New Approaches in Exercise Physiology

New Approaches in Exercise Physiology

New Approaches in Exercise Physiology, Volume 4, Issue 8, March 2023

مقالات

۱.

Investigating the relationship between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase with bone mineral density in active and inactive men

کلید واژه ها: bone mineral density Calcium alkaline phosphatase active men

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 790
Purpose: Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone density among older adults that can cause painful fractures and disability. One of the most important effective non-pharmacological interventions is having appropriate and continuous physical activity.  The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase with femur bone mineral density in active and inactive men. Method: This study was semi-experimental. 35 active and 35 inactive elderly men aged 65 to 80 years with medical records were selected. Anthropometric characteristics, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase of subjects were used as effective indicators of osteoporosis. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find the relationship between femur mineral density and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase, data analysis was done using SPSS version 26 Software. Results: The results of this research showed that in both groups of active and inactive men, there was a significant relationship between serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase and femur mineral density (P≤0.05). No significant relationship was found between the height index and mineral density of the femur (P≥0.05). Conclusions: In general, the results show that there is a significant relationship between bone density and weight, age, calcium, phosphorus, and serum alkaline phosphatase of all subjects, and the effect of exercise on other bone density indicators can be investigated.
۲.

The effect of 4 weeks of interval training and IMT on the return to the initial state of respiratory muscle strength in inactive people

کلید واژه ها: Interval training recovery respiratory muscle strength inactive

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 739
Purpose: The aim of this research was the effect of 4 weeks of interval training and Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) on the initial recovery of respiratory muscle strength in inactive people. Method: This research was semi-experimental. The statistical sample of this research consisted of 30 healthy and inactive students of Shahrood University of Technology with an average age of 30±10 years. Subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (IMT, Interval and Sham exercises). The parametric test of one-way analysis of variance with repeated measurement and dependent t-test with 95% confidence was used with SPSS 26 softwar. Results: Inspiratory muscle strength showed a significant increase in IMT and interval training groups (P<0.05). Also, the time to return to the initial state of respiratory muscle strength decreased significantly in all three groups (P>0.05), the largest decrease was related to the IMT and sham exercise groups, and the interval exercise group experienced a smaller decrease than the other two groups. Conclusions: It seems that IMT training is more effective than interval training in increasing the strength of respiratory muscles and improving the return to the initial state of the strength of these muscles.
۳.

Effects of Different Exercise Trainings on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A review study

کلید واژه ها: Multiple Sclerosis Aerobic training resistance training Combine Training Core stability Pilates

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 191
Purpose:  Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease which is on the rise in recent years especially in Iran. Although there has been much progress in MS treatment, there is no definitive cure for it. Considering high prices of prescription drugs and their serious side effects as well as, impact of this illness on function efficiency of individuals, it seems that exercise training is one of the effective, cheap, and without side effects methods, in improvement of the performance of MS patients. In this regard, the present study aimed to provide comprehensive information on the background and the latest studies conducted to evaluate the effect of various exercise trainings (resistance, aerobic, core stability, Pilates, and combined) on this disease.  Methods :  An electronic search from 1994 to 2022 was performed in the Magiran, SID, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases to find published articles. The keywords were multiple sclerosis, physical activity, exercise, training, aerobics, resistance, combined, core stability and Pilates. Different articles were selected and reviewed according to relation with subject. Results: The results indicated that various exercise training with different duration, intensity, and frequency cause different adaptations in people. Furthermore, regular continuous combined exercise training can be more effective than one type of exercise training in improvement and reduction of the symptoms of MS disease. The mechanism of improvement in combined exercise training can be justified due to the benefits of concurrent use of two or more types of training protocols. Conclusions: It can be said that the combined use of exercise trainings is the most useful and effective method for these patients. However, more studies on the best combination of exercise trainings for MS patients should be done in the future.
۴.

