Purpose: Today, in many developed countries, talent management throughout is the long-term process, under the supervision of expert executive managers and coaches, has been done and is an important concept in football. Therefore, in many developed countries, talented people can come to talent programs and received trained continuously to become professional players. Method: In this study, based on German's football talent management program, and procedure informed by Sandelowski and Barroso's qualitative meta-synthesis. Results: The suggested model has three sections: 1- hardware system, 2- software system, and 3- many subsystems that are collaborating in an executive context. Achievements of this program are not just the detection of talented young players at an early age, but rather a long-term process that is a high-level management program, which, for full success, requires collaboration between many organizations such as the government, football association, footballleagues, clubs, academies, education schools, football schools, coaches, and players. Conclusions: According to results, the growing process of this cycle and its periodic revision show the brilliant future of the German football community in gaining championship and promoting the national identity of Germany over the years. We hope that by studying this system we can introduce it to the researchers and officials in developing countries, who are interested in furthering a developmental view of football.
The Effect of 8 Weeks of Combined Training with Consuming Methadone on Plasma Fibrinogen & CRP on withdrawal Addiction Women
Background: In addiction field, there is more attention on men than women, while women are more vulnerable to addiction. Because of the importance of women in the family foundation, we decided to investigate this subject. Purpose: This study aims at the effect of 8-weeks of combined training with methadone on cardiovascular inflammatory markers fibrinogen and CRP on addicted women. Method: This study accomplished as a semi-experimental research. 24 addicted women were randomly selected as samples from Zahedan Mohabbat addiction Camp that divided in two groups of methadone (N= 11) and methadone/ exercise (N= 13) by the same variables such as age, BMI, type and duration of drug withdrawal. The protocol of combined exercise was included of aerobic added to strength training; also methadone was taken according to the camp instructions, too. Blood sampling, pre and post 8 weeks exercise were directly collected from anterior veins of samples and the levels of plasma fibrinogen and CRP were measured in lab. To compares of the pre and post tests means for each group as well as both groups, paired and independent t-test via SPSS software version 24 were used, respectively. Statistical significant level was considered PResults: The results showed that CRP values in both groups decreased significantly (methadone: P<0.05, T=-2.21 and methadone/ exercise P<0.05, T=-2.63). Also, plasma fibrinogen values in both groups increased significantly (methadone: P<0.05, T=5.03 and methadone/ exercise: P<0.05, T=4.21). Also, there were no significant difference between post-test’s levels of CRP and fibrinogen between methods (P>0.05). Conclusions: It has suggested that the method of methadone/ exercise might be used as such as methadone method by the same results on plasma fibrinogen levels and CRP for withdrawal addiction women.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the criteria of successful salespersons, which is important to enhance in store customer experience. Method: Employed two phase sequential exploratory design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected using purposive sampling technique. For qualitative analysis, 11 sales experts with at least 4 years working experience were interviewed and the data were analyse using thematic analysis. For quantitative analysis, 20 physical education and sports science students were chosen as respondents. Criteria and sub-criteria is weighted quantitatively using Fuzzy AHP and analysed using MATLAB software. Results: From the qualitative analysis, 4 criteria’s (customer orientation, information knowledge, ethical behaviour, and personal characteristics) and 11 sub-criteria were identified. From the quantitative analysis, ranked were provided whereby customer-orientation with a weight of 0.2647 were in the first rank, information knowledge is at the second rank with 0.2556 weight, ethical behavior is at the third rank with 0.2450 weight, and personal characteristics is at the last rank with 0.2347 weight. Conclusions: The findings of this paper are important for sports retail industry, to revamp their sales and marketing strategies. With enhanced understanding regarding consumer needs, sports retailer can sell their products in a more effective manner to increase their market share.
A Prophylactic Effect of PNF Stretching on Mechanical Parameters of Deep Jump following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
Purpose: Prophylactic effect of PNF stretching is performed with an expectation to reduce the risk of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and enhance drop jump performance.The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching combined with plyometric training on deep jump in non-athlete male students. Method: The study design was a single blinded, randomized, concurrent parallel trial. Forty-two non-athlete male students were volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were assigned into plyometric (n=21) and plyometric & PNF (n=21) groups. Maximum and minimum vertical displacements, flight time, joint power, maximum landing force, peak take off instantaneous velocity were measured at baseline and 48 hours following the plyometric exercise protocol. A Vicon (200 Hz) motion analysis system with six T-Series cameras and two Kistler force plates (1000 HZ) were used to record kinematic and kinetic data, respectively. A two-way repeatedmeasure ANOVA (group x DOMS) was used to analyze data. Results: There was a significant difference between the pretest and the posttest scores in the intervention group for maximum vertical displacement (p=0.028), flight time (p=0.042), and Power average (p=0.026). Conclusions: This prophylactic treatment on mechanical parameters of deep jump during timing was useful. Eventually, results suggest that preventative treatments can have a significant effect on maintenance functional parameters or even helping to slow exercise-induced muscle damage for alleviating its symptoms.
