Purpose: The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of exercise interventions on physical and psychological health in Iranian war veterans. Method: The search strategy for this review consisted of an electronic database search of full text papers in Google Scholar and SID.ir databases.10 studies met the eligibility criteria, all of them interventional in nature. The studies were analyzed separately according to the specific areas of study. Results: The studies demonstrate that exercise interventions have a significant impact on physical health, psychological health, and quality of life in Iranian war veterans. However, inconsistencies were generally apparent between some of the results. Conclusions: Exercise interventions have positive effects on physical and psychological health in Iranian war veterans. More investigation is needed to identify optimal exercise protocols for different groups of veterans.
Background: The immune properties of mothers’ milk are well known. But the effects of physical activity on humeral immune properties of mothers’ milk is still undetermined. Therefore, reports on the impact of exercise on IgA concentrations of mothers’ milk is controversial. The purpose of the present study was the investigation of the effects of selected aerobic exercises in maximum intensity of 60-70% of heart rate reserve on IgA concentrations in breast milk as well as body composition. Method: In this research, 28 sedentary women (29±5.7 years; VO2max 36±4 ml/Kg/min), divided into two exercise and control groups through random sampling, took part. The exercise group performed some particular exercises for 10 weeks whereas the control group did not do so. Milk samples were taken from both groups and measured by the ELISA method. Body composition was also measured in different stages of the study. Results: In the rest status, the two groups were identical in terms of IgA concentrations (p= 0.549) and body composition (p=0.204). IgA concentrations under exercise load of 60% (p=0.060) and 70% (p= 0.001) of the HRR respectively showed a significant increase as compared to the resting status mean values in the two groups. Body composition variables were only of significant values in terms of comparing the general effects, only in the factors of group (p=0.003) and reciprocal effect of the grouping - the duration of the exercises (p=0.024). Conclusions: The results of this research show that, under the effects of moderate intensity exercise, the mothers’ secretory immune system experiences some changes. Therefore, IgA concentrations in the milk increase. In addition, with the reduction of fat weight, the decrease of fat mass percentage, and increase in the body density, the level of the mothers’ aerobic fitness is increased, which is in no contradiction with their lactation performance.
The Qualitative Survey of Effective Factors on Students' Participation in Extracurricular Sport Activities
Background : The purpose of this research was the qualitative survey of effective factors on students' participation in extracurricular sports activities. Method: The research methodology was qualitative, the kind of phenomenology with targeted sampling gathered through in-depth interviews with 16 students from Allameh Tabataba’i University of Tehran, Iran. The number of students in this university (research population) was about 18,000 in the academic year 2016-17. All interviews were carefully recorded, and then the analysis of the text of the interview was carried out by Smith’s method. Results: Findings from the interviews with students was extracted in three main themes, including: Students' enthusiasm for sports activities, motivational factors of sports participation, and barriers to sports participation. 30 sub-themes are also included. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that authorities and managers of extracurricular sports activities of universities pave the way for the development of extracurricular sports activities for students by removing barriers to sports participation and improving the factors of motivation and enthusiasm for sports.
Background: The authors assessed the effect of bandwidth modeling in learning relative timing and absolute timing. Method: Participants were 10 male high school students who volunteered to participate in the experiment (M age = 16 years, SD = 0.942 years). None of the participants had prior experience with the task or was informed about the purpose of the experiment. They had to learn soccer chip shot under either a bandwidth (model delivered when participant’s performance was outside a predefined bandwidth or rang) or yoked (same number of model provided as bandwidth group) modeling procedure. Results: The results show that the bandwidth group was more effective in learning relative timing than the yoked group. Conclusions: It indicated that benefits of feedback frequency reduction is generalizable to observational learning context. The authors propose that this method may be an appropriate method for relative timing learning.
Background: Evaluatingof the correlation between news management components and gender orientation in sport newspapers in Iran was the main purpose of the present research. Method: The research method was content analysis. Statistical population of the research was five Iranian highly published sport newspapers in 2017. The sample (4290 news) was selected using cluster sampling method. Results: The results showed that news about women covered small parts of the newspapers’ pages compared with news regarding men. Conclusions: According to the results of the research, most parts of sport news in the journals focused on athletes, and this focus was in favor of men. In addition, the focus of sport print media was mainly on authorities, coaches and trainers of men’s sports.