The effect of core stabilization exercise (CSE) and high-power laser (HPL) on chronic low back pain (CLBP) in female athletes

کلید واژه ها: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) Core Stabilization Exercise (CSE) High Power Laser therapy (HPL)

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 878
Purpose: Low back pain (LBP) frequently occurs in daily life. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is defined as pain in the lumbosacral area of the spine, of more than 12 weeks' duration. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-power therapy (HPL) with core stabilization exercise (CSE), in the treatment of CLBP. Method: A total of 30 female patients participated in this study, with a mean (SD) age of 32.23 (7.85) years. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups and treated with HPL (HPL group, n=15), and core stabilization exercise (EXS group, n=15). ROM of lumbar spine was measured by an inclinometer. The outcomes measured pain and functional disability using visual analog scale (VAS), Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ). Statistical analyses were performed to compare within and between group differences. Results: ROM, VAS, RDQ and MODQ showed significantly improve after 4-week treatment in both groups (P<0.05). However, there was no significant between-group differences in any variables (P>0.05). Conclusions: Both treatments were effective in the treatment of CLBP in female athletes.
۵.

Effects of Improved Sleep Quality with Administration of Melatonin plus GABA on Total-body Skeletal Muscle Mass of Amateur CrossFit Athletes

کلید واژه ها: crossfit exercise recovery Sleep Quality skeletal muscle mass

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 309
Purpose: Sleep and exercise influence each other through complex interactions. Sleep disorders incidence in athletes are high among several sports. Method: 24 CrossFit practitioners, of both genders, between the ages of 25 and 35, presenting difficulty in initiating sleep, with a total sleep time of less than 6 hours per night, were recruited into a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that lasted 8 weeks. Participants received capsules containing 3 mg of melatonin + 1200 mg of GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) or placebo at 10:00 pm daily. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), cortisol and testosterone levels were measured and total-body skeletal muscle mass (TBSMM) by Lee’s equation performed by two different examiners. Results: Group melatonin + GABA gained an average of 600g of TBSMM while the control group lost 200g (p = 0.295). Both groups improve PSQI score (p = 0.007). No difference was found in cortisol and testosterone level. Conclusions: Although there was a difference between groups about TBSMM, it wasn’t statistically significant. Further studies will be necessary to demonstrate evidence of increased TBSMM from better sleep quality, with a larger number of participants and a longer trial.
۶.

Comparing the effects of eight weeks of low-volume and high-volume High Intensity interval training on lactate response and some performance indicators of soccer players

کلید واژه ها: high-intensity interval training training volume aerobic power anaerobic power

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 99
Purpose: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an effective training method for improving the aerobic and anaerobic power of athletes; however, the role of activity volume in high-intensity interval training efficiency is still unclear. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of low- and high-volume HIIT on aerobic power, anaerobic power, and lactate response in young soccer players were compared. Method: In this study, 24 professional soccer players aged 20 to 22 who had no history of illness or taking supplements were chosen and randomly assigned to two groups of high-volume and low-volume HIIT. High-intensity interval training was completed for eight weeks. Training sessions included 5 min of warm-up, the main training phase, and cooling down. The training phase in the first week included 8 repetitions of 15 s of running with maximum power and 15 s of rest. Every week, the number of repetitions was increased by two. High-volume interval training was conducted for six sessions per week while low-volume interval training was performed for three sessions per week. After the training intervention, aerobic power was measured using the one-mile running test, and anaerobic power was evaluated using the Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST). Moreover, the level of blood lactate resulting from the RAST test was also measured using a lactometer. To statistical analyses repeated measure ANOVA was used. Results: Blood lactate levels were reduced by 12% (p=0.001) in the high-volume interval group and by 10% (p=0.001) in the low-volume interval group in response to exercise. In addition, statistical analysis revealed that the blood lactate levels in response to exercise after 8 weeks of training were similar in both groups. On the other hand, despite the rise in aerobic and anaerobic power in both groups, there was no significant difference in aerobic and anaerobic power between the high-volume and low-volume groups after eight weeks of interval training. Conclusions: Overall, the findings of the present research indicated that high-intensity interval training will reduce lactate and increase aerobic and anaerobic capacity, regardless of the training volume.
۷.