The Effects of Moderate Intensity Aerobic Training on Serum Levels of Thyroid Hormones in Inactive Girls
Propose: The thyroid hormones (T3, TSH, T4, and FT4) play a role in energy balance and regulation of energy expenditure. The aim present study to investigate the effect of moderate intensity aerobic training on thyroid hormone levels in inactive girls. Method: A total 30 inactive girls students were randomly selected and divided to training group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The training group doing research protocol for four week (three session per week of 70% maximal heart rate), also the control group was not intervened during the study. However, elevation anthropometric index before protocol training study. Blood samples were collected 24 hours before the first and after the last training session. For analysis data used T-test at significant level p<0.05. Results: Results showed a significant reduction of T3 (P<0.05), but no significant change were observed at T4, TSH, FT4 levels after training (P˃0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed that moderate aerobic training of 70% maximal heart rate have minimum effect on thyroid hormones in inactive adolescent girls.
The Effect of Total Quality Management on Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Employees in the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports
Purpose: This study was conducted to present the model of the effect of comprehensive quality management on job satisfaction, affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in the Ministry of Sports and Youth. Method: The statistical population of this study includes all employees of the Ministry of Sports and Youth, using simple random sampling, 253 of them were selected as statistical samples. The tools used in this study included Hartline and Farrell's job satisfaction questionnaires (1996); Moda et al. (1979) emotional commitment questionnaire; The Organizational Citizen Behavior Questionnaire of Teper et al. (2004) and the Comprehensive Quality Management Questionnaire of Zhang et al. (2000), whose formal content, and structural validity have been confirmed. Also in a study, questionnaires were distributed among 30 employees of the Ministry of Sports and Youth, using Cronbach's alpha, reliability of organizational citizen behavior questionnaires, job satisfaction, emotional commitment questionnaire and comprehensive quality management questionnaire. 0.81, 0.73, 0.75 and 0.76, respectively. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, and structural equation model) were used in SPSS and LISREL software at a significance level of P <0.05. Results: The results show that total quality management has a positive and significant effect on emotional commitment (β = 0.67), job satisfaction (β = 0.61) and organizational citizenship behavior (β = 0.85). The results also shows that job satisfaction had a positive and significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior (β = 0.52) and emotional commitment (β = 0.75) and organizational citizenship behavior also had an effect on emotional commitment (β = 0.54). It has a positive and significant effect. Conclusions: Therefore, staff managers in the field of Warsaw should emphasize the presentation of these principles in order to increase productivity in the country's sports. It is suggested that the special method of evaluation of managers of the Ministry of Sports and Youth be designed based on quality awards and that the best managers be identified and encouraged in this regard every year.
Predicting the Power of Famous Sport Endorser Indices on the Tendency to Purchase Sporting and Non-porting Goods: A Quasi-experimental Study
Purpose: Nowadays, the use of sports and famous athletes in advertising has become one of the most common advertising practices. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the ability of predicting the indices of attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness of the renowned sport endorser on the consumers' willingness to buy sporting and non-sporting goods. Method: This study was a quasi-experimental study on a sample of 150 students of sport science at Ferdowsi University of Iran. The statistical sample was divided into two homogeneous groups; for one month, one group watched the advertisements of an artificial sport product and the other group watched the advertisements of an artificial non-sport product endorsed by the famous sport personality on the telegram. Finally, the results were analyzed by completing standard questionnaires of purchase willingness (Zichkowski, 1985) and advertising celebrities (Ohanian, 1990) and simultaneous regression statistical methods. Results: The results showed that all three indices of attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness of the renowned sports endorser have high predictive power for the tendency to purchase sporting and non-sporting goods. Also in the sporting goods group, the expertise, and in the non-sporting goods group, the attractiveness had the highest predictive power of tendency to buy. On the other hand, there is a significant difference between the perception of the popular sport endorsing indices in advertising sporting and non-sporting goods. Conclusions: Through a promotional period for two endorsed sporting and non-sporting products, this study provides useful findings for product and service institutions to select and employ renowned athletes to endorse their products and influence consumers' purchase intention. In the text, the detailed descriptions of the expected results and discussions have been reported.
