquidation of receivables in household and commercial subscription.
Projects are affected by many internal and external factors. Such factors could be initiated domestically or internationally. The South Pars is a mega gas field in Iran which requires billions of dollars for development and gas extraction. Its development has taken a rather long time and gone through many challenges over the last two decades; due to several challenges, especially international barriers.In this research, the effects of sanctions on the expenditurs ofselected activities in developing of pars field between internal and foreign contractors is investigated. The main purpose of this research is to calculate the cost of selected activities of South Pars phases and compare the performance of internal contractors in sanctions conditions with foreign contractors in non-sanctions conditions.For this purpose, 18 activities which were similar in all of South Pars contracts,were selected.In these three sections, after applying relative indexes,global inflation, and technology by using inferential statistics, the total cost were considered among internal and foreign contractors. Based on the statistical analysis,there was no significant difference between the expenditures of selected activities performed by internal contractors and foreign contractors Under sanctions.
The transformational leadership is known as one of the most important and effective factors on organizational behaviors of the employee. Creation of the motivation and energy in the employees requires a leader with inspirational qualities. On the other hand, the organizational citizenship behavior is a factor in shaping. The current study was aimed at investigating the effects of transformational leadership on the employees’ organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, some personality traits are revealed in this study to be one of the main factors shaping the behaviors and to be moderating variables. The current study is of applied type in terms of the objective and a descriptive-correlational study in terms of data collection procedures. The data needed for the purpose of the study were collected by the use of questionnaire distributed among The 242 persons of statistical population, and these data have been analyzed by Structural Equations Modelling. The results indicated that all six hypotheses of the study were approved. In other words, the transformational leadership has positive and significant effects on both individual and organizational aspects of the organizational citizenship behavior. Also, the positive moderating role of neuroticism and extroversion in effects of transformational leadership on the individual and organizational aspects of organizational citizenship behavior was approved. The results show that the statistical community can utilize its human resources potential to create competitive advantage and develop the voluntary activities of its employees, provided that it is able to optimally implement transformational leadership style.
Due to the importance of technology and innovation in the oil industry, it is necessary to look more closely at the intellectual property of this industry. Intellectual capital is a concept that can classify and report the technology capabilities and knowledge spillover in a comparative format. The present research is aimed at providing an appropriate framework for reporting intellectual capital in oil industry companies. For this research, semi-structured interviews have been done with 15 experts and people from petrochemical and petroleum companies with intellectual and experiential thinking space. After the interview, the relevant texts were analyzed by the thematic analysis method. Finally, the intellectual capital reporting framework was extracted as a qualitative research product. Then, a questionnaire was designed to assess the acceptance of the qualitative model, which was distributed among the statistical community consisting of professors and PhD students and experts of different universities and companies. The results of the distributed questionnaire showed that the components of the framework were approved by the respondents.