The Relationship between physical activity level and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in retired male teachers of Samen city

کلید واژه ها: Coronary Heart Disease men Elder

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 751
Background and objective: this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and physical activity of retired male teachers of Samen city. Materials and methods: The statistical population of this study included the retired male teachers of Samen city. From the statistical population Using random sampling method, 55 retired teachers were selected as sample. The physical activity level of the subjects was done through the Beck questionnaire. The research measurements included determining body weight, height, body mass index, and determining some risk factors for coronary heart disease, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and fasting blood glucose (FBG). For data analysis, appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics methods including Kolmogorov Smirnov test and Pearson correlation were used at a significance level of 0.05. Result: After examination, the results of this study showed that there was a negative and significant correlation between the level of physical activity with FBG, TC, LDL and a positive and significant correlation with HDL. While, there was no significant relationship between physical activity level and triglyceride level. Conclusion: Considering the unfavorable situation of cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men, and considering the positive effect of physical activity and exercise in reducing these factors, it is necessary to take measures to emphasize regular exercise programs and improve their health.
۸.

Comparing the effects of selected TRX and Pilates training on balance parameters, fatigue index, and quality of life in female patients of multiple sclerosis

کلید واژه ها: exercise Multiple Sclerosis Pilates TRX Fatigue balance

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 22
Purpose: This study was conducted aiming to investigate the effect of selected TRX and Pilates training on balance parameters, fatigue index, and quality of life in female patients of multiple sclerosis. Method: In this study, 30 female patients with MS in Isfahan city with an average age of 37.41 ± 7.57 years and a history of MS of 11.31 ± 3.77 years and an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 0.84 ± 1.81 were placed in three groups including control, TRX and Pilates groups. The training program consisted of eight weeks including 3 sessions of 60 minutes of exercise per week. In order to investigate balance, fatigue, and quality of life, the Berg test, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life were used respectively. SPSS version 25 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results of this study have shown that both exercise programs have led to a significant improvement in the mean parameters of balance (P < 0.005), fatigue (P < 0.005), and quality of life (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Considering the noticeable impact of these training protocols on the quality of life, balance and fatigue, these interventions can be considered as an efficient and cost-effective methods to improve health condition in MS patients.
۹.

Comparison the effect of three aerobic, resistance and combined (aerobic + resistance) training methods on serum levels of Irizin, Atherogenic Index of Plasma and some cardiovascular risk factors in Inactive Overweight Men

کلید واژه ها: combined training resistance training Fat percentage Irisin AIP

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 215
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination training on serum levels of irizin, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and some cardiovascular risk factors in inactive overweight men. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 32 inactive overweight men participated voluntarily and were randomly divided into 4 groups: aerobic training, resistance training, combination training and control. Serum levels of irizin, AIP and lipid profile of subjects were measured before and after eight weeks of exercise. Results : After eight weeks of exercise intervention, irizin levels increased significantly in all three experimental groups (P <0.05). Also, AIP decreased significantly in all three training groups (P <0.05). On the other hand, in examining the differences between groups, a significant difference was observed between the groups in AIP and irisin (P <0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that eight weeks of exercise training can possibly cause favorable changes in plasma irisin and biochemical parameters of the blood in overweight people. Also, combined training seems to have more favorable effects than other training methods.
۱۰.

