Background: Along with the outbreak of coronavirus and quarantine practices in many countries, physical activities have certainly been severely restricted. The purpose of this review was to investigate the role of technology in maintaining and improving physical health. Method: For this systematic review study, the research method in this study included searching on PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Articles written in English and Persian in peer reviewed journals that examining the effect of electronic games and virtual reality on physical fitness were selected for analysis. Then, the eligible studies classifieds based on the study population ages. Results: Of 12563 studies found, 14 studies were eligible to enter the study. Research has shown that the use of technology significantly affect gait, balance, strength, flexibility, and mental functioning of the elderly, as well as balance, strength, endurance, and cognitive abilities in adults and children's physical endurance. Conclusions: According to studies under review, the use of technology has a significant effect on improving and maintaining the physical and mental fitness of people in different ages. So, we can suggest using exergame and virtual reality exercises as a possible intervention to promote and maintain physical and mental fitness in quarantine.
Purpose: This research aims to investigate the quadruplet role of modern media (education, informing, making social participation, and culturing) on the development of Zurkhaneh sport. Method: This research is applicable in terms of objectives and is descriptive research in terms of data gathering methods. The statistical society of this research includes the athletes, experts, and activists of sports media in the context of the Zurkhaneh sport. Because the exact number of this society was not clear, the number of 384 persons were selected by random sampling. Its measuring tool was the researcher-made questionnaire that 12 professors and experts approved its content validity and its reliability was calculated using the compound reliability (Dillon – Goldstein) and was about 0.82. In addition, the SPSS software was used to analyze the data and PLS software was used to preset the model. Results: The results show that the “informing” factor had the maximum role in developing the Zurkhaneh sport with the factor loading of about 0.93. The other factor that had many roles in developing the Zurkhaneh sport was the “social participation” with the factor loading of about 0.91. The “education” factor with the factor loading of about 0.90 was in third place and the last factor was the “culturing” with the factor loading of about 0.90. Conclusions: According to the results of this research, it could be stated that modern media have obtained such power in the communication era that could affect public opinion. Therefore, the potentials of the modern media and their infinite capacity can be used by proper and correct operational planning to make great movements in developing various aspects of Zurkhaneh sport inside and outside of the country.
Comparison of the Effect of Three Methods of Endurance, Resistance and Concurrent Training on Aerobic Fitness and Body Composition of Overweight Non-Athlete Male Students
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three methods of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on aerobic fitness and body composition male students with overweight. Methods: Forty five overweight male who were resident of Shahed university dormitory were purposefully selected and randomly assigned into following groups: endurance, resistance and concurrent training. Each Group performed their own protocol for 8 weeks, 3 times per week with specified intensity and duration. Before starting the protocol and 24 hours after the last training session, body composition parameters and aerobic fitness were measured at same condition. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that three methods of endurance, resistance and concurrent training protocol had a significant effects on aerobic fitness and body composition parameters. In comparing the difference between groups of three methods of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on aerobic fitness and body composition parameters were significantly different and the variables of aerobic fitness and body composition parameters of concurrent training was more effective than two other exercises. Innovation this research is identical the work out of training (time) in the 3 protocol that to compare intergroup among the most effective way to same time identification. Conclusion: It seems that eight weeks of endurance, strength and concurrent exercise training have effects on aerobic fitness and body composition parameters male students with overweight but all three types of exercise separately with diet modification could be improved aerobic fitness and body composition indices.
Sports venues and complexes are among the most important sports venues in the community. For this reason, these places should be planned according to aesthetic and technical characteristics. It's not enough to just exercise. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aesthetic dimensions and customer loyalty of gyms and a case study of Ardabil city.The method of this research is descriptive survey, in terms of practical purpose and is done in the field. The statistical population of this study consists of all visitors to Ardabil sports halls. The method used to sample this research is that due to the possibility of access to all these sports halls in Ardabil city, and in these places, the choice of customers was random, which was selected using Morgan's table of 384 people. . In order to collect the required data, Razavi et al.'s (2011) aesthetic dimensions questionnaire and Randall's customer loyalty questionnaire (2005) were used. The results showed that the dimensions of color, light, harmony, form, space and environment are effective in customer loyalty to sports venues and there is a significant relationship between aesthetic aesthetics and customer loyalty to sports venues (P <0.05) and direct existence. And with the improvement of the aesthetic dimension in sports venues, customer loyalty to sports venues will increase.
Background: Given the importance of entrepreneurship as a factor to increase job opportunities, the development of entrepreneurial schools as an approach to increase students' job skills has attracted much attention. However, not much research has been done on entrepreneurship schools. However, the introduction of physical education in the field of entrepreneurship can create many job opportunities for students in this field. Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a model for entrepreneurial physical education schools in Iran. Method: This is applied research conducted as a descriptive-survey. The statistical population of the study included managers and teachers of entrepreneurship centers in physical education vocational schools in Iran, from which a sample of 260 people was selected using the Cochran's formula. Research data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the partial least squares technique and Smart PlS software. Results: Calculation of Cronbach's alpha, combined reliability and average variance extracted showed that the research questionnaire has good reliability and validity. The results of hypotheses test revealed that all three dimensions of entrepreneurship have positive and significant effect on innovation; it was also found that innovation has a positive and significant effect on the entrepreneurial event. Conclusion: in general, the results of this study imply that taking an entrepreneurial orientation can lead to development of entrepreneurial physical education schools.