Investigation of the Effect of Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Mmuscle Damage in Male Climbers following Climbing to an Altitude of 4000 Meter
Purpose: Creatine is the most important and commonly used supplement in athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the simultaneous effect of moderate altitude and short-term Creatine supplementation on musculoskeletal damage indicators in male climbers. Method: 16 male hikers with at least 2 years of hiking experience selected. Subjects (age 30.6±6.3 yrs.), (height 178.3±6/4 cm), (weight 77.6±11.25kg) were randomly divided into experimental (Creatine supplement) and control groups (placebo). The experimental group consumed 20 gr/day of the supplement for 5 days, while the control group received a placebo. The first blood samples were taken before the hiking session at the location of program. Hiking program consisted of ascending to Tochal peak at an altitude of 3961m. The second blood samples were taken after returning from the peak at an altitude of 3750 meters. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using independent t-test and K-S test with a significant coefficient of 0.05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between LDH and AST enzyme levels in post-test compared to pre-test in both AST (P = 0.13) and ALT (P = 0.001) levels Control group. Also, climbing to 4000 m altitude with Creatine supplementation had no significant effect on LDH (P = 0.78) and AST (P = 0.86) levels between groups. Conclusions: The results showed that changes in muscle damage enzymes are independent of Creatine supplementation.
Investigating the Relationship between Cost, Benefit and Attachment to the Environment by Mediating Behavioral Attitudes among Sports Tourists
Purpose: The examination, investigating and relationship between costs, benefit and attachment to the environment by mediating behavioral attitudes among sports tourists. Method: The population of the study consisted of all sports spectators of 27th Fajr Open and Esteghlal vs. Tractor rematch from 15th Persian Gulf Pro League. According to Kukran formula sample size was equal to 722 persons. 920 questionnaires distributed among population that 722 questionnaires were analyzed. In order to collect data a self-made questionnaire was used which it's validity confirmed by 5 sports teachers of Razi and Tehran university and variables reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was equal to 0.89. Data analysis done by using the descriptive and inferential statistics include Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Pearson correlation, path analysis of structural equations, Regression and also AMOS-21 and SPSS-22. The results showed that environmental communication should be formed within the right framework, encourage people to Environmentally Responsible Behavior through a bonus is not necessarily effective and doesn't encourage sports spectator. Results: Result showed that spectators display more cooperation through targeting for enjoyment and are sensitive toward any perceived cost in the implementation of Environmentally Responsible Behavior. The result also showed if cooperation with Environmental Management System doesn't take too much time and totally doesn't interfere with their enjoyment of watching match, they will support it automatically. The results also suggest the need to design efficient equipment to ensure ease of use and as a result reducing the perceived cost associated with Environmentally Responsible Behavior. Conclusions: Sports event owners can encourage spectators to do the Environmentally Responsible Behavior by connecting with them and also induce this fact to spectators that associate with the event can assist them to experience higher quality events in the future.
The Effects Live High, Train Low/High at Natural Altitude on Blood Variables and Endurance Performance
Purpose: The present study was done to specify the impacts of a protocol called “living high, training low and high (LHTLH)”on serum ET-1 and EPO levels as well as the 3000-m performance of endurance runners in Iran’s national team. Method: eight male runners (aged24.4±3.1, height of 180.5±4.2, weight of66.7±3.4 and BMI of20.1±5.0kg/m2) who cooperated voluntarily with regard to middle distance and marathon running (R2M system training) at high and low altitudes. All case studies did 3000-m test and blood samples were taken at a time period of 24-hours before and after the test. The intended tasks consisted of continuous, interval, aerobic and resistance exercises. The runners were to take part in 16 training sessions each week. It should be noted that the training lasted for 11 weeks according to (LHTLH) protocol. Variance with repeated measures (P≤0.05) was utilized as the method to analyze the collected data. Results: It was shown that 3000-m time underwent significant decrease with regard to the time of impact both before and after the training. However, there were not significant changes in EPO (P≥0.05). On the contrary the amount of ET-1 demonstrated significant increase (P≤0.05). Conclusions: The results indicated that 3000-m time at lower altitudes will decrease on account of certain training programs. The reason is not directly related to the level of EPO. It is through hematological and metabolic changes as well as increase of ET-1 levels that performance under hypoxic and normoxic states happens to improve in the real sense.