Effects of 8 Weeks of Combined Training (Resistance and Endurance) on the Serum Vaspin Level in Obese Girls
Background: Vaspin is an adipokine secreted from fatty tissues that has serious effects on adipose tissues, muscles, liver, and inflammation. Purpose: The study aimed at determining the effects of 8 weeks of combined training (resistance and endurance) on the serum vaspin level in obese girls. Method: The examinees consisted of 25 obese female students (BMI> 30) from Sistan-Baluchestan University in 2016-17 academic years who voluntarily participated in the research. Samples were divided randomly into two groups: Training (n = 13) and Control (n = 12). Combined training group had both resistance training (5 stations of foot press, Lat pulldown, biceps curl, knee flexion and knee extension for 75-70 minutes) and; endurance was running on the treadmill; in the 2 first weeks, with 60% HR<sub>max</sub> for 25 minutes, in the 3-6 th weeks with 75-65% HR<sub>max</sub> for 35 minutes, and in the 6-8 th weeks with 75 -85% HR<sub>max</sub> for 40 minutes, continuously, for 3sessions each week. Also 10 minutes at the beginning and at the end of the training were warm up and cool down for athletes. It should be noted that during this period the control group did not participate in any kind of sports activities. After receiving the consent forms, the examinees were given enough information regarding the research procedure and their blood samples were obtained in a standard position, collected in pipes containing EDTA, and centrifuged 24 and 48 hours before and after the first and last training sessions, respectively. The obtained plasmas were kept at -80 ° C and their serum vaspin concentrations were measured by ELISA method using the special Human Vaspin kit. To analyze the data, the paired and independent t-test and SPSS-21 Software were performed; the meaningfulness level p was considered to be less than 0.05 (p < 0.05). Results: Results showed that after 8 weeks of combined training, the vaspin levels, weight, BMI, WHR, and %BF decreased meaningfully in the training Group compared to the control Group (P <0.05). Conclusions: considering the meaningful vaspin reduction in this study, it seems that combined training (resistance and endurance) is beneficial to obese and overweighed people.
Purpose: The main purpose of this research was to study the challenges, opportunities and solutions of the championship sports for Iranian women. Method: The research method was mixed,and different methods were applied to serve the purpose of this research. The research sample was selected from the main population (N=172) following Morgan’s sample size determination (118). Open and closed questionnaires were used to measure the effect of each of the challenges and opportunities with a Likert's five-item scale. Results: The findings showed that 9 opportunities and 19 challenges exist regarding Iranian women’s championship sports. Conclusions: Though investigations of women’s sports in internal and external fields show progress in Iranian women’s sports, they do not show any desirable growth compared to male sports, which isdue to social restrictions and other factors.
The Effect of Brand, Design and Price on Perceived Quality and Re-Intent of Customers to Purchase Sports Brand Shoes
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of brand, design and price on the perceived quality and re-intention of consumers to buy sport brand shoes. This is an applied research conducted as a descriptive correlational study in field form. The statistical population of this study included all physical education students across different educational levels in Iran. In this research, 720 questionnaires were collected by random cluster sampling. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with PLS software was used to analyse the data of this research. The results of this study show that design with a coefficient of 0.36, price with 0.27, and brand with 0.26 have a significant effect on quality perceived by customers. The results of this research also show that perceived quality with an effect coefficient of 0.49 has a significant effect on customers’ purchase intention. Generally speaking, it can be concluded that the components of design, price, and brand of sport shoes for Iranian physical education students are very important. Famous brands in the world need to pay particular attention to these components to tap into this lucrative market in Iran and increase their re-purchasing intention by influencing consumers’ perceived quality.
