Inflation targeting framework has become a predominant monetary approach across the globe. Williams (2015) believes that in a very real sense, almost all economies are inflation targeters -either explicit or implicit- now.(1) Due to the increasing spread of this policy, it is necessary to consider the way it affects macroeconomic variables. using prevalent economic models for evaluating the effectiveness of inflation targeting causes bias selection which for solving this problem, it is proposed propensity score matching model. the goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the adoption of Inflation Targeting policy on indirect taxes and its components in two selected groups of oil exporter and oil importer countries during 1990-2016 by using propensity score matching model. our results have shown that inflation targeting adoption in average has a positive and significant effect on indirect tax revenues in oil importer countries group but its effect on indirect tax revenues in oil exporter countries is insignificant. JEL Classification: E5, H2, C21.
In this paper we intend to examine the application of Kullback-Leibler, Hellinger and LINEX loss function in Dynamic Linear Model using the real price of oil for 106 years of data from 1913 to 2018 concerning the asymmetric problem in filtering and forecasting. We use DLM form of the basic Hoteling Model under Quadratic loss function, Kullback-Leibler, Hellinger and LINEX trying to address the results if we treat the ‘over-estimation’ and ‘under-estimation’ differently. So, we drive one-step-ahead forecast for Dynamic Linear Model under quadratic, LINEX and Kullback-Leibler losses in Bayesian context. With Normal posterior distribution, our results suggest that, the LINEX loss function may provide better forecasts than conventional Quadratic loss function, Hellinger and Kullback-Leibler loss function, especially in case of having volatility and time-varying parameters. JEL classification: C11, C22, C53, C61, Q47
Banks play an important role in the Iranian economy which has a bank-based financial system. We examined the impact of exchange rate volatility as a determinant of banks' performance. In recent years, the exchange rate has been volatile in the Iranian economy and have an adverse effect on banks' performance. This study, investigate the issue for the period 2007-2017 for 14 Iranian banks. Exchange rate fluctuations are derived by GARCH method and the effect of its fluctuations on bank performance examined using panel data method. In order to evaluate banks' performance, we used two criteria, namely liquidity and profitability. Estimation of econometric model using panel data by random effects indicated that exchange rate volatility has a negative and statistically significant effect on banks' capital return ratio. Exchange rate volatility is also a determinant in increasing the ratio of lending to total bank deposits, as it increases the financial gap and creates the credit risk that the gap entails. JEL: N10, G01, E44, C22.
Today, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a key role in both developing and developed economies. However, the uncertainty of macroeconomic indicators, such as economic growth, may affect financing and investment of the SMEs in an economy. The present study explores the effect of the economic growth rate uncertainty on financing SMEs in Iran. To this end, the study has applied the Brownian motion approach to calculate the uncertainty of the economic growth rate. The study has also considered relevant data of the Iranian SMEs compiled by the Comprehensive Database of All Listed Companies (CODAL). We have examined the SMEs with less than 100 employees throughout 2011-2017. The empirical results show that the effect of the economic growth rate uncertainty on the selected Iranian SMEs financing has been negative and statistically significant, while it seems an effective challenge to such firms in order to finance their productive investment. JEL Classification:D81, G21, L25, E43.
It is a well-established empirical fact that economic growth and development brings about major changes in sectorial output, employment, and consumption structure. In the context of economic development discussion, structural change refers to the change in key components of macroeconomic indicators, including national production and expenditure, exports and imports, population, and the sectorial composition of labor. Considering the importance of human capital for economic growth and development, the most important of the above factors is the labor market and the sectorial composition of employment. Another important dimension of economic development is economic well-being. In this study, we formulated and calculated two indicators called the Coefficient of Structural Change of Iran (CSCI) and the Index of Economic Well-Being of Iran (IEWBI), and then used the vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling method and the software EViews v.10 to analyze the impact of structural changes of Iranian economy on IEWBI. The results indicate the positive effect of structural changes and therefore development policies on the economic well-being of Iran when the weighting scheme of IEWBI was biased in favor of the consumption flow dimension, and the negative effect in other cases. JEL: C39, I31, O11.
The aim of this study was to investigate the asymmetric effects of exchange rate fluctuations on Stock index of Tehran Stock Exchange. For this purpose, we first calculated the exchange rate fluctuations using model General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (GARCH), and then the effect of these fluctuations on the Stock index of Tehran Stock Exchange was estimated using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The data were used daily during the period 2010-2017. Also, the effect of positive and negative fluctuations were separated and included as independent variables in the model. The results of fitting the model indicate that the effect of exchange rate and oil price fluctuations on the Stock index of Tehran Stock Exchange is direct. The results of the model estimation showed that the effect of the positive and negative fluctuations of the exchange rateon Stock Index of Tehran Stock Exchange is asymmetric, so that the effect of the exchange rate increase on the Stock index of stock exchange is far greater than the effect of its reduction. Oil price fluctuations have a direct relationship with the Stock index of Tehran stock exchange. JEL Classification: D82, C51,E32, G00.
Climate change is one of the most important issues affecting different economic sectors. Although this phenomenon has had a larger effect on the agricultural sector due to the heavy dependence of agriculture on weather conditions as compared to the other economic sectors, other economic sectors such as the industry, mining and service sectors are also influenced by weather changes due to their intra-sector dependence on the agricultural sector. Accordingly, the effect of climate change on the economic growth of Iran was examined in this research using the DynamicComputable General Equilibrium (DCGE) model. Our investigation revealed that the decrease in the precipitation in the twenty-year horizon (2011 to 2030) will reduce consumption in all sectors. Moreover, while production in the agriculture and mining sectors declines, it escalates with a descending trend in the industry and service sectors. Based on our findings, as a result of the decreased investment in the other sectors, investment in the agriculture, industry, and mining sectors decreases, whereas it rises in the service sector. Given the research results and the challenge of climate change facing this country, the Iranian government must devise a master practical plan to adapt to and confront this phenomenon and reduce its adverse effects.
Given the increasing importance of achieving low and stable inflation rate during the last decades, adopting the most suitable practices to implement monetary policies has always been of concern by monetary authorities of different countries. Inflation targeting (IT) regime is the most recent strategy to guide monetary policies that have been introduced following the occurrence of exchange rate targeting and monetary targeting problems. In this respect, in the present research, the performance of a number of IT countries versus that of the non-targeting ones was first investigated employing the difference in difference (DID) method. Then, considering monetary and oil shocks, IT performance in production gap in the economy of Iran was practically examined using smooth transition autoregressive regression (STAR) model. The Results indicated that implementation of IT policy was successful in applying the four main and most influential indicators in the production of treatment countries. In addition, it was revealed that variables such as IT, oil shock, and facility and exchange rates had a statistically negative effect on production shock in the economy of Iran. However, the monetary shock was found to have a statistically positive impact on production shock. Therefore, according to the findings regarding the successful performance of targeting countries, policymakers are recommended to implement IT policy during a long-term interval in order to stabilize it and also provide its prerequisites in the economy of Iran. JEL classification: E31, E58, E52.