Technical and environmental challenges resulted from an off-design running condition of processes on a platform is an important issue. The weakness of strategies to stop or decrease the amount of the greenhouse gas emission production rate in the Persian Gulf is another important matter of concern which is intensively increasing. Recently, modern methods of energy generation from available renewable potentials near offshore platforms are suggested in the literature. Integration of renewable energy converters with offshore oil and gas platforms can solve both problems with machinery and environment to an acceptable extent. In this study, the economics of an offshore complex installed in the Persian Gulf is subjected to two different power generation systems. The first case defines the present condition in which the total power demand of the complex is supplied by burning the associated extracted natural gas on board the platform in its thermal power plant. The second case considers a wind farm located near Bardekhun in Bushehr province to be connected to the complex power network and shares its renewable source generated power with the platform. The economics and relative emission production of both cases are compared. Wind speed average and wind turbine power generation are considered having uncertainties. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method is used to consider those uncertainties in outcomes. The second case is found obviously more beneficial however there are some conservative assumptions included due to a shortage of data and limitations which makes it more attractive.
Economic sanctions imposed on Heterogeneousstates have played an important role as a tool of pressure in recent decades. Considering that most non-conforming states with the US are important players on the energy market, a large part of this country’s sanctions policy has been focused on the energy sector. With the evolution of the US shale oil industry, using energy as a tool of sanctions against target countries has received increasing attention by US presidents in recent years. The US is using the geopolitical shift as an international strategy to compete with other powers in the energy sector such as Iran, Venezuela, and Russia. The US aims to use its energy embargo policy to curtail the influence of these players on the energy market and prevent their anti-American policies by fermenting economic crises within these countries. The question arises as to the extent of the effectiveness and sustainability of this US foreign policy strategy in a transitional international order. The article hypothesis is that due to inefficient unconventional resources in terms of market crisis, the rise of counter-hegemonic coalitions, and geopolitical tensions in regions such as the Middle East, one cannot be too optimistic about the sustainability of this situation. The authors of the article will endeavor to explain the above hypothesis within the framework of the hegemony theory and by using the trend-analysis technique, while addressing the driving forces.
Internationalization of businesses is considered as a key factor in economic development and growth of the economic entities. On the other hand, the ability of the system for endurance and reliability is inevitably dependent on the success that the system gains in communicating with the external environment; in other words, the sustainability of the system is entirely dependent on system capability for adaptation, change and responsiveness to the environment. Furthermore, Technology-based businesses are highly dynamic and use different internationalization patterns. A literature review shows that comprehensive studies have not been conducted despite the necessity of today's businesses to move toward sustainable internationalization. Therefore, this research examines existing patterns by presenting a model for sustainable internationalization in technology-based businesses. In the present study, 6 technology-based businesses in oil and gas industry have been investigated using a multi-case interview method. The validity and reliability of data collection tools have been confirmed. The results of the interviews performed during the two coding stages revealed that economic, environmental, social and technological factors are among the factors influencing the adoption of sustainable business internationalization strategies along with a focus on a sustainable business model. This study also presents different types of sustainable internationalization strategies and classifies the internationalization’s sustainability index into two categories of profitability and sustainability of relationships in the network.
Information flow is a key parameter in an economic activity and acts as the main factor in the appearance, stability and efficiency of capital markets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of comparability and environmental uncertainty on the expected rate of return in oil, gas and petrochemical firms. The current study applies panel regression method estimator to investigate the relationship between comparability, environmental uncertainty, and the expected rate of return of 500 firm-year observations in oil, gas and petrochemical firms listed in Iran Securities and Stock exchanges for the period of 2009-2018. The results of the research show that the comparability and uncertainty has a significant effect on the expected rate of return. In other words, the results of the research show that the expected rate of return is a function of comparability and it varies in different levels of comparability. Key words: Comparability, Expected rate of return, Uncertainty
The international chamber of commerce (ICC) created a generally accepted set of terms called Incoterms 2020 which provides that the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, passes from the seller to the buyer when the seller has fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods. But this rule is based on a false base, which causes number of exception where the goods are delivered but the risk remains on behalf of the seller. In this paper we will prove that the aim of contract is an unexceptional factor which indicates whether the risk has passed through or still is remained. The aim which has a composite nature and preparing the last part of that nature provides reaching of the goal and is the main reason for transferring the risk of the thing then when the buyer's aim from the contracts is achieved the risk of the goods will be transferred to him and when the seller's aim is achieved the risk of the price will be transferred to him. The aim or cause of the obligation in general is; to acquire the property and the possession which are peaceful and useful of the thing to use and enjoy it with security. So each term will be separately being analyzed by theory of the cause of the obligations in civil law of France and we call this theory which defined the goal as a composite nature the virtual spirit level the theory of the spirit level of the risk.
The purpose of this research is designing an Total Interpretive/Structural Model for the Entrepreneurial Orientation of SEM Subsidiary Oil. In this qualitative and quantitative methodology, five university experts in the field of entrepreneurship participated in the meta-analysis and Delphi field to identify the research components and propositions from the same research and then to reach competence. The identified component theory and propositions were analyzed by Delphi analysis. In the quantitative part, with the participation of 25 managers of SMEs Subsidiary Oil Subsidiary Oil and using matrix questionnaires, the identified propositions were stratified into a range of most influential propositions to the least effective ones. The results in the qualitative analysis section illustrate the existence of 3 main components in the form of the 15 final statement based on theoretical adequacy and are quantitatively identified; (X4) As Entrepreneurial Tendency Component Propositions at the Level of Information Technology Capabilities and Proposals to Change Traditional Warehousing (X7); Agile Production by Scale-Saving (X8); and Cost Control through Timely Evaluation of Machinery Depreciation (X9) Entrepreneurial at the competitive level The most influential causes in the oriented SMEs Subsidiary Oil Technologically are the entrepreneurial businesses.