Comparing the effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Training on serum levels of homocysteine and lipid profiles in overweight inactive men

کلید واژه ها: high-intensity interval training lipid profile Overweight Homocysteine

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 76
Purpose: The aim of this study was compares the effects of 10 weeks High Intensity Interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity aerobic training (MIAT) on serum levels of homocysteine and some cardiovascular risk factors in overweight inactive men. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, nineteen overweight men voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly divided to 2 Groups: High Intensity Interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity aerobic training (MIAT). Subjects performed training programs for 10 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The levels of homocysteine and lipid profile were measured before and after 10 weeks of training programs. For statistical data analysis, independent and paired t tests were used and considered significant at a p≤0.05.   Results: The results of this study showed that both High Intensity Interval training and moderate intensity aerobic training caused a significant reduction of homocysteine levels (P≤0.05). After 10 weeks of high -intensity periodic exercise, cholesterol levels (p = 0.001), LDL (p = 0.002) decreased significantly and HDL levels were significantly increased (p = 0.001), In MIAT training group, only a significant reduction in cholesterol was found (P=0.006). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that both High Intensity Interval training and moderate intensity aerobic training have favorable effects in reducing body weight and some cardiovascular risk factors.
۱۱.

The effect of special endurance training on the activity of some liver enzymes in inactive young men

کلید واژه ها: Bruce test Aspartate Aminotransferase alkaline phosphatase inactive men

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 119
Purpose: The activity of plasma liver enzymes is intensified under the influence of sports activities, which is affected by the duration, intensity, type and method of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a special endurance training session on the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase liver enzymes in inactive young men. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 young inactive men were purposefully selected and examined in two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group performed Bruce's protocol after preliminary warm-up. Blood samples were collected before the test, immediately after the test, 24 hours and 48 hours after the test from both groups at the same time, and the amount of serum ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase) enzymes were measured using an Auto analyzer. Statistical analysis of the data, independent T-test was used to compare the results of two groups and Bonferroni's post hoc test was used to determine the difference between different stages of sampling with a minimum significance level (P≥0.05). Results: The results of the independent T-test in the comparison between the groups showed that there is a significant difference between the two groups in the amount of ALP enzyme in the time intervals immediately after the activity (P≥0.020), but in the time intervals of 24 (P≥0.177) and 48 hours (P≥0.136), there is no significant difference between the two groups after the activity. The results of the independent T test did not show any significant changes in the amount of AST enzyme in any of the time intervals in the comparison between groups. Conclusion: Fatigue-inducing sports activity leads to an increase in the amount of enzymes, ALP, this increase can be a sign of damage to liver cells or heart muscle. Considering the role of recovery in liver damage, it seems that by considering enough rest time, it is possible to help improve the adaptation process while preventing the occurrence of muscle and liver damage
۱۲.

The relationship between some indicators of osteoporosis and bone mineral density of the pelvis in active elderly men

کلید واژه ها: osteoporosis Elderly active men bone mineral density

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : 695
Purpose: Osteoporosis usually starts at a young age and progresses slowly over time. Therefore timely diagnosis of this disease plays an effective role in raising the level of health and public health in the society. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between some indicators of osteoporosis and bone mineral density of the pelvis in active elderly men. Methods: This study was semi-experimental. 25 active elderly men with the age range of 60 to 85 years were selected as available and with medical records. Anthropometric characteristics and serum indices of subjects were used as effective indices of osteoporosis. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find the relationship between bone mineral density of the pelvis and effector indices, data analysis was done using SPSS version 26 software. Results: The results of this research showed that in the active elderly men, there is a significant relationship between age (P=0.044), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.021), serum calcium (P=0.037) and phosphorus levels (P=0.046) and alkaline phosphatase (P=0.016), with bone mineral density (BMD) of the pelvis. No significant relationship was found between vitamin D with BMD of the pelvis (P=0.055). Conclusion: In general, the results show that there is a significant relationship between bone density and body mass index, calcium and serum alkaline phosphatase indices in active elderly men. Therefore, it is possible to use the serum levels of these indicators in predicting this disease, and exercise may also be one of the influencing factors, so the effect of exercise on other bone density indicators can be investigated.