مطالب مرتبط با کلید واژه " Panel Data "


۱.

بررسی اثر آزادی اقتصادی بر فساد مالی

کلید واژه ها: فساد مالی آزادی اقتصادی Panel Data

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۱۰۲ تعداد دانلود : ۹۰۶
فساد مالی یا سوء استفاده از قدرت دولتی برای کسب منافع شخصی، رویدادی است که در نظامهای اداری و سیاسی کشورهای مختلف شایع است. این رویداد دارای عوامل مختلف فرهنگی، اجتماعی، سیاسی، حقوقی و اقتصادی است. از جمله مهم ترین این عوامل سلب آزادی اقتصادی است که از طریق دخالت بیش از حد دولت و نهادهای مرتبط، زمینه ساز گسترش فساد مالی در سطح خرد (فساد اداری) و کلان (فساد سیاسی) می گردد. این مقاله ابتدا به تشریح عوامل موثر بر فساد مالی پرداخته و مسیرهای اثرگذاری آزادی اقتصادی بر فساد مالی را بررسی می کند؛ سپس با استفاده از سه مدل، به بررسی اثر آزادی اقتصادی و اجزای آن بر فساد مالی می پردازد. این مدلها، با رویکرد داده های تابلویی برای 73 کشور طی چند سال (2003-2000) برآورد شده است. نتایج، بیانگر اثر مثبت و معنی دار سه جز اصلی آزادی اقتصادی (ساختار قضایی و امنیت حقوق مالکیت؛ پول سالم؛ آزادی مبادله با خارجی ها) و اثر بی معنی دو جز دیگر (اندازه دولت و قوانین و مقررات) بر فساد مالی است.
۲.

بررسی تاثیر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر اشتغال

کلید واژه ها: اشتغال فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات Panel Data

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۰۶۹ تعداد دانلود : ۱۹۱۹
فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، دارای آثار گسترده ای بر اقتصاد جامعه در سطح خرد و کلان است. تاثیر بر نوع و ماهیت مشاغل و بازار کار از جمله مهم ترین آن ها ICT، نوع مشاغل را از چهار طریق حذف، ایجاد و تغییر مشاغل و انجام کار از راه دور، تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر ساختار مشاغل نیز تاثیر گذاشته و ماهیت مشاغل در جامعه را از طریق کاهش متوسط سختی کار، فکری تر شدن، ناپایدارتر شدن و تخصصی تر شدن مشاغل، متحول می کند. این مقاله، با استفاده از یک الگوی اقتصاد خرد، در چارچوب ارزیابی عوامل موثر بر اشتغال و با یک مدل لگاریتمی، به دنبال بررسی اثر فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات بر میزان اشتغال است. از این رو، مدل مورد بررسی با رهیافت Panel Data، برای 47 کشور (شامل 22 عضو OECD و 25 کشور در حال توسعه)، طی سال های 1382-1379 برآورد شده است نتیجه، بیان گر اثر مثبت و معنی دار فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، بر اشتغال است. هم چنین کشش اشتغال نسبت به هزینه های فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، 0.11 بوده که نشان می دهد یک درصد افزایش در هزینه های ICT، به مقدار 0.11 درصد اشتغال را افزایش می دهد.
۳.

Financial Crisis and Steel Trade Integration in Asia and Pacific: A Static and Dynamic Analysis

تعداد بازدید : ۶۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۲۹۰
The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of financial crisis on trade flows of steel industries in the major Asian-Pacific steel producing countries. Using a static and dynamic panel data analysis, we test the hypothesis that the global financial crisis has a negative effect on Asia-Pacific bilateral steel trade flows. We also examine the role of regional trade integration in bilateral steel trade in Asia and Pacific. The underlying assumption is that such integration contributes to increase trade relations and possibly adjust the imposed costs of financial crisis on the sector. To this end, we use cross-sectional data on steel trade flows of the selected Asian-Pacific countries over a specific period (2002-2006). The study is based on an extended gravitational model, in order to incorporate the main gravity variables and qualitative factors as well. The implication of this study can be towards implementation of an integrating block of steel industry by collaborating different countries in Asia and Pacific. This creates a larger regional steel trade market, and leading possibly to reduce the global or regional crisis.
۴.