There is almost a global consensus over this fact that well-being is the ultimate purpose of any policy-making, especially in democratic governments. Participating in organized sports is regarded as one of the important social grounds (institutions) with the potential capability of supporting the mental health. High and long-term participation and attractive environments make organized sports a significant and positive instrument for facilitating the population level change in case of health treatments such as promoting the mental health, enhancing the emotional/social performance and the life quality related to social relationships. Taking part in sports spaces and fields or watching the sport matches create this feeling in the individuals that there is something going on that is far more important than the scores and results; as if the collective mind is given a new energy, and the individuals experience a sort of joy and happiness caused by participating in sport events or just watching them. Sports can be an attractive environment for supporting the subjective well-being, which can be realized by focusing on the importance of sports in childhood and adolescence, while supporting the subjective well-being in such periods and considering its positive effects on the future periods of life. Since subjective well-being is considered as a developmental index of societies and regarding the significant role of sports and physical activities in creating such feeling, it seems necessary that more attention be paid to sports and principled investments be done in this social institution, besides having responsible management and planning. The instances of such marks can be enumerated as the development of sport clubs, development of sport for all, building health roadin public places like parks and sidewalks, and providing sports and sports facilities for all categories and groups of the society regardless of gender, age and ethnicity.
Evaluation of the Relationship between Explosive Power and Anthropometric and Body Composition Indices in Female Volleyball Players
Background : Volleyball is known as sport that requires high physical fitness, including muscle power, agility and reaction; hence, body composition and anthropometric features play important roles in this field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between anthropometric and body composition indices with lower limb explosive power in female volleyball players. Material and method : This correlational study was conducted in which 16 semi-professional female volleyball players with an average age of 20.4 ± 1.34 years and BMI of 22.09 ± 3.42 kg/m2 voluntarily participated. All volleyball players had a history of participation in the Tehran province volleyball league. First, data were collected and recorded by demographic questionnaire. Then, the body composition (fat percentage, muscle mass, visceral fat) was measured and recorded in the 3-hours fasting condition by body analysis device (OMRUN Bf511). Finally, Sargent Vertical Jump Test was used to evaluate explosive power of the lower limb muscles. Results : Pearson correlation coefficient was used at the significant level p Conclusion: The results of this study show that resistance training along with volleyball specific power training can increase the muscle mass as well as it is at the same time.
Measuring Off-field Factors Affecting the Technical and Ethical Performance of Professional Football Athletes
Objective : Football, as the most viewed event in stadiums overflowed with very many spectators, has turned into the most popular sport across the world. The purpose of this study was to compare the factors affecting the technical and ethical performance of professional football athletes off-field. Methodology : The research method of this research is descriptive survey implemented by completing a researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population of the study included all athletes, referees, and coaches, members of the technical staffs and members of professional soccer clubs as well as members of the federation and football board of Tehran during the 18 th round of the country premier league. The research sample was 384 people who were selected by purposeful sampling method and according to Morgan table. The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated by the professors of physical education and football experts and the reliability level was calculated to be 0.89 based on the Cronbach's alpha that was done by Exploratory Factor Analysis and Friedman test by SPSS version 24 and Liserl 8.8 software. Results: The present study was surveyed on the basis of effective factors off-field, that is the most important factors off-field were federation and family and the status of the club were the least important factor in the technical and ethical performance of professional football athletes. Conclusions: Supervision and education can play an important role, and family as the first social unit can be also of importance in this respect. After family, the FFIRI should take basic measures for culture-building and detailed reflections on its activities.
Background and Purpose: Overweight and obesity in childhood are associated with the potential risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of moderate endurance training on lipid profile and body composition of overweight girls. Material and Method: The present study was semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design, in which 19 overweight girls aged 8 to 12 were randomly selected. Before and after intervention, body composition of subjects was measured under fasting conditions by BODY LOGIC BODY FAT ANALYZER and biochemical indices were measured and recorded by enzyme-calorimetric method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that 12 weeks of endurance training resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides levels (p<0.025) and body fat percentage (p<0.002), while no significant change was found in cholesterol serum levels and body mass index. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggested that moderate intensity endurance training lead to improvement of body composition and biochemical parameters related to obesity in overweight girls, which reflected the vital role of these training in preventing obesity and related cardiovascular diseases among children and adolescents.