Can Market Knowledge Lead to the Formation of Entrepreneurial Opportunities and Commercialization in Sports Startups?
Sports startups are entering the knowledge-based economy, where knowledge and intangible assets are recognized as the most important factor in production as well as the most important competitive advantage. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to examine whether market knowledge can lead to the formation of entrepreneurial opportunities and commercialization in sports startups. The statistical population of the study consisted of 100 technology-based entrepreneurs of sports startups in IRAN. The research tool for this paper was a questionnaire containing 40 questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The construct validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by factor analysis and AMOS 23 and SPSS software were used to test the hypotheses. The findings suggest a significant impact of market knowledge (T=4.58, β = 0.45, p < 0.01) and each of its dimensions, namely Identifying the right market, Awareness of supply and demand trends, and Market technology on the entrepreneurial opportunity formation in sports startups. According to the results of the research, we can state the positive impact of the market knowledge on the level of entrepreneurial opportunities of sports startups. It was concluded that market knowledge based on the commercialization of sports science research is a potential source of value creation and competitive advantage for the startups that ultimately develop such enterprises and help improve the technology-driven entrepreneurship status of these enterprises and job creation in sport scope.
This paper proposes a categorization of sport that is based on the system of rules that a sport must adhere to. We focus on these systems of rules to examine how a winner is produced in different sports. The rules of a sport dictate the gameplay and the direction it takes. We propose to break down the gameplay into Events. At this junction, we observe two kinds of events – ones that follow sequential logic and ones that do not. Our focus is pertained to sports that comprise sequential events. To examine these events further, to understand how a winner emerges, we take the help of Finite State Automaton from theory of computation (Automata theory). We showcase how sequential sports are eligible to be represented as Finite State Machines. We depict these Finite State Machines as State Diagrams. We examine these State Diagrams to observe how a team/player reaches the final states of the sport, with special focus on one final state – the final state which determines the winner. This exercise has been carried out for the following sports: Hurdles, Track, Shot Put, Long Jump, Bowling, Badminton, Pacman, Weightlifting (Snatch). Based on our observations of how this final State of winning is achieved, we propose a categorization of sports.
Infertility is a health problem that affects about 10-15% of couples worldwide. Infertility is defined as the inability of couples to successfully conceive a child after one year of unprotected sex. The causes of infertility are often not easily identified. However, this disorder appears to be due to genetic or environmental factors, some of which may be modifiable and may be considered as a treatment option. The use of emerging infertility treatment technologies has been somewhat effective. However, these methods are very expensive and, in some cases, their success rate is relatively low. A sedentary lifestyle can lead to several disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and conditions such as obesity. Obesity can have a negative effect on the fertility of couples. Overall, it seems that changing the sedentary lifestyle and increasing physical activity by performing regular exercise training can enhance the chances of fertility. However, it should be noted that strenuous exercise training has a negative effect on fertility.
The Relationship between Sport Event Quality, Satisfaction, Perceive Value, Loyalty and Behavior Intention: A Meta-Analysis
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to summarize the results of existing studies that addressed the relationship between some effective variables in sporting events (with emphasis on quality component features). Method: The methodological design followed three steps data collection, data coding, and statistical analysis. The study examined two databases (ISI WoS and Scopus) and analyzed 71 relationships. The metafor software from the R package used for analysis. Also, the coefficient of correlation r as a metric to measure the effect size of the studied scope variables. Findings: These findings provide empirical support for several previous studies. In other words, the relatively large effect size on the relationship between each of the variables considered in this study obtained. In such a way that event quality with satisfaction, perceived value with behavioral intention, perceived value with satisfaction, event quality with behavioral intention, satisfaction with loyalty, and finally satisfaction with behavioral intention obtained effect sizes (0.52), (0.56), (0.59), (0.64), (0.61), (0.62), respectively. Conclusion: Considering the meta-analytic approach in this study, it can be noted that managers and officials of sports events in their future decisions can have a more comprehensive and deeper understanding of the relationship between the variables studied in this study; and implement their strategies accordingly.
The Effect of Creativity on Performance of Sports Federations with the Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of creativity on performance with the mediating role of knowledge sharing in sports federations. Method: This field study was a descriptive-correlative research and a practical one. The research population consisted of all presidents, vice presidents, general secretaries, committee managers and experts in 51 sport federations (N=780), and 267 subjects were studied through stratified random sampling approach that was consistent to recommended sample by Krejcie & Morgan table. The research tools were adopted from the existing literature to collect the data. The reliability of the research tools were confirmed according to Cronbach’s alpha. Face, content, and construct validity were used to evaluate the validity of the research tools. To test the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted by applying Smart PLS. Results: The findings demonstrated that "Creativity" had a positive and significant effect on "Performance", as well as "Knowledge sharing". Moreover, "Knowledge sharing "had a positive and significant effect on "Performance". The results also showed that "Knowledge sharing" mediate the relationship between "Creativity", and "Performance "in sport federations. Conclusions: The findings of this study, with emphasis on the role of creativity and knowledge sharing in improving the performance, can be regarded as a platform for enhancing the performance of sports federations. Creativity and knowledge sharing can play a significant role in empowering the human capital that ultimately result in performance development.