Financial Crisis and Steel Trade Integration in Asia and Pacific: A Static and Dynamic Analysis

کلید واژه ها: Panel Data financial crisis Trade Integration Steel Industry Asia-Pacific Gravity Model

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۵۲ تعداد دانلود : ۳۱۶
The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of financial crisis on trade flows of steel industries in the major Asian-Pacific steel producing countries. Using a static and dynamic panel data analysis, we test the hypothesis that the global financial crisis has a negative effect on Asia-Pacific bilateral steel trade flows. We also examine the role of regional trade integration in bilateral steel trade in Asia and Pacific. The underlying assumption is that such integration contributes to increase trade relations and possibly adjust the imposed costs of financial crisis on the sector. To this end, we use cross-sectional data on steel trade flows of the selected Asian-Pacific countries over a specific period (2002-2006). The study is based on an extended gravitational model, in order to incorporate the main gravity variables and qualitative factors as well. The implication of this study can be towards implementation of an integrating block of steel industry by collaborating different countries in Asia and Pacific. This creates a larger regional steel trade market, and leading possibly to reduce the global or regional crisis.
۵.

Relative Performance of Components Variance Estimators in Random Effects Models

نویسنده:

کلید واژه ها: Panel Data Random Effects Component Variance Estimators Simulation

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۷۷۰ تعداد دانلود : ۴۰۱
This paper presents an assessment of the small-sample performance of the three well-known estimators of components variance in random effects model for panel data. The estimators considered are Swamy-Arora, Wansbeek-Kaptayn and Wallace-Hussain. To this end, by simulating a one-way error component model in the form of random effects, small sample performance of three variance estimators is studied. The implications of these results for indentifying the model and its estimation are specified. In these simulations, conditions under which Swamy-Arora estimator is inferior to alternatives are expressed. It is shown that in small samples the estimator thus obtained can give highly wrong guidance. In one-way error component model this small sample size refers to the number of cross-sections.
۶.

Macroeconomic Factors Affecting Happiness

کلید واژه ها: Panel Data happiness Inflation GDP Unemployment Government Expenditures

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۹۹۰ تعداد دانلود : ۳۹۴
This paper examines factors affecting happiness using panel data concerning 58 countries during 2003-2011. Happiness data come in the form of answers to questions such as ""How happy are you as a whole in your life?"" and the answers range from 1 to 5transformed to obtain a 1-10 scale. Macroeconomics data are from MIT and World Bank 2012 tables. Including 215 total pool observations indicate the negative and significant effect for Inflation and Unemployment while positive and significant for Growth of GDP Per Capita and the Government Expenditure. Controlling these variables Islamic countries are relatively less happy.
۷.

The Effect of Energy Carriers Prices on Manufactured Export in Iran, Using Panel Data Model

کلید واژه ها: Panel Data Energy Price Manufactured export Comparative Advantage

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۶۰۰ تعداد دانلود : ۲۸۲
According to international trade theories, countries attempt to produce and export commodities with their abundant resources. Iran has great energy resources and availability of inexpensive energy input has increased energy consumption per capita in manufacturing sector as well as in consuming sector. Relying on low energy price, manufacturers employ energy-intensive methods for producing and exporting commodities. It follows, then, that sensitivity to changes in energy price in Iran is very high. Employing panel-data model, this study seeks to investigate the intensity of the effects of changes in energy price on the export of manufacturing sector. The findings of this paper indicate that energy price and export are negatively related. Furthermore, those sectors that export a larger proportion of their GDP, due to high consumption of energy, are more sensitive to the changes in energy price.
۸.

تحلیل علّیت میان سرمایه گذاری فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات و رشد بهره وری نیروی کار

کلید واژه ها: GMM روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته داده های تابلویی Panel Data فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات(ICT) رشد بهره وری نیروی کار

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۲۹۸ تعداد دانلود : ۲۱۷
فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات(ICT) و رشد روز افزون آن در دهه های اخیر، منجر به رشد اقتصادی و افزایش بهره وری در برخی کشورها خصوصاً کشورهای توسعه یافته گردیده است .این موضوع، منجر به طرح این سوال می شود که آیا رشد اقتصادی باعث توسعه فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات (ICT) شده است و یا بالعکس. از اینرو، در این مقاله به بررسی رابطه علّیت میان سرمایه گذاری ICT و رشد بهره وری نیروی کار بر اساس مدل های پانل پویا و با استفاده از تخمین زن گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته،برای 48 کشور، شامل 25 کشور توسعه یافته و 23 کشور در حال توسعه در دوره زمانی 2008-2000 پرداخته ایم. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که یک رابطه دو سویه میان سرمایه گذاری ICT و رشد بهره وری نیروی کار در سه نمونه شامل کشورهای توسعه یافته، درحال توسعه و نیز کل کشورها وجود دارد. بنابراین می توان نتیجه گرفت که سرمایه گذاری ICT منجر به بهبود بهره وری نیروی کار و در نهایت رشد اقتصادی کشورها خواهد شد.
۹.

