International Journal of Business and Development Studies

International Journal of Business and Development Studies

International Journal of Business and Development Studies Vol. 9, No. 2, (2017) (مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)



Inclusive Growth in Iran's Provinces (2004 -2015)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Inclusive Growth Multidimensional Poverty Income Inequality in Iran's Provinces Systemic Generalized moment

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۵۸۱ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳۹
This paper aims to focus on inclusive growth and its impact on multidimensional poverty and inequality in Iran's provinces on the basis of social mobility index. The results suggest, that although the multi-dimensional poverty has decreased, participation of active labor force has a decisive role in inclusive growth and reduction of absolute multi-dimensional poverty of the provinces. But labor participation has been accompanied by inequality of income, which indicates that the opportunity for economic growth has been unevenly distributed, as higher income deciles have more benefits. Income inequality has moderated the positive and significant effect of GDP growth on its inclusiveness. Inflation also has a negative and significant effect on the inclusive growth of the provinces. The research findings indicate that the economic and financial policies, including the ratio of bank credit to GDP and government social expenditures, have a positive and significant effect on the acceleration of inclusive growth and have been able to generate inclusive, albeit unsustainable growth in the provinces. This inclusive growth has led to a reduction in poverty and inequality. However because of its volatility and instability, it has no significant impact on poverty and inequality and did not directly reduce poverty and inequality in the provinces.

The Impact of Fiscal Policy on Macroeconomic Variables: New Evidence from a DSGE Model(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Fiscal policy DSGE model Distortionary taxation Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۶۸ تعداد دانلود : ۴۴۶
The purpose of this article is to analyze the macroeconomic impacts of fiscal policy in Iran using a new-Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model. The model takes into account distortionary taxations on wage, dividend, and consumption, while government expenditures are broken down into consumption of goods and services, and investment. The model is calibrated for Iran based on the estimated parameters by Bayesian method. To do so, a data set from 1981 to 2016 is used. The impulse response functions illustrate that an increase in consumption tax rate has a larger impact on the contraction of the economy than wage tax rate whereas the expansionary effects of government investment is much larger than government consumption expenditures.

The Size of Rent-seeking Activity in Iran's Foreign Trade Sector: An Application of the DSGE Approach(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Rent-seeking Foreign trade Production labor DSGE approach

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۴۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۲۳
Rent-seeking in the trade sector is an outcome of restrictions imposed on tariffs and import quotas by a government. In an effort to acquire more privilege in foreign trade, labor allocates a part of its time-effort to rent-seeking activity, while cutting down on production work. Given the importance of rent-seeking activity due to restrictions imposed by the government in the Iranian economy, this paper has attempted to calculate the size of rent-seeking activity in the foreign trade sector of the Iranian economy. Hence, a version of the DSGE model has been specified and the related parameters have been estimated in order to calculate the rent-seeking rate. We have applied quarterly data from 1998:1 to 2015:4 for Iran’s trade sector, to obtain the empirical results through calibrating the specified DSGE model. The results have indicated that rent-seeking of Iran’s trade sectors amounted to 0.45, which looks considerably high. Moreover, labor has shared 24 % of its effort time to rent-seeking activity and 76 % to ordinary work.

Is positive income elasticity of demand really associated with normal goods?: revisiting the Slutsky equation and net benefit ratio(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)


کلید واژه ها: NBR Slutsky equation household net sale income elasticity

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۷۳ تعداد دانلود : ۲۲۰
Incorporating a household’s net sale status into a rearranged Slutsky equation with combined ordinary and endowment income effects, this paper aims to reinterpret the income elasticity of demand in the case of buying and selling and to associate it with types of goods in a novel manner. To this end, the Deaton’s (1989) net benefit ratio (NBR) approach is expressed as the difference between original and endowment budget shares, and formulated in its elasticity form as the difference between the Hicksian and Marshallian own-price elasticities at any given price, divided by the income elasticity. While the numerator in the latter expression is always positive (negative) for normal (inferior) goods, the denominator may be either positive or negative for either type of good, depending on the net sale position of the household. A positive NBR for a normal good implies that the household is a net demander of that good and that the income elasticity is positive. When the NBR is negative for such a good, it implies that the household is a net seller and that the income elasticity is negative. Again, a positive NBR for an inferior good refers to the fact that the household is a net demander and the income elasticity is negative, whereas a negative NBR reveals that the household is a net seller of that good, which has, unconventionally, a positive income elasticity.

Identifying and Ranking Development Drivers of Knowledge-based Technology-Driven Companies (Case study: Fars Province Science and Technology Park)(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Knowledge-based technology-driven businesses science and technology parks explorative and confirmatory factor analysis fuzzy hierarchical analysis process

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تعداد بازدید : ۳۰۳ تعداد دانلود : ۱۷۲
The purpose of this Study study is to identify and rank the development drivers of knowledge-based, technology-driven businesses. This work is conducted as a case study in Fars Province Science and Technology Park. It is a descriptive survey in terms of purpose since a part of its data is collected through questionnaires and is of surveying type because it describes the existing conditions. The population of the study includes all the knowledge-based, technology-driven companies located in the mentioned Science and Technology Park. At the stage of identifying the drivers, 201 employees were randomly assigned by stratified sampling. For the prioritization of these drivers, 30 of the senior managers of those companies were deliberately consulted and the collected data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis as well as fuzzy hierarchy process analysis. The findings showed 37 drivers in five economic and legal, marketing and foreign relations, technological, cultural and human relationships and, ultimately, structural and informational dimensions. Drivers of communication with the world market, the world web as a factor for enhancing the world knowledge and a means for knowledge-driven development; ease of access to the technology and technical consulting; ease of access to the suppliers and providing public subsidies to knowledge-based companies while taking note of regional policy were considered as the most important drivers in the development of knowledge-based, technology-driven companies. Also, the dimensions of marketing and foreign relations, technological, economic and legal dimensions were identified as the most important dimensions respectively.

Impact of Economic Transparency on Economic Growth in the Middle East countries(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Transparency capital formation labor force economic growth Corruption

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تعداد بازدید : ۲۹۶ تعداد دانلود : ۳۵۵
Economic transparency will lead to economic stability and corruption decline. Thus the shortage of transparency mechanisms, laws and procedures will raise corruption and make it tough to cutout corruption. Also, loss of transparency in financial and economic system creates to instability, inappropriate allocation of resources, the boom of injustice and inequality and as a result paves the way for all sorts of financial and economic corruption and misuse. The greater transparency economic growth, the lower the cost of entry into economics and accordingly with rising economic competitiveness, the condition for development and economic growth will be advanced. So, considering the vital role of transparency in economics, this study first explores transparency and corruption then with the panel data, looks at the relation between economic transparency and economic growth in Middle East countries over the last 13 years (2003-2015). In other words, this paper aims to show how the transparency variable influences economic growth. The specific purpose is to find out whether there is a positive or negative connection between transparency and economic advancement in the countries under investigation. The results of the research show that the relation between transparency and economic growth in the Middle East countries is direct and significant. Also the relation between gross capital formation and labor force participation is direct and significant with the economic growth of these countries.

The Impact of Import and Export of Medium Technology Industries on Economic Growth of Iran(مقاله علمی وزارت علوم)

کلید واژه ها: Technology Transfer Medium-high technology Medium-low technology Romer’s endogenous growth model Autoregressive distributed lag Iran

حوزه های تخصصی:
تعداد بازدید : ۴۳۴ تعداد دانلود : ۳۳۷
Technology spillover from trade channel is important. Absorbing foreign technology by the channel of importation and using the latent technology in those products create export development, increase the quality and quantity of manufactured goods, and modify management, technology improvements and production of goods with high added value; this might favorise optimal allocation of resources. Importation of medium technology commodities is used as a proxy variable for research and development (R&D) spillover effect and technology transfer that would increase the knowledge level in developing countries. Also, this process might increase the share of medium technology industries in gross domestic product (GDP) and improve the exportation of these countries. So, national development is a basis advance of technology and technological change is affected by international relations. International relations by import of society-needed goods lead to competitive advantage increase the high technology industries. In this study, using Romer’s endogenous growth model, the impact of import and export of medium-high and medium-low industries have studied on economic growth of Iran during the period of 2002-2012. In this regard, seasonal data were used in an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the relationship between variables. Results indicated a positive and significant impact of import and export of medium-high and medium-low technology industries on Iran’s economic growth. Also, other variables i.e. capital stock, employment and R&D expenditure have had a positive and significant effects on Iran economic growth.


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