Estimation of Static and Dynamic Demand Function of Household Water in Qazvin Province and Review of the Rate of Change in Consumer Behavior Over Time

تعداد بازدید : ۳۹ تعداد دانلود : ۲۳
In this research, the demand function of drinkable  water in Qazvin Province was estimated using dynamic and static methods. The required data were collected from the data of the provinces of Qazvin in the time period (1996-2016) and collected by referring to the statistical system of Statistics Center of Iran and the provincial planning and budget organization of Qazvin Province. The explanatory variables used in the model include household income, temperature (minimum and maximum), urban population, water price, rainfall, number of subscribers. The method used to estimate the static model, generalized least squares, and in the dynamic model, is a two-step generalized moment method. The results showed that the water price coefficient in the static and dynamic model is -0.217 and -0.19, respectively, which is a negative sign of the correctness of the demand law and less than one indicative of the low elasticity of water. The variable coefficient of household income in the static and dynamic model was 0.2 and 0.15, respectively, which positive and less than one, respectively, indicating the normality and necessity of water in the drinkable sector. In relation to the price of other goods, the coefficient was estimated in both negative models were -0.72 and -0.9, respectively, which indicates that water is a complementary product. Finally, the value of the variable coefficient was 0.5, which indicates that the demand for water is 0.5 times the demand for water last year.
۱۰.

The Impact of Exchange Rate volatility on Banking Performance (case of Iran)

تعداد بازدید : ۴۲ تعداد دانلود : ۴۷
Banks play an important role in the Iranian economy which has a bank-based financial system. We examined the impact of exchange rate volatility as a determinant of banks' performance. In recent years, the exchange rate has been volatile in the Iranian economy and have an adverse effect on banks' performance. This study, investigate the issue for the period 2007-2017 for 14 Iranian banks. Exchange rate fluctuations are derived by GARCH method and the effect of its fluctuations on bank performance examined using panel data method. In order to evaluate banks' performance, we used two criteria, namely liquidity and profitability. Estimation of econometric model using panel data by random effects indicated that exchange rate volatility has a negative and statistically significant effect on banks' capital return ratio. Exchange rate volatility is also a determinant in increasing the ratio of lending to total bank deposits, as it increases the financial gap and creates the credit risk that the gap entails. JEL: N10, G01, E44, C22.
۱۱.

Internationalization of SMEs and Their Income-Price Effects on Export Market: a Case of the Selected Asian Countries

تعداد بازدید : ۰ تعداد دانلود : ۱۱
 International trade causes that markets to become more competitive and small-medium sized enterprises (SMEs) learn to compete effectively within this increasingly competitive global market place. SMEs are able to take advantage of increased opportunities in domestic markets that follow from international trade. It is indeed a way for internationalization of SMEs. This paper analyzes income and price elasticities of the export model which has been specified for export market of SMEs€™ in the selected Asian countries. The estimated elasticities revealed the responsiveness of exporting goods supplied by the SMEs in these countries with respect to changes in different incomes and relative export price. Accordingly, we estimate an export regression model (including demand and supply equations) based on the cross-sectional observations of the selected Asian countries including China, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, the Philippines, Vietnam and Pakistan over the period 1990-2008. We have found that price and income elasticities are statistically significant and have the expected signs. The implication of our findings is that price and income are appropriate determinants for international trade expanded by Asian SMEs.       JEL Classification: C23, F14, O47, P42  
۱۲.

An Analysis of Effective Factors on the Technical Efficiency of Health Production in the OIC Countries

تعداد بازدید : ۰ تعداد دانلود : ۹
 The importance of community's health followed by the consideration of endogenous growth models has led to an increase in health expenditure of countries to speed up economic growth and development. This has made the efficiency of health production function to an essential issue especially in developing countries. Based upon this, the present study with employing the stochastic frontier analysis method looks for identifying the main determinants such as economic ( children immunization and age dependency ratio ) , environmental ( the rule of law ) and social ( globalization ) conditions on technical inefficiency of health production function between member countries of Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) in the period of 1998-2007. The empirical results show increasing the efficiency of health production through improvement in economic and environmental condition. But the increase in socialization globalization such as social factor has led to a decrease in technical efficiency that may be due to the lack of appropriate culture of using new technologies and modern social relations affected by the process of globalization in such countries.       JEL Classification: C12 C23